Sugar Ray Robinson

Walker Smith Jr. (May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989), better known as Sugar Ray Robinson, was an American professional boxer who competed from 1940 to 1965. He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.[1] He is often regarded as the greatest boxer of all time, pound for pound.[2][3][4][5][6]

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson 1947.jpg
Robinson in 1947
Statistics
Real nameWalter (Walker) Smith Jr.
Weight(s)
Height5 ft 11 in (180 cm)
Reach72+12 in (184 cm)
Born(1921-05-03)May 3, 1921
Ailey, Georgia, U.S.
DiedApril 12, 1989(1989-04-12) (aged 67)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights201
Wins174
Wins by KO109
Losses19
Draws6
No contests2
Medal record
Men's amateur boxing
New York Golden Gloves
Gold medal – first place 1939 New York Featherweight
Gold medal – first place 1940 New York Lightweight
Intercity Golden Gloves
Gold medal – first place 1939 Chicago Featherweight
Gold medal – first place 1940 New York Lightweight

Robinson was a dominant amateur, but his exact amateur record is not known. It is usually listed as 85–0 with 69 knockouts, 40 in the first round. However it has been reported he lost to Billy Graham and Patsy Pesca as a teenager under his given name, Walker Smith Jr. He turned professional in 1940 at the age of 19 and by 1951 had a professional record of 128–1–2 with 84 knockouts. From 1943 to 1951 Robinson went on a 91-fight unbeaten streak, the third-longest in professional boxing history.[7][8] Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and won the world middleweight title in the latter year. He retired in 1952, only to come back two-and-a-half years later and regain the middleweight title in 1955. He then became the first boxer in history to win a divisional world championship five times (a feat he accomplished by defeating Carmen Basilio in 1958 to regain the middleweight championship). Robinson was named "fighter of the year" twice: first for his performances in 1942, then nine years and over 90 fights later, for his efforts in 1951. Historian Bert Sugar ranked Robinson as the greatest fighter of all time and in 2002, Robinson was also ranked number one on The Ring magazine's list of "80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years".[9] As of November 2021, BoxRec ranks Robinson as the greatest boxer, pound-for-pound, of all time.[10]

Renowned for his classy and flamboyant lifestyle outside the ring,[11] Robinson is credited with being the originator of the modern sports "entourage". After his boxing career ended, Robinson attempted a career as an entertainer, but it was not successful. He struggled financially until his death in 1989. In 2006, he was featured on a commemorative stamp by the United States Postal Service.[12]

Early lifeEdit

Robinson was born Walker Smith Jr. in Ailey, Georgia, to Walker Smith Sr. and Leila Hurst.[13] Robinson was the youngest of three children; his eldest sister Marie was born in 1917, and his other sister Evelyn in 1919. His father was a cotton, peanut, and corn farmer in Georgia, who moved the family to Detroit where he initially found work in construction.[13] According to Robinson, Smith Sr. later worked two jobs to support his family—cement mixer and sewer worker. "He had to get up at six in the morning and he'd get home close to midnight. Six days a week. The only day I really saw him was Sunday ... I always wanted to be with him more."[14]

His parents separated, and he moved with his mother to the New York City neighborhood of Harlem at the age of twelve. Robinson originally aspired to be a doctor, but after dropping out of DeWitt Clinton High School (in the Bronx) in ninth grade he switched his goal to boxing.[15] When he was 15, he attempted to enter his first boxing tournament but was told he needed to first obtain an AAU membership card. However, he could not procure one until he was eighteen years old. He received his name when he circumvented the AAU's age restriction by borrowing a birth certificate from his friend Ray Robinson.[16] Subsequently told that he was "sweet as sugar" by a lady in the audience at a fight in Watertown, New York, Smith Jr. became known as "Sugar" Ray Robinson.[17][18]

Robinson idolized Henry Armstrong and Joe Louis as a youth, and actually lived on the same block as Louis in Detroit when Robinson was 11 and Louis was 17.[17] Outside the ring, Robinson got into trouble frequently as a youth, and was involved with a street gang.[17] He married at 16. The couple had one son, Ronnie, and divorced when Robinson was 19.[17] He reportedly finished his amateur career with an 85–0 record with 69 knockouts – 40 coming in the first round, though this has been disputed.[19] He won the New York Golden Gloves featherweight championship in 1939 (def.Louis Valentine points 3), and the New York Golden Gloves lightweight championship in 1940 (def.Andy Nonella KO 2).[16]

Boxing careerEdit

Early careerEdit

Robinson made his professional debut on October 4, 1940, winning by a second-round stoppage over Joe Echevarria. Robinson fought five more times in 1940, winning each time, with four wins coming by way of knockout. In 1941, he defeated world champion Sammy Angott, future champion Marty Servo and former champion Fritzie Zivic. The Robinson-Angott fight was held above the lightweight limit, since Angott did not want to risk losing his lightweight title. Robinson defeated Zivic in front of 20,551 at Madison Square Garden—one of the largest crowds in the arena to that date.[20] Robinson won the first five rounds, according to Joseph C. Nichols of The New York Times, before Zivic came back to land several punches to Robinson's head in the sixth and seventh rounds.[20] Robinson controlled the next two rounds, and had Zivic in the ninth. After a close tenth round, Robinson was announced as the winner on all three scorecards.[20]

In 1942 Robinson knocked out Zivic in the tenth round in a January rematch. The knockout loss was only the second of Zivic's career in more than 150 fights.[21] Robinson knocked him down in the ninth and tenth rounds before the referee stopped the fight. Zivic and his corner protested the stoppage; James P. Dawson of The New York Times stated "[t]hey were criticizing a humane act. The battle had been a slaughter, for want of a more delicate word."[21] Robinson then won four consecutive bouts by knockout, before defeating Servo in a controversial split decision in their May rematch. After winning three more fights, Robinson faced Jake LaMotta, who would become one of his more prominent rivals, for the first time in October. He defeated LaMotta by a unanimous decision, although he failed to get Jake down. Robinson weighed 145 lb (66 kg) compared to 157.5 for LaMotta, but he was able to control the fight from the outside for the entire bout, and actually landed the harder punches during the fight.[22] Robinson then won four more fights, including two against Izzy Jannazzo, from October 19 to December 14. For his performances, Robinson was named "Fighter of the Year". He finished 1942 with a total of 14 wins and no losses.

Robinson built a record of 40–0 before losing for the first time to LaMotta in a 10-round re-match.[23] LaMotta, who had a 16 lb (7.3 kg) weight advantage over Robinson, knocked Robinson out of the ring in the eighth round, and won the fight by decision. The fight took place in Robinson's former home town of Detroit, and attracted a record crowd.[23] After being controlled by Robinson in the early portions of the fight, LaMotta came back to take control in the later rounds.[23] After winning the third LaMotta fight less than three weeks later, Robinson then defeated his childhood idol: former champion Henry Armstrong. Robinson fought Armstrong only because the older man was in need of money. By now Armstrong was an old fighter, and Robinson later stated that he carried the former champion.

