Suicide is a crime in some parts of the world. However, while suicide has been decriminalized in the western countries, the act is still stigmatized and discouraged. In other contexts, suicide could be utilized as an extreme expression of liberty, as is exemplified by its usage as an expression of devout dissent towards perceived tyranny or injustice which occurred occasionally in cultures like ancient Rome or medieval Japan.
While a person who has died by suicide is beyond the reach of the law, there can still be legal consequences in the cases of treatment of the corpse or the fate of the person's property or family members. The associated matters of assisting a suicide and attempting suicide have also been dealt with by the laws of some jurisdictions. Some countries criminalise suicide attempts.
In ancient Athens, a person who had died by suicide (without the approval of the state) was denied the honours of a normal burial. The person would be buried alone, on the outskirts of the city, without a headstone or marker. A criminal ordinance issued by Louis XIV in 1670 was far more severe in its punishment: the dead person's body was drawn through the streets, face down, and then hung or thrown on a garbage heap. Additionally, all of the person's property was confiscated.
Even in modern times, legal penalties for the act of suicide have not been uncommon. By 1879, English law had begun to distinguish between suicide and homicide, though suicide still resulted in forfeiture of estate. Also, the deceased were permitted daylight burial in 1882.
In many jurisdictions it is a crime to assist others, directly or indirectly, in taking their own lives. In some jurisdictions, it is also illegal to encourage them to do so. Sometimes an exception applies for physician assisted suicide (PAS), under strict conditions.
Laws in individual jurisdictions (table)Edit
|Central African Republic||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Republic of the Congo||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Legal||Illegal||Illegal|
|Argentina||Legal||Illegal||Passive euthanasia legal|||
|British Virgin Islands||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Canada||Legal||Legal medical assisted suicide||Legal||Euthanasia in Canada|||
|Colombia||Unknown||Legal medical assisted suicide||Legal||Unknown|||
|Trinidad and Tobago||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
| United States
(50 states and integral territories)
|Legal||Legal medical assisted suicide in some states including California, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and Colorado||Illegal|||
|United States Virgin Islands||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Uruguay||Illegal, but may be pardoned||Illegal, but may be pardoned||Illegal||Unknown|
|China||Legal||Legal||Illegal||Suicide in China|
|India||Legal||Illegal||Passive euthanasia legal|||
|Lebanon||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Penalty for an attempted suicide: 3 months up to 5 years imprisonment.|||
|United Arab Emirates||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||Unknown|||
|Austria||Legal||Illegal||Illegal||Killing a person on request by such person, or aiding or helping another person to commit suicide is punished with imprisonment of 6 months up to 5 years.|||
|Belgium||Legal||Legal||Legal||Legal since 2002|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Legal||Illegal||Illegal||Unknown|
|Georgia||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal||A suicide attempt is punished by a fine of 500 Lari.|||
|Germany||Legal||Legal, with some exemptions||Illegal|||
|Liechtenstein||Legal||Illegal||Illegal||Killing somebody on request, or aiding somebody to commit suicide is punished with imprisonment from six months up to five years.|
|Netherlands||Legal||Legal medical assisted suicide||Legal|||
|Switzerland||Legal||Legal medical assisted suicide||Illegal||Unknown|||
|United Kingdom||Legal||Illegal||Passive euthanasia legal|||
|Australia||Legal||Legal in the state of Victoria (takes effect mid-2019)||Illegal|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Legal||Illegal||Illegal||Unknown|
|Papua New Guinea||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal|||
Laws in individual jurisdictionsEdit
In the Australian state of Victoria, while suicide itself is no longer a crime, a survivor of a suicide pact can be charged with manslaughter. Also, it is a crime to counsel, incite, or aid and abet another in attempting to suicide, and the law explicitly allows any person to use "such force as may reasonably be necessary" to prevent another from dying by suicide.
In November 2017 the state of Victoria passed the Voluntary Assisted Dying Act, making it legal for a doctor to assist a terminally ill patient with less than six months to live to end their own life. The law comes into effect mid-2019.