On February 27, 1943, Robinson was inducted into the United States Army, where he was again referred to as Walker Smith.[24] Robinson had a 15-month military career. Robinson served with Joe Louis, and the pair went on tours where they performed exhibition bouts in front of US Army troops. Robinson got into trouble several times while in the military. He argued with superiors who he felt were discriminatory against him, and refused to fight exhibitions when he was told African American soldiers were not allowed to watch them.[17][25] In late March 1944, Robinson was stationed at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, waiting to ship out to Europe, where he was scheduled to perform more exhibition matches. But on March 29, Robinson disappeared from his barracks. When he woke up on April 5 in Fort Jay Hospital on Governor's Island, he had missed his sailing for Europe and was under suspicion of deserting. He himself reported falling down the stairs in his barracks on the 29th, but said that he had complete amnesia, and he could not remember any events from that moment until the 5th. According to his file, a stranger had found him in the street on April 1 and helped him to a hospital. In his examination report, a doctor at Fort Jay concluded that Robinson's version of events was sincere.[26] He was examined by military authorities, who claimed he suffered from a mental deficiency.[27] Robinson was granted an honorable discharge on June 3, 1944. He later wrote that unfair press coverage of the incident had "branded" him as a "deserter".[28] Robinson maintained his close friendship with Louis from their time in military service, and the two went into business together after the war. They planned to start a liquor distribution business in New York City, but were denied a license due to their race.[29]

Besides the loss in the LaMotta rematch, the only other mark on Robinson's record during this period was a 10-round draw against José Basora in 1945.

Welterweight championEdit

By 1946, Robinson had fought 75 fights to a 73–1–1 record, and beaten every top contender in the welterweight division. However, he refused to cooperate with the Mafia, which controlled much of boxing at the time, and was denied a chance to fight for the welterweight championship.[30] Robinson was finally given a chance to win a title against Tommy Bell on December 20, 1946. Robinson had already beaten Bell once by decision in 1945. The two fought for the title vacated by Servo, who had himself lost twice to Robinson in non-title bouts. In the fight, Robinson, who only a month before had been involved in a 10-round brawl with Artie Levine, was knocked down by Bell. The fight was called a "war", but Robinson was able to pull out a close 15-round decision, winning the vacant World Welterweight title.[31]

In 1948 Robinson fought five times, but only one bout was a title defense. Among the fighters he defeated in those non-title bouts was future world champion Kid Gavilán in a close, controversial 10-round fight. Gavilán hurt Robinson several times in the fight, but Robinson controlled the final rounds with a series of jabs and left hooks.[32] In 1949, he boxed 16 times, but again only defended his title once. In that title fight, a rematch with Gavilán, Robinson again won by decision. The first half of the bout was very close, but Robinson took control in the second half. Gavilán would have to wait two more years to begin his own historic reign as welterweight champion. The only boxer to match Robinson that year was Henry Brimm, who fought him to a 10-round draw in Buffalo.

Robinson fought 19 times in 1950. He successfully defended his welterweight title for the last time against Charley Fusari. Robinson won a lopsided 15-round decision, knocking Fusari down once. Robinson donated all but $1 of his purse for the Fusari fight to cancer research.[33] In 1950 Robinson fought George Costner, who had also taken to calling himself "Sugar" and stated in the weeks leading up to the fight that he was the rightful possessor of the name. "We better touch gloves, because this is the only round", Robinson said as the fighters were introduced at the center of the ring. "Your name ain't Sugar, mine is."[34] Robinson then knocked Costner out in 2 minutes and 49 seconds.

Jimmy Doyle incidentEdit

In June 1947, after four non-title bouts, Robinson was scheduled to defend his title for the first time in a bout against Jimmy Doyle. Robinson initially backed out of the fight because he had a dream that he was going to kill Doyle. A priest and a minister convinced him to fight. His dream was proven to be true.[35] On June 25, 1947, Robinson dominated Doyle and scored a decisive knockout in the eighth round that knocked Doyle unconscious and resulted in Doyle's death later that night.[36] Robinson said that the impact of Doyle's death was "very trying".[A]

After his death, criminal charges were threatened against Robinson in Cleveland, up to and including murder, though none actually materialized. After learning of Doyle's intentions of using the bout's money to buy his mother a house, Robinson gave Doyle's mother the money from his next four bouts so she could purchase herself a home, fulfilling her son's intention.[37][38]

Middleweight championEdit

It is stated in his autobiography that one of the main considerations for his move up to middleweight was the increasing difficulty he was having in making the 147 lb (67 kg) welterweight weight limit.[39] However, the move up would also prove beneficial financially, as the division then contained some of the biggest names in boxing. Vying for the Pennsylvania state middleweight title in 1950, Robinson defeated Robert Villemain. Later that year, in defense of that crown, he defeated Jose Basora, with whom he had previously drawn. Robinson's 50-second, first-round knockout of Basora set a record that would stand for 38 years. In October 1950, Robinson knocked out Bobo Olson a future middleweight title holder.

On February 14, 1951, Robinson and LaMotta met for the sixth time. The fight would become known as The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Robinson won the undisputed World Middleweight title with a 13th round technical knockout.[40] Robinson outboxed LaMotta for the first 10 rounds, then unleashed a series of savage combinations on LaMotta for three rounds,[17] finally stopping the champion for the first time in their legendary six-bout series—and dealing LaMotta his first legitimate knockout loss in 95 professional bouts.[41] LaMotta had lost by knockout to Billy Fox earlier in his career. However, that fight was later ruled to have been fixed and LaMotta was sanctioned for letting Fox win. That bout, and some of the other bouts in the six-fight Robinson-LaMotta rivalry, was depicted in the Martin Scorsese film Raging Bull. "I fought Sugar Ray so often, I almost got diabetes", LaMotta later said.[18] Robinson won five of his six bouts with LaMotta.

After winning his second world title, he embarked on a European tour which took him all over the Continent. Robinson traveled with his flamingo-pink Cadillac, which caused quite a stir in Paris,[42] and an entourage of 13 people, some included "just for laughs".[43] He was a hero in France due to his recent defeat of LaMotta—the French hated LaMotta for defeating Marcel Cerdan in 1949 and taking his championship belt (Cerdan died in a plane crash en route to a rematch with LaMotta).[17] Robinson met President of France Vincent Auriol at a ceremony attended by France's social upper crust.[44] During his fight in Berlin against Gerhard Hecht, Robinson was disqualified when he knocked his opponent with a punch to the kidney: a punch legal in the US, but not Europe.[36] The fight was later declared a no-contest. In London, Robinson lost the world middleweight title to British boxer Randolph Turpin in a sensational bout.[45] Three months later in a rematch in front of 60,000 fans at the Polo Grounds,[36] he knocked Turpin out in ten rounds to recover the title. In that bout Robinson was leading on the cards but was cut by Turpin. With the fight in jeopardy, Robinson let loose on Turpin, knocking him down, then getting him to the ropes and unleashing a series of punches that caused the referee to stop the bout.[46] Following Robinson's victory, residents of Harlem danced in the streets.[47] In 1951, Robinson was named Ring Magazine's "Fighter of the Year" for the second time.[48]

In 1952 he fought a rematch with Olson, winning by a decision. He next defeated former champion Rocky Graziano by a third-round knockout, then challenged World Light heavyweight champion Joey Maxim.[49] In the Yankee Stadium bout with Maxim, Robinson built a lead on all three judges' scorecards, but the 103 °F (39 °C) temperature in the ring took its toll.[18] The referee, Ruby Goldstein, was the first victim of the heat, and had to be replaced by referee Ray Miller. The fast-moving Robinson was the heat's next victim – at the end of round 13, he collapsed and failed to answer the bell for the next round,[18] suffering the only knockout of his career.

On June 25, 1952, after the Maxim bout, Robinson gave up his title and retired with a record of 131–3–1–1. He began a career in show business, singing and tap dancing. After about three years, the decline of his businesses and the lack of success in his performing career made him decide to return to boxing. He resumed training in 1954.

ComebackEdit

In 1955 Robinson returned to the ring. Although he had been inactive for two and a half years, his work as a dancer kept him in peak physical condition: in his autobiography, Robinson states that in the weeks leading up to his debut for a dancing engagement in France, he ran five miles every morning, and then danced for five hours each night. Robinson even stated that the training he did in his attempts to establish a career as a dancer were harder than any he undertook during his boxing career.[50] He won five fights in 1955, before losing a decision to Ralph 'Tiger' Jones. He bounced back, however, and defeated Rocky Castellani by a split decision, then challenged Bobo Olson for the world middleweight title. He won the middleweight championship for the third time with a second-round knockout—his third victory over Olson. After his comeback performance in 1955, Robinson expected to be named fighter of the year. However, the title went to welterweight Carmen Basilio. Basilio's handlers had lobbied heavily for it on the basis that he had never won the award, and Robinson later described this as the biggest disappointment of his professional career. "I haven't forgotten it to this day, and I never will", Robinson wrote in his autobiography.[51] Robinson and Olson fought for the last time in 1956, and Robinson closed the four-fight series with a fourth-round knockout.

In 1957 Robinson lost his title to Gene Fullmer. Fullmer used his aggressive, forward moving style to control Robinson, and knocked him down in the fight.[52] Robinson, however, noticed that Fullmer was vulnerable to the left hook. Fullmer headed into their May rematch as a 3–1 favorite.[53] In the first two rounds Robinson followed Fullmer around the ring, however in the third round he changed tactics and made Fullmer come to him.[53] At the start of the fourth round Robinson came out on the attack and stunned Fullmer, and when Fullmer returned with his own punches, Robinson traded with him, as opposed to clinching as he had done in their earlier fight. The fight was fairly even after four rounds.[53] But in the fifth, Robinson was able to win the title back for a fourth time by knocking out Fullmer with a lightning fast, powerful left hook.[53] Boxing critics have referred to the left-hook which knocked out Fullmer as "the perfect punch".[54] It marked the first time in 44 career fights that Fullmer had been knocked out, and when someone asked Robinson after the fight how far the left hook had travelled, Robinson replied: "I can't say. But he got the message."[53]

Later that year, he lost his title to Basilio in a rugged 15 round fight in front of 38,000 at Yankee Stadium,[55] but regained it for a record fifth time when he beat Basilio in the rematch. Robinson struggled to make weight, and had to go without food for nearly 20 hours leading up to the bout. He badly damaged Basilio's eye early in the fight, and by the seventh round it was swollen shut.[56] The two judges gave the fight to Robinson by wide margins: 72–64 and 71–64. The referee scored the fight for Basilio 69–64, and was booed loudly by the crowd of 19,000 when his decision was announced.[56] The first fight won the "Fight of the Year" award from The Ring magazine for 1957 and the second fight won the "Fight of the Year" award for 1958.

DeclineEdit

 
Robinson, Madison Square Garden, 1966
 
Robinson on Land of the Giants in 1969

Robinson knocked out Bob Young in the second round in Boston in his only fight in 1959. A year later, he defended his title against Paul Pender. Robinson entered the fight as a 5–1 favorite, but lost a split decision in front of 10,608 at Boston Garden.[57] The day before the fight Pender commented that he planned to start slowly, before coming on late. He did just that and outlasted the aging Robinson, who, despite opening a cut over Pender's eye in the eighth round, was largely ineffective in the later rounds.[57] An attempt to regain the crown for an unheard of sixth time proved beyond Robinson. Despite Robinson's efforts, Pender won by decision in that rematch. On December 3 of that year, Robinson and Fullmer fought a 15-round draw for the WBA middleweight title, which Fullmer retained. In 1961, Robinson and Fullmer fought for a fourth time, with Fullmer retaining the WBA middleweight title by a unanimous decision. The fight would be Robinson's last title bout.

Robinson spent the rest of the 1960s fighting 10-round contests. In October 1961 Robinson defeated future world champion Denny Moyer by a unanimous decision. A 12–5 favorite, the 41-year-old Robinson defeated the 22-year-old Moyer by staying on the outside, rather than engaging him.[58] In their rematch four months later, Moyer defeated Robinson on points, as he pressed the action and made Robinson back up throughout the fight. Moyer won 7–3 on all three judges scorecards.[59] Robinson lost twice more in 1962, before winning six consecutive fights against mostly lesser opposition. In February 1963 Robinson lost by a unanimous decision to former world champion and fellow Hall of Famer Joey Giardello. Giardello knocked Robinson down in the fourth round, and the 43-year-old took until the count of nine to rise to his feet.[60] Robinson was also nearly knocked down in the sixth round, but was saved by the bell. He rallied in the seventh and eight rounds, before struggling in the final two.[60] He then embarked on an 18-month boxing tour of Europe.

Robinson's second no-contest bout came in September 1965 in Norfolk, Virginia in a match with an opponent who turned out to be an impostor. Boxer Neil Morrison, at the time a fugitive and accused robber, signed up for the fight as Bill Henderson, a capable club fighter. The fight was a fiasco, with Morrison being knocked down twice in the first round and once in the second before the disgusted referee, who said "Henderson put up no fight", walked out of the ring. Robinson was initially given a TKO in 1:20 of the second round after the "obviously frightened" Morrison laid himself down on the canvas. Robinson fought for the final time in November 1965. He lost by a unanimous decision to Joey Archer.[61] Famed sports author Pete Hamill mentioned that one of the saddest experiences of his life was watching Robinson lose to Archer. He was even knocked down and Hamill pointed out that Archer had no knockout punch at all; Archer admitted afterward that it was only the second time he had knocked an opponent down in his career. The crowd of 9,023 at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh gave Robinson several standing ovations, even while he was being thoroughly outperformed by Archer.[61]

On November 11, 1965, Robinson announced his retirement from boxing, saying: "I hate to go too long campaigning for another chance."[62] Robinson retired from boxing with a record of 173–19–6 (2 no contests) with 109 knockouts in 200 professional bouts, ranking him among the all-time leaders in knockouts.