Legislation decriminalizing suicide in Australian States and TerritoriesEdit
|Australian Capital Territory||Crimes Act 1900 (ACT) s 16|
|New South Wales||Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) s 31A|
|Northern Territory||Criminal Code (NT) s 186 (repealed)|
|Queensland||Criminal Code 1899 (Qld) s 312 (repealed by Criminal Law Amendment Act (1979) s 4)|
|South Australia||Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1932 (SA) s 13A|
|Tasmania||Criminal Code 1924 (Tas) s 163|
|Victoria||Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 6A|
|Western Australia||Criminal Code 1899 (WA) s 289 (repealed by Criminal Code Amendment Act 1972 s 10)|
The common law crimes of attempting suicide and of assisting suicide were codified in Canada when Parliament enacted the Criminal Code in 1892. It carried a maximum penalty of 2 years imprisonment. Eighty years later, in 1972, Parliament repealed the offence of attempting suicide from the Criminal Code based on the argument that a legal deterrent was unnecessary. The prohibition on assisting suicide remained, as s 241 of the Criminal Code:
- Counselling or aiding suicide
- 241. Every one who
- (a) counsels a person to [die by] suicide, or
- (b) aids or abets a person to [die by] suicide,
- whether suicide ensues or not, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.
However, the law against assisted suicide, including physician-assisted suicide, was the subject of much debate including two reports of the Law Reform Commission of Canada in 1982 and 1983, though these did not support changing the law.
In 1993, the offence of assisted suicide survived a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of Canada, in the case of Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General). The plaintiff, Sue Rodriguez, had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in early 1991. She wished to be able to die by suicide at a time of her own choosing, but would require assistance to do so, because her physical condition prevented her from doing so without assistance. By a 5-4 majority, the Court held that the prohibition on assisted suicide did not infringe s 7 of the Canadian Charter of RIghts and Freedoms, which provides constitutional protection for liberty and security of the person. The majority held that while the law did affect those rights, it did so in a manner consistent with the principles of fundamental justice. The majority also held that the prohibition on assisted suicide did not infringe the Charter's prohibition against cruel and unusual treatment or punishment. Assuming the prohibition did discriminate on basis of disability, the majority held that the infringement was a justifiable restriction.
In 1995 the Senate issued a report on assisted suicide entitled Of Life and Death. In 2011 the Royal Society of Canada published its report on end-of-life decision-making. In the report it recommended that the Criminal Code be modified so as to permit assistance in dying under some circumstances. In 2012 a Select Committee on Dying with Dignity of the Quebec National Assembly produced a report recommending amendments to legislation to recognize medical aid in dying as being an appropriate component of end-of-life care. That report resulted in An Act respecting end-of-life care, which is set to come into force on December 10, 2015.
On June 15, 2012, in Carter v Canada (AG), the British Columbia Supreme Court ruled that the criminal offence prohibiting physician assistance of suicide was unconstitutional on the grounds that denying people access to assisted suicide in hard cases was contrary to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantee of equality under Section 15. This decision was subsequently overturned by the majority of the British Columbia Court of Appeal (2:1) on the basis that the issue had already been decided by the Supreme Court of Canada in the Rodriguez case, invoking stare decisis.
A landmark Supreme Court of Canada decision on February 6, 2015 overturned the 1993 Rodriguez decision that had ruled against this method of dying. The unanimous decision in the further appeal of Carter v Canada (AG), stated that a total prohibition of physician-assisted death is unconstitutional. The court's ruling limits exculpation of physicians engaging physician-assisted death to hard cases of “a competent adult person who clearly consents to the termination of life and has a grievous and irremediable medical condition, including an illness, disease or disability, that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition.” The ruling was suspended for 12 months to allow the Canadian parliament to draft a new, constitutional law to replace the existing one.
Specifically the Supreme Court held that the current legislation was overbroad in that it prohibits "physician‑assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The court decision includes a requirement that there must be stringent limits that are “scrupulously monitored.” This will require the death certificate to be completed by an independent medical examiner, not the treating physician, to ensure the accuracy of reporting the cause of death.
The newly (November 2015) elected federal government subsequently requested a six-month extension for implementation; the arguments for this request were scheduled to be heard by the Supreme Court in January 2016.
The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) reported that not all doctors would be willing to help a patient die. The belief in late 2015 was that no physician would be forced to do so. The CMA was already offering educational sessions to members as to the process that would be used after the legislation had been implemented.