Later lifeEdit

In his autobiography, Robinson states that by 1965 he was broke, having spent all of the $4 million in earnings he made inside and out of the ring during his career.[63] A month after his last fight, Robinson was honored with a Sugar Ray Robinson Night on December 10, 1965, in New York's Madison Square Garden. During the ceremony, he was honored with a massive trophy. However, there was not a piece of furniture in his small Manhattan apartment with legs strong enough to support it. Robinson was elected to the Ring Magazine boxing Hall of Fame in 1967, two years after he retired and the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. In the late 1960s he acted in some television shows, like Mission: Impossible. An episode of Land of the Giants called "Giants and All That Jazz" had Sugar as a washed up boxer opening a nightclub.[64] He also appeared in a few films including the Frank Sinatra cop movie The Detective (1968), the cult classic Candy (1968), and the thriller The Todd Killings (1971) as a police officer. In 1969, he founded the Sugar Ray Robinson Youth Foundation for the inner-city Los Angeles area. The foundation does not sponsor a boxing program.[65] He was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin.[66]

DeathEdit

In Robinson's last years he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.[66] He died in Los Angeles on April 12, 1989, at the age of 67. Robinson is buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California.[67]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Sugar Ray Robinson with Edna Mae Holly in 1956

Robinson married Marjorie Joseph in 1938; the marriage was annulled the same year. Their son, Ronnie Smith, was born in 1939. Robinson met his second wife Edna Mae Holly, a noted dancer who performed at the Cotton Club and toured Europe with Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway. According to Robinson, he met her at a local pool he frequented after his boxing workouts. In an attempt to get her attention he pushed her into the pool one day, and said it was an accident.[68] After this attempt was met with disdain, he appeared at the nightclub she danced at and introduced himself. Soon the couple were dating and they married in 1944.[69] They had one son, Ray Robinson Jr. (born 1949) before their acrimonious divorce in 1962.[70] She appeared on the first cover of Jet magazine in 1951.[71]

In April 1959, Robinson's eldest sister, Marie, died of cancer at the age of 41.[72]

In December 1959, Barbara Johnson (aka Barbara Trevigne) of South Ozone Park, a beautiful singer and dancer, brought a paternity suit in New York against the former champ, claiming Sugar Ray Robinson was the father of her son Paul born in 1953. On May 18, 1963, Jet reported that the court had ruled in Robinson's favor. Robinson is quoted exulting at the win saying "Justice triumphed."[73]

In 1965, Robinson married Millie Wiggins Bruce and the couple settled in Los Angeles.[36] When Robinson was sick with his various ailments, his son accused the elder Robinson's wife of keeping him under the influence of medication to manipulate him. According to Ray Robinson Jr., when Robinson Sr's mother died, he could not attend his mother's funeral because Millie was drugging and controlling him.[74] However, Robinson had been hospitalized the day before his mother's death due to agitation which caused his blood pressure to rise. Robinson Jr. and Edna Mae also said they were kept away from Robinson by Millie during the last years of his life.[74]

Robinson was a Freemason, a membership shared with a number of other athletes, including fellow boxer Jack Dempsey.[75][76]

Boxing styleEdit

Rhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble.

— Ray Robinson[77]

Robinson was the modern definition of a boxer puncher. He was able to fight almost any style: he could come out one round brawling, the next counterpunching, and the next fighting on the outside flicking his jab. Robinson would use his formless style to exploit his opponents' weaknesses. He also possessed great speed and precision. He fought in a very conventional way with a firm jab, but threw hooks and uppercuts in flurries in an unconventional way.[78] He possessed tremendous versatility—according to boxing analyst Bert Sugar, "Robinson could deliver a knockout blow going backward."[79] Robinson was efficient with both hands, and he displayed a variety of effective punches—according to a Time article in 1951, "Robinson's repertoire, thrown with equal speed and power by either hand, includes every standard punch from a bolo to a hook—and a few he makes up on the spur of the moment."[17] Robinson commented that once a fighter has trained to a certain level, their techniques and responses become almost reflexive. "You don't think. It's all instinct. If you stop to think, you're gone."[80]

LegacyEdit

 
Robinson being held aloft by Gene Fullmer and Carmen Basilio in 1965

Robinson has been ranked as one of the greatest boxers of all time by sportswriters, fellow boxers, and trainers.[16][81][82] The phrase "pound for pound" was created by sportswriters for him during his career as a way to compare boxers irrespective of weight.[18][34] Hall of Fame fighters Muhammad Ali, Joe Louis, Roberto Durán and Sugar Ray Leonard have ranked Robinson as the greatest pound-for-pound boxer in history.[79][83][84] In 1997, The Ring ranked him as the best pound-for-pound fighter in history,[18] and in 1999 he was named "welterweight of the century", "middleweight of the century", and overall "fighter of the century" by the Associated Press.[85] In 2007 ESPN.com featured the piece "50 Greatest Boxers of All Time", in which it named Robinson the top boxer in history.[81] In 2003, The Ring ranked him number 11 in the list of all-time greatest punchers.[86] Robinson was also ranked as the number 1 welterweight and the number 1 pound-for-pound boxer of all time by the International Boxing Research Organization.[87] He was inducted into the Madison Square Garden Walk of Fame at its inception in 1992.[88]

Robinson was one of the first African Americans to establish himself as a star outside sports. He was an integral part of the New York social scene in the 1940s and 1950s.[18] His glamorous restaurant, Sugar Ray's, hosted stars including Frank Sinatra, Jackie Gleason, Nat King Cole, Joe Louis, and Lena Horne.[89][90] Robinson was known as a flamboyant personality outside the ring. He combined striking good looks[91] with charisma and a flair for the dramatic. He drove a flamingo-pink Cadillac and was an accomplished singer and dancer, who once pursued a career in the entertainment industry.[92]

According to ESPN's Ron Flatter: "He was the pioneer of boxing's bigger-than-life entourages, including a secretary, barber, masseur, voice coach, a coterie of trainers, beautiful women, a dwarf mascot and lifelong manager George Gainford."[18] When Robinson first traveled to Paris, a steward referred to his companions as his "entourage". Although Robinson said he did not like the word's literal definition of "attendants", since he felt they were his friends, he liked the word itself and began to use it in regular conversation when referring to them.[93] In 1962, in an effort to persuade Robinson to return to Paris—where he was still a national hero—the French promised to bring over his masseur, his hairdresser, a man who would whistle while he trained, and his trademark Cadillac.[94] This larger-than-life persona made him the idol of millions of African American youths in the 1950s. Robinson inspired several other fighters who took the nickname "Sugar" in homage to him: Sugar Ray Leonard, Sugar Shane Mosley, and MMA fighter "Suga" Rashad Evans.[95][96][97]

Professional boxing recordEdit

Professional record summary
201 fights 174 wins 19 losses
By knockout 109 1
By decision 65 18
Draws 6
No contests 2
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Age Location Notes
201 Loss 174–19–6 (2)   Joey Archer UD 10 Nov 10, 1965 44 years, 191 days   Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
200 Win 174–18–6 (2)   Rudolph Bent TKO 3 (10), 2:20 Oct 20, 1965 44 years, 170 days   Community Arena, Steubenville, Ohio, U.S.
199 Win 173–18–6 (2)   Peter Schmidt UD 10 Oct 1, 1965 44 years, 151 days   Cambria County War Memorial Arena, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
198 Win 172–18–6 (2)   Harvey McCullough UD 10 Sep 23, 1965 44 years, 143 days   Philadelphia Athletic Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
197 NC 171–18–6 (2)   Neil Morrison NC 2 (10), 1:20 Sep 15, 1965 44 years, 135 days   Norfolk Arena, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
196 Loss 171–18–6 (1)   Stan Harrington UD 10 Aug 10, 1965 44 years, 99 days   Honolulu International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
195 Win 171–17–6 (1)   Harvey McCullough UD 10 Jul 27, 1965 44 years, 85 days   Richmond Arena, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
194 Loss 170–17–6 (1)   Ferd Hernandez SD 10 Jul 12, 1965 44 years, 70 days   Hacienda, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
193 Win 170–16–6 (1)   Harvey McCullough UD 10 Jun 24, 1965 44 years, 52 days   Washington Coliseum, Washington, D.C., U.S.
192 Loss 169–16–6 (1)   Stan Harrington UD 10 Jun 1, 1965 44 years, 29 days   Honolulu International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
191 Loss 169–15–6 (1)   Memo Ayón UD 10 May 24, 1965 44 years, 21 days   Plaza de Toros El Toreo, Tijuana, Mexico
190 Win 169–14–6 (1)   Rocky Randell KO 3 (10), 0:58 Apr 28, 1965 43 years, 360 days   Norfolk Municipal Auditorium, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
189 Win 168–14–6 (1)   Earl Bastings KO 1 (10), 2:34 Apr 3, 1965 43 years, 335 days   Sports Center, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
188 Win 167–14–6 (1)   Jimmy Beecham KO 2 (10), 1:48 Mar 6, 1965 43 years, 307 days   National Stadium, Kingston, Jamaica
187 Draw 166–14–6 (1)   Fabio Bettini PTS 10 Nov 27, 1964 43 years, 208 days   Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, Italy
186 Win 166–14–5 (1)   Jean Beltritti PTS 10 Nov 14, 1964 43 years, 195 days   Palais des Sports de Marseille, Marseille, France
185 Win 165–14–5 (1)   Jean Baptiste Rolland PTS 10 Nov 7, 1964 43 years, 188 days   Stade Helitas, Caen, France
184 Win 164–14–5 (1)   Jackie Cailleau PTS 10 Oct 24, 1964 43 years, 174 days   Palais des Sports, Nice, France
183 Win 163–14–5 (1)   Johnny Angel TKO 6 (8) Oct 12, 1964 43 years, 162 days   London Hilton, London, England
182 Win 162–14–5 (1)   Yoland Leveque PTS 10 Sep 28, 1964 43 years, 148 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
181 Loss 161–14–5 (1)   Mick Leahy PTS 10 Sep 3, 1964 43 years, 123 days   Paisley Ice Rink, Paisley, Scotland
180 Draw 161–13–5 (1)   Art Hernández MD 10 Jul 27, 1964 43 years, 85 days   Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
179 Win 161–13–4 (1)   Clarence Riley TKO 6 (10), 2:40 Jul 8, 1964 43 years, 66 days   Wahconah Park, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, U.S.
178 Win 160–13–4 (1)   Gaylord Barnes UD 10 May 19, 1964 43 years, 16 days   Portland Exposition Building, Portland, Maine, U.S.
177 Win 159–13–4 (1)   Armand Vanucci PTS 10 Dec 9, 1963 42 years, 220 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
176 Win 158–13–4 (1)   Andre Davier PTS 10 Nov 29, 1963 42 years, 210 days   Palais des Sports, Grenoble, France
175 Win 157–13–4 (1)   Emiel Sarens KO 8 (10) Nov 16, 1963 42 years, 197 days   Palais des Sports, Brussels, Belgium
174 Draw 156–13–4 (1)   Fabio Bettini PTS 10 Nov 9, 1963 42 years, 190 days   Palais des Sports de Gerland, Lyon, France
173 Win 156–13–3 (1)   Armand Vanucci PTS 10 Oct 14, 1963 42 years, 164 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
172 Loss 155–13–3 (1)   Joey Giardello UD 10 Jun 24, 1963 42 years, 52 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
171 Win 155–12–3 (1)   Maurice Roblet KO 3 (10) May 4, 1963 42 years, 1 day   Palais des Sports Léopold-Drolet, Quebec, Canada
170 Win 154–12–3 (1)   Billy Thornton KO 3 (10), 0:50 Mar 11, 1963 41 years, 312 days   Lewiston Armory, Lewiston, Maine, U.S.
169 Win 153–12–3 (1)   Bernie Reynolds KO 4 (10) Feb 25, 1963 41 years, 298 days   Estadio Quisqueya, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
168 Win 152–12–3 (1)   Ralph Dupas SD 10 Jan 30, 1963 41 years, 272 days   Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.
167 Win 151–12–3 (1)   Georges Estatoff TKO 6 (10) Nov 10, 1962 41 years, 191 days   Palais des Sports de Gerland, Lyon, France
166 Win 150–12–3 (1)   Diego Infantes KO 2 (10), 1:15 Oct 17, 1962 41 years, 167 days   Wiener Stadthalle, Vienna, Austria
165 Loss 149–12–3 (1)   Terry Downes PTS 10 Sep 25, 1962 41 years, 145 days   Empire Pool, London, England
164 Loss 149–11–3 (1)   Phil Moyer SD 10 Jul 9, 1962 41 years, 67 days   Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
163 Win 149–10–3 (1)   Bobby Lee KO 2 (10), 2:38 Apr 27, 1962 40 years, 359 days   National Stadium, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
162 Loss 148–10–3 (1)   Denny Moyer UD 10 Feb 17, 1962 40 years, 290 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
161 Win 148–9–3 (1)   Wilf Greaves KO 8 (10), 0:43 Dec 8, 1961 40 years, 219 days   Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
160 Win 147–9–3 (1)   Al Hauser TKO 6 (10), 1:59 Nov 20, 1961 40 years, 201 days   Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
159 Win 146–9–3 (1)   Denny Moyer UD 10 Oct 21, 1961 40 years, 171 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
158 Win 145–9–3 (1)   Wilf Greaves SD 10 Sep 25, 1961 40 years, 145 days   Convention Arena, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
157 Loss 144–9–3 (1)   Gene Fullmer UD 15 Mar 4, 1961 39 years, 305 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. For NBA middleweight title
156 Draw 144–8–3 (1)   Gene Fullmer SD 15 Dec 3, 1960 39 years, 214 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. For NBA middleweight title
155 Loss 144–8–2 (1)   Paul Pender SD 15 Jun 10, 1960 39 years, 38 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. For NYSAC and The Ring middleweight titles
154 Win 144–7–2 (1)   Tony Baldoni KO 1 (10), 1:40 Apr 2, 1960 38 years, 335 days   Baltimore Coliseum, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
152 Loss 143–7–2 (1)   Paul Pender SD 15 Jan 22, 1960 38 years, 264 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Lost NYSAC and The Ring middleweight titles
152 Win 143–6–2 (1)   Bob Young KO 2 (10), 1:18 Dec 14, 1959 38 years, 225 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
151 Win 142–6–2 (1)   Carmen Basilio SD 15 Mar 25, 1958 36 years, 326 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