The Indian penal code 309 deals with punishment for attempted suicide. The Mental Health Care Act 2017 greatly limits the scope for the code to be implemented. The bill states, “Any person who attempts to [die by] suicide shall be presumed, unless proved otherwise, to have severe stress and shall not be tried and punished under the said Code”. State governments are required to provide adequate care and rehabilitation for such individuals as to prevent a recurrence of an attempt to suicide.
The act of suicide has not been criminalized in the penal law of the Islamic Republic of Iran. However, no one is allowed to ask another to kill him/her. In addition, threatening to kill oneself is not an offense by the law, however if this act of threatening is done by a prisoner in a prison, then that would be considered as violation of the prisons' regulations and the offender may be punished according to penal law.
According to the Act. 836 of the civil law of the Islamic Republic of Iran if a suicidal person prepares for suicide and writes a testament, if he/she dies, then by law the will is considered void and if he/she doesn't die, then the will is officially accepted and can be carried out.
According to the theory of "borrowed crime", because suicide itself is not a crime in penal law, thus any type of assisting in an individual's suicide is not considered a crime and the assistant is not punished. Assisting in suicide is considered a crime only when it becomes the "cause" of the suicidal person's death; for example when someone takes advantage of someone else's unawareness or simplicity and convince him/her to kill him/herself. In such cases assisting in suicide is treated as murder and the offender is punished accordingly. In addition, assisting in suicide is considered a crime under section 2 of the Act. 15 of the cyber crimes law of the Islamic Republic of Iran which was legislated on June 15, 2009. According to the mentioned act, any type of encouragement, stimulation, invitation, simplification of access to lethal substances and/or methods and teaching of suicide with the help of computer or any other media network is considered assisting in suicide and thus, is punished by imprisonment from 91 days up to 1 year or fines from 5 to 20 million Iranian Rials or both.
Attempted suicide is not a criminal offence in Ireland and, under Irish law, self-harm is not generally seen as a form of attempted suicide. It was decriminalised in 1993. Assisted suicide and euthanasia are illegal. This is currently being challenged at the High Court, as of December 2012. As of 2014 assisted suicide remains illegal in Ireland.
Under section 309 of the Penal Code of Malaysia, whoever attempts to die by suicide, and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine or with both.
In the Netherlands, being present and giving moral support during someone's suicide is not a crime; neither is supplying general information on suicide techniques. However, it is a crime to participate in the preparation for or execution of a suicide, including supplying lethal means or instruction in their use. (Physician-assisted suicide may be an exception. See Euthanasia in the Netherlands.)
As with many other western societies, New Zealand currently has no laws against suicide in itself, as a personal and unassisted act. However, as with comparable societies, there are still legislative sanctions against 'assisting or abetting' the suicides of others, under Section 179 of the Crimes Act 1961. (For further details, see Euthanasia in New Zealand.)
Suicide itself is not illegal in Romania, however encouraging or facilitating the suicide of another person is a criminal offense and is punishable by up to 7, 10 or 20 years in prison, depending on circumstances.
Inciting someone to suicide by threats, cruel treatment, or systematic humiliation is punishable by up to 5 years in prison. (Article 110 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation)
Federal law of Russian Federation no. 139-FZ of 2012-07-28 prescribes censorship of information about methods of suicide on the Internet. According to a website created by the Pirate Party of Russia, some pages with suicide jokes have been blacklisted, which may have led to blocking of an IP address of Wikia. See also: Dumb Ways to Die#Censorship in Russia.
South African courts, including the Appellate Division, have ruled that suicide and attempted suicide are not crimes under the Roman-Dutch law, or that if they ever were crimes, they have been abrogated by disuse. Attempted suicide was from 1886 to 1968 a crime in the Transkei under the Transkeian Territories Penal Code.
England and WalesEdit
Laws against suicide (and attempted suicide) prevailed in English common law until 1961. English law perceived suicide as an immoral, criminal offence against God and also against the Crown. It first became illegal in the 13th century. Until 1822, in fact, the possessions of somebody who died by suicide could even be forfeited to the Crown.