150 Loss 141–6–2 (1)   Carmen Basilio SD 15 Sep 23, 1957 36 years, 143 days   Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S. Lost NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
149 Win 141–5–2 (1)   Gene Fullmer KO 5 (15), 1:27 May 1, 1957 35 years, 363 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
148 Loss 140–5–2 (1)   Gene Fullmer UD 15 Jan 2, 1957 35 years, 244 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Lost NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
147 Win 140–4–2 (1)   Bob Provizzi UD 10 Nov 10, 1956 35 years, 191 days   New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
146 Win 139–4–2 (1)   Bobo Olson KO 4 (15), 2:51 May 18, 1956 35 years, 15 days   Wrigley Field, Los Angeles, California, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
145 Win 138–4–2 (1)   Bobo Olson KO 2 (15), 2:51 Dec 9, 1955 34 years, 220 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
144 Win 137–4–2 (1)   Rocky Castellani SD 10 Jul 22, 1955 34 years, 80 days   Cow Palace, Daly City, California, U.S.
143 Win 136–4–2 (1)   Garth Panter UD 10 May 4, 1955 34 years, 1 day   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
142 Win 135–4–2 (1)   Ted Olla TKO 3 (10), 2:15 Apr 14, 1955 33 years, 346 days   Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
141 Win 134–4–2 (1)   Johnny Lombardo SD 10 Mar 29, 1955 33 years, 330 days   Cincinnati Gardens, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
140 Loss 133–4–2 (1)   Ralph Jones UD 10 Jan 19, 1955 33 years, 261 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
139 Win 133–3–2 (1)   Joe Rindone KO 6 (10), 1:37 Jan 5, 1955 33 years, 247 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
138 Loss 132–3–2 (1)   Joey Maxim RTD 13 (15) Jun 25, 1952 31 years, 53 days   Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S. For NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring light heavyweight titles
137 Win 132–2–2 (1)   Rocky Graziano KO 3 (15), 1:53 Apr 14, 1952 30 years, 347 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
136 Win 131–2–2 (1)   Bobo Olson UD 15 Mar 13, 1952 30 years, 315 days   San Francisco Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, California, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
135 Win 130–2–2 (1)   Randolph Turpin TKO 10 (15), 2:52 Sep 12, 1951 30 years, 132 days   Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
134 Loss 129–2–2 (1)   Randolph Turpin PTS 15 Jul 10, 1951 30 years, 68 days   Earls Court Arena, London, England Lost NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring middleweight titles
133 Win 129–1–2 (1)   Cyrille Delannoit RTD 3 (10) Jul 1, 1951 30 years, 59 days   Palazzo Dello Sport, Turin, Italy
132 NC 128–1–2 (1)   Gerhard Hecht NC 2 (10) Jun 24, 1951 30 years, 52 days   Waldbühne, Berlin, Germany
131 Win 128–1–2   Jean Walzack TKO 6 (10) Jun 16, 1951 30 years, 44 days   Palais des Sports, Liège, Belgium
130 Win 127–1–2   Jan de Bruin TKO 8 (10) Jun 10, 1951 30 years, 38 days   Sportpaleis, Antwerp, Belgium
129 Win 126–1–2   Jean Wanes UD 10 May 26, 1951 30 years, 23 days   Hallenstadion, Zürich, Switzerland
128 Win 125–1–2   Kid Marcel TKO 5 (10) May 21, 1951 30 years, 18 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
127 Win 124–1–2   Don Ellis KO 1 (10), 1:36 Apr 9, 1951 29 years, 341 days   Municipal Auditorium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
126 Win 123–1–2   Holly Mims UD 10 Apr 5, 1951 29 years, 337 days   Miami Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S.
125 Win 122–1–2   Jake LaMotta TKO 13 (15), 2:04 Feb 14, 1951 29 years, 287 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA and The Ring middleweight titles
124 Win 121–1–2   Hans Stretz TKO 5 (10) Dec 25, 1950 29 years, 236 days   Haus der Technik, Frankfurt, Germany
123 Win 120–1–2   Robert Villemain TKO 9 (10) Dec 22, 1950 29 years, 233 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
122 Win 119–1–2   Jean Walzack UD 10 Dec 16, 1950 29 years, 227 days   Palais des Expositions, Geneva, Switzerland
121 Win 118–1–2   Luc van Dam KO 4 (10) Dec 9, 1950 29 years, 220 days   Palais des Sports, Brussels, Belgium
120 Win 117–1–2   Jean Stock TKO 2 (10) Nov 27, 1950 29 years, 208 days   Palais des Sports, Paris, France
119 Win 116–1–2   Bobby Dykes MD 10 Nov 8, 1950 29 years, 189 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
118 Win 115–1–2   Bobo Olson KO 12 (15), 1:19 Oct 26, 1950 29 years, 176 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. Retained Pennsylvania State middleweight title
117 Win 114–1–2   Joe Rindone TKO 6 (10), 0:55 Oct 16, 1950 29 years, 166 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
116 Win 113–1–2   Billy Brown UD 10 Sep 4, 1950 29 years, 124 days   Coney Island Velodrome, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
115 Win 112–1–2   José Basora KO 1 (15), 0:55 Aug 25, 1950 29 years, 114 days   Scranton Stadium, Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S Retained Pennsylvania State middleweight title
114 Win 111–1–2   Charley Fusari PTS 15 Aug 9, 1950 29 years, 98 days   Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles
113 Win 110–1–2   Robert Villemain UD 15 Jun 5, 1950 29 years, 33 days   Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S Won vacant Pennsylvania State middleweight title
112 Win 109–1–2   Ray Barnes UD 10 Apr 28, 1950 28 years, 360 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
111 Win 108–1–2   Cliff Beckett TKO 3 (10), 1:45 Apr 21, 1950 28 years, 353 days   Memorial Hall, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
110 Win 107–1–2   George Costner KO 1 (10), 2:49 Mar 22, 1950 28 years, 323 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
109 Win 106–1–2   Jean Walzack UD 10 Feb 27, 1950 28 years, 300 days   St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
108 Win 105–1–2   Aaron Wade KO 3 (10) Feb 22, 1950 28 years, 295 days   Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
107 Win 104–1–2   Johnny Dudley KO 2 (12), 0:40 Feb 18, 1950 28 years, 291 days   Municipal Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
106 Win 103–1–2   Al Mobley TKO 6 (10) Feb 13, 1950 28 years, 286 days   Coliseum Arena, Miami, Florida, U.S.
105 Win 102–1–2   George LaRover TKO 4 (10), 1:38 Jan 30, 1950 28 years, 272 days   New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
104 Win 101–1–2   Vern Lester KO 5 (10), 0:12 Nov 13, 1949 28 years, 194 days   Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
103 Win 100–1–2   Don Lee UD 10 Nov 9, 1949 28 years, 190 days   Denver Auditorium Arena, Denver, Colorado, U.S.
102 Win 99–1–2   Charley Dodson KO 3 (10), 0:20 Sep 12, 1949 28 years, 132 days   Houston City Auditorium, Houston, Texas, U.S.
101 Win 98–1–2   Benny Evans TKO 5 (10), 2:56 Sep 9, 1949 28 years, 129 days   Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
100 Win 97–1–2   Steve Belloise RTD 7 (10) Aug 24, 1949 28 years, 113 days   Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.
99 Win 96–1–2   Kid Gavilán UD 15 Jul 11, 1949 28 years, 69 days   Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles
98 Win 95–1–2   Cecil Hudson KO 5 (10) Jun 20, 1949 28 years, 48 days   Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
97 Win 94–1–2   Freddie Flores TKO 3 (10), 2:41 Jun 7, 1949 28 years, 35 days   Page Arena, New Bedford, Massachusetts, U.S.
96 Win 93–1–2   Earl Turner TKO 8 (10), 1:51 Apr 20, 1949 27 years, 352 days   Oakland Auditorium, Oakland, California, U.S.
95 Win 92–1–2   Don Lee UD 10 Apr 11, 1949 27 years, 343 days   Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
94 Win 91–1–2   Bobby Lee UD 10 Mar 25, 1949 27 years, 326 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
93 Draw 90–1–2   Henry Brimm SD 10 Feb 15, 1949 27 years, 288 days   Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
92 Win 90–1–1   Young Gene Buffalo KO 1 (10), 2:55 Feb 10, 1949 27 years, 283 days   Kingston Armory, Kingston, Pennsylvania, U.S.
91 Win 89–1–1   Bobby Lee UD 10 Nov 15, 1948 27 years, 196 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
90 Win 88–1–1   Kid Gavilán UD 10 Sep 23, 1948 27 years, 143 days   Yankee Stadium, Bronx New York, U.S.
89 Win 87–1–1   Bernard Docusen UD 15 Jun 28, 1948 27 years, 56 days   Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles
88 Win 86–1–1   Henry Brimm UD 10 Mar 16, 1948 26 years, 318 days   Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
87 Win 85–1–1   Ossie Harris UD 10 Mar 4, 1948 26 years, 306 days   Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.
86 Win 84–1–1   Chuck Taylor TKO 6 (15), 2:07 Dec 19, 1947 26 years, 230 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles
85 Win 83–1–1   Billy Nixon TKO 6 (10), 2:10 Dec 10, 1947 26 years, 221 days   Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
84 Win 82–1–1   California Jackie Wilson TKO 7 (10), 1:35 Oct 28, 1947 26 years, 178 days   Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
83 Win 81–1–1   Flashy Sebastian KO 1 (10), 1:02 Aug 29, 1947 26 years, 118 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
82 Win 80–1–1   Sammy Secreet KO 1 (10), 1:50 Aug 21, 1947 26 years, 110 days   Rubber Bowl, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
81 Win 79–1–1   Jimmy Doyle TKO 8 (15) Jun 24, 1947 26 years, 52 days   Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles;
Doyle died of injuries sustained from the fight.[98]
80 Win 78–1–1   Georgie Abrams SD 10 May 16, 1947 26 years, 13 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
79 Win 77–1–1   Eddie Finazzo TKO 4 (10), 2:30 Apr 8, 1947 25 years, 340 days   Memorial Hall, Kansas City, Kansas, U.S.
78 Win 76–1–1   Freddie Wilson TKO 3 (10), 1:10 Apr 3, 1947 25 years, 335 days   Akron Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
77 Win 75–1–1   Bernie Miller TKO 3 (10), 1:32 Mar 27, 1947 25 years, 328 days   Dorsey Park, Miami, Florida, U.S.
76 Win 74–1–1   Tommy Bell UD 15 Dec 20, 1946 25 years, 231 days   Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. Won vacant NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring welterweight titles
75 Win 73–1–1   Artie Levine KO 10 (10), 2:41 Nov 6, 1946 25 years, 187 days   Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
74 Win 72–1–1   Cecil Hudson KO 6 (10), 2:58 Nov 1, 1946 25 years, 182 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
73 Win 71–1–1   Ossie Harris UD 10 Oct 7, 1946 25 years, 157 days   Forbes Field, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
72 Win 70–1–1   Sidney Miller KO 3 (10), 1:52 Sep 25, 1946 25 years, 145 days   Twin City Bowl, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
71 Win 69–1–1   Vinnie Vines KO 6 (10), 2:46 Aug 15, 1946 25 years, 104 days   Hawkins Stadium, Albany, New York, U.S.
70 Win 68–1–1   Joe Curcio KO 2 (10), 0:10 Jul 12, 1946 25 years, 70 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
69 Win 67–1–1   Norman Rubio PTS 10 Jun 25, 1946 25 years, 53 days   Roosevelt Stadium, Union City, New Jersey, U.S.
68 Win 66–1–1   Freddie Wilson KO 2 (10), 2:00 Jun 12, 1946 25 years, 40 days   Worcester Auditorium, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
67 Win 65–1–1   Freddie Flores KO 5 (10), 2:52 Mar 21, 1946 24 years, 322 days   Golden Gate Arena, New York City, New York, U.S.
66 Win 64–1–1   Izzy Jannazzo UD 10 Mar 14, 1946 24 years, 315 days   Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
65 Win 63–1–1   Sammy Angott UD 10 Mar 4, 1946 24 years, 305 days   Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
64 Win 62–1–1   Cliff Beckett KO 4 (10), 0:40 Feb 27, 1946 24 years, 300 days   St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
63 Win 61–1–1   O'Neil Bell KO 2 (10), 1:10 Feb 15, 1946 24 years, 288 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
62 Win 60–1–1   Tony Riccio TKO 4 (10), 2:16 Feb 5, 1946 24 years, 278 days   Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
61 Win 59–1–1   Dave Clark TKO 2 (10), 2:22 Jan 14, 1946 24 years, 256 days   Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
60 Win 58–1–1   Vic Dellicurti UD 10 Dec 4, 1945 24 years, 215 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
59 Win 57–1–1   Jake LaMotta SD 12 Sep 26, 1945 24 years, 146 days   Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
58 Win 56–1–1   Jimmy Mandell TKO 5 (10), 1:31 Sep 18, 1945 24 years, 138 days   Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
57 Win 55–1–1   Jimmy McDaniels KO 2 (10), 1:23 Jun 15, 1945 24 years, 43 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
56 Draw 54–1–1   José Basora SD 10 May 14, 1945 24 years, 11 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
55 Win 54–1   Jake LaMotta UD 10 Feb 23, 1945 23 years, 296 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
54 Win 53–1   George Costner KO 1 (10), 2:55 Feb 14, 1945 23 years, 287 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
53 Win 52–1   Tommy Bell UD 10 Jan 16, 1945 23 years, 258 days   Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
52 Win 51–1   Billy Furrone TKO 2 (10), 2:28 Jan 10, 1945 23 years, 252 days   Uline Arena, Washington, D.C., U.S.
51 Win 50–1   George Martin TKO 7 (10), 3:00 Dec 22, 1944 23 years, 233 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
50 Win 49–1   Sheik Rangel TKO 2 (10), 2:50 Dec 12, 1944 23 years, 223 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
49 Win 48–1   Vic Dellicurti UD 10 Nov 24, 1944 23 years, 205 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
48 Win 47–1   Lou Woods TKO 9 (10), 2:10 Oct 27, 1944 23 years, 177 days   Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
47 Win 46–1   Izzy Jannazzo KO 2 (10), 1:10 Oct 13, 1944 23 years, 163 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
46 Win 45–1   Henry Armstrong UD 10 Aug 27, 1943 22 years, 116 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
45 Win 44–1   Ralph Zannelli UD 10 Jul 1, 1943 22 years, 59 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
44 Win 43–1   Freddie Cabral KO 1 (10), 2:20 Apr 30, 1943 21 years, 362 days   Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
43 Win 42–1   Jake LaMotta UD 10 Feb 26, 1943 21 years, 299 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