Suicide ceased to be a criminal offence with the passing of the Suicide Act 1961; the same Act made it an offence to assist in a suicide. With respect to civil law the simple act of suicide is lawful but the consequences of dying by suicide might turn an individual event into an unlawful act, as in the case of Reeves v Commissioners of Police of the Metropolis  1 AC 360, where a man in police custody hanged himself and was held equally liable with the police (a cell door defect enabled the hanging) for the loss suffered by his widow; the practical effect was to reduce the police damages liability by 50%. In 2009, the House of Lords ruled that the law concerning the treatment of people who accompanied those who died by assisted suicide was unclear, following Debbie Purdy's case that this lack of clarity was a breach of her human rights. (In her case, as a sufferer from multiple sclerosis, she wanted to know whether her husband would be prosecuted for accompanying her abroad where she might eventually wish to die by assisted suicide, if her illness progressed.)
Suicide directly involving only the deceased person is not by itself a criminal offence under Scots Law and has not been in recent history. However, attempting suicide might be a Breach of the peace if it is not done as a private act; this is routinely reported in the case of persons threatening suicide in areas frequented by the public. The Suicide Act 1961 applies only to England and Wales but under Scots Law a person who assists a suicide might be charged with murder, culpable homicide, or no offence depending upon the facts of each case. Despite not being a criminal offence, consequential liability upon the person attempting suicide (or if successful, his/her estate) might arise under civil law where e.g. it parallels the civil liabilities recognised in the (English Law) Reeves case mentioned above.
Historically, various states listed the act of suicide as a felony, but these policies were sparsely enforced. In the late 1960s, 18 U.S. states had no laws against suicide. By the late 1980s, 30 of the 50 states had no laws against suicide or suicide attempts, but every state had laws declaring it to be a felony to aid, advise, or encourage another person to die by suicide. By the early 1990s only two states still listed suicide as a crime, and these have since removed that classification. In some U.S. states, suicide is still considered an unwritten "common law crime," as stated in Blackstone's Commentaries. (So held the Virginia Supreme Court in 1992. Wackwitz v. Roy, 418 S.E.2d 861 (Va. 1992)). As a common law crime, suicide can bar recovery for the late suicidal person's family in a lawsuit unless the suicidal person can be proven to have been "of unsound mind." That is, the suicide must be proven to have been an involuntary act of the victim in order for the family to be awarded monetary damages by the court. This can occur when the family of the deceased sues the caregiver (perhaps a jail or hospital) for negligence in failing to provide appropriate care. Some American legal scholars look at the issue as one of personal liberty. According to Nadine Strossen, former President of the ACLU, "The idea of government making determinations about how you end your life, forcing you...could be considered cruel and unusual punishment in certain circumstances, and Justice Stevens in a very interesting opinion in a right-to-die [case] raised the analogy." Physician-assisted suicide is legal in some states. For the terminally ill, it is legal in the state of Oregon under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. In Washington state, it became legal in 2009, when a law modeled after the Oregon act, the Washington Death with Dignity Act was passed. A patient must be diagnosed as having less than six months to live, be of sound mind, make a request orally and in writing, have it approved by two different doctors, then wait 15 days and make the request again. A doctor may prescribe a lethal dose of a medication but may not administer it.
In California, medical facilities are empowered or required to commit anyone whom they believe to be suicidal for evaluation and treatment.
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- "Criminal Law Reform Bill - Singapore Statutes Online". sso.agc.gov.sg. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
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- Milton, John (1996). South African Criminal Law and Procedure: Common-law crimes (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Juta. pp. 353–354. ISBN 978-0-7021-3773-0.
- SM Canick (1997), Constitutional Aspects of Physician-Assisted Suicide After Lee v. Oregon, Am. JL & Med.
- Holt, Gerry (2011-08-03). "BBC News - When suicide was illegal". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
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- Litman, Robert E. (1966–1967), Medical-Legal Aspects of Suicide, 6, Washburn L.J., p. 395
- ES Shneidman (1989). "Approaches and commonalities of suicide". Suicide and Its Prevention: The Role of Attitude and Imitation. Suicide and its prevention. p. 24. ISBN 9789004086135.
- On Sound and Unsound Mind: The Role of Suicide in Tort and Insurance Litigation, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 2005
- Interview with Nadine Strossen, David Shankbone, Wikinews, October 30, 2007.
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- See California Welfare and Institutions Code section 5150, for example.
- Attempting suicide is not a crime under Maryland law. But an Eastern Shore man was convicted of it - Baltimore Sun
- Rare attempted suicide charge goes through Caroline court | Local News | myeasternshoremd.com
- Maryland man convicted of attempted suicide | Daily Mail Online
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