42 Win 41–1   California Jackie Wilson MD 10 Feb 19, 1943 21 years, 292 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
41 Loss 40–1   Jake LaMotta UD 10 Feb 5, 1943 21 years, 278 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
40 Win 40–0   Al Nettlow TKO 3 (10) Dec 14, 1942 21 years, 225 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
39 Win 39–0   Izzy Jannazzo KO 8 (10), 2:43 Dec 1, 1942 21 years, 212 days   Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
38 Win 38–0   Vic Dellicurti UD 10 Nov 6, 1942 21 years, 187 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
37 Win 37–0   Izzy Jannazzo UD 10 Oct 19, 1942 21 years, 169 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
36 Win 36–0   Jake LaMotta UD 10 Oct 2, 1942 21 years, 152 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
35 Win 35–0   Tony Motisi KO 1 (10), 2:41 Aug 27, 1942 21 years, 116 days   Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
34 Win 34–0   Reuben Shank KO 2 (10), 2:26 Aug 21, 1942 21 years, 110 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
33 Win 33–0   Sammy Angott UD 10 Jul 31, 1942 21 years, 89 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
32 Win 32–0   Marty Servo SD 10 May 28, 1942 21 years, 25 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
31 Win 31–0   Dick Banner KO 2 (10), 0:32 Apr 30, 1942 20 years, 362 days   Minneapolis Armory, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
30 Win 30–0   Harvey Dubs TKO 6 (10), 2:45 Apr 17, 1942 20 years, 349 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
29 Win 29–0   Norman Rubio TKO 7 (12), 3:00 Mar 20, 1942 20 years, 321 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
28 Win 28–0   Maxie Berger TKO 2 (12), 1:43 Feb 20, 1942 20 years, 293 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
27 Win 27–0   Fritzie Zivic TKO 10 (12), 0:31 Jan 16, 1942 20 years, 258 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
26 Win 26–0   Fritzie Zivic UD 10 Oct 31, 1941 20 years, 181 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
25 Win 25–0   Marty Servo UD 10 Sep 25, 1941 20 years, 145 days   Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
24 Win 24–0   Maxie Shapiro TKO 3 (10), 2:04 Sep 19, 1941 20 years, 139 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
23 Win 23–0   Maurice Arnault TKO 1 (8), 1:29 Aug 29, 1941 20 years, 118 days   Atlantic City Convention Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
22 Win 22–0   Carl Guggino TKO 3 (8), 2:47 Aug 27, 1941 20 years, 116 days   Queensboro Arena, Queens, New York U.S.
21 Win 21–0   Sammy Angott UD 10 Jul 21, 1941 20 years, 79 days   Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
20 Win 20–0   Pete Lello TKO 4 (8), 1:48 Jul 2, 1941 20 years, 60 days   Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S.
19 Win 19–0   Mike Evans KO 2 (8), 0:52 Jun 16, 1941 20 years, 44 days   Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
18 Win 18–0   Nick Castiglione KO 1 (10), 1:21 May 19, 1941 20 years, 16 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
17 Win 17–0   Victor Troise TKO 1 (8), 2:39 May 10, 1941 20 years, 7 days   Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
16 Win 16–0   Joe Ghnouly TKO 3 (8), 2:07 Apr 30, 1941 19 years, 362 days   Uline Arena, Washington, D.C., U.S.
15 Win 15–0   Charley Burns KO 1 (10), 2:35 Apr 24, 1941 19 years, 356 days   Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
14 Win 14–0   Jimmy Tygh TKO 1 (10), 1:51 Apr 14, 1941 19 years, 346 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
13 Win 13–0   Jimmy Tygh KO 8 (10), 1:13 Mar 3, 1941 19 years, 304 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
12 Win 12–0   Gene Spencer RTD 4 (6) Feb 27, 1941 19 years, 300 days   Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
11 Win 11–0   Bobby McIntire UD 6 Feb 21, 1941 19 years, 294 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
10 Win 10–0   Benny Cartagena KO 1 (6), 1:33 Feb 8, 1941 19 years, 281 days   Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
9 Win 9–0   George Zengaras PTS 6 Jan 31, 1941 19 years, 273 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
8 Win 8–0   Frankie Wallace TKO 1 (6), 2:10 Jan 13, 1941 19 years, 255 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
7 Win 7–0   Tony Iacovacci KO 1 (6), 0:40 Jan 4, 1941 19 years, 246 days   Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
6 Win 6–0   Oliver White TKO 3 (4) Dec 13, 1940 19 years, 224 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
5 Win 5–0   Norment Quarles TKO 4 (8), 0:56 Dec 9, 1940 19 years, 220 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
4 Win 4–0   Bobby Woods KO 1 (6), 1:31 Nov 11, 1940 19 years, 192 days   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
3 Win 3–0   Mitsos Grispos UD 6 Oct 22, 1940 19 years, 172 days   New York Coliseum, Bronx, New York, U.S.
2 Win 2–0   Silent Stafford TKO 2 (4) Oct 8, 1940 19 years, 158 days   Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
1 Win 1–0   Joe Echevarria TKO 2 (4), 0:51 Oct 4, 1940 19 years, 154 days   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Before that fight, Robinson had a dream that he was going to accidentally kill Doyle in the ring. As a result, he decided to pull out of the fight. However, a priest and a minister convinced him to go ahead with the bout."Sugar Ray Robinson – Dreams Come True". YouTube. Retrieved March 3, 2013.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Sugar Ray Robinson. International Boxing Hall of Fame.
  2. ^ Dan (May 12, 2020). "Sugar Ray Robinson Again Named Greatest Boxer of All Time". IBRO. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  3. ^ Carlson, Dave. "The 100 Greatest Pound for Pound Boxers Of All Time". Bleacher Report. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  4. ^ "ESPN.com: ALL-TIME GREATEST BOXERS". www.espn.com. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  5. ^ "ESPN.com: BOXING - AP Fighters of the Century list". static.espn.go.com. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  6. ^ Eisele, Andrew (February 22, 2018). "Ring Magazine's 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years". LiveAbout. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  7. ^ "Sugar Ray Robinson's record". BoxRec. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
  8. ^ Jackson, Ron. "Most consecutive unbeaten streak". Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  9. ^ Eisele, Andrew. "Ring Magazine's 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years". About.com Sports.
  10. ^ "BoxRec ratings: world, pound-for-pound, active and inactive". BoxRec. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  11. ^ "Sugar Ray Robinson". Biography. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  12. ^ United States Postal Service Stamp Announcements
  13. ^ a b Robinson and Anderson, p. 7.
  14. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 5.
  16. ^ a b c "Sugar Ray Robinson Returns to the Ring to a 'Stamping Ovation' of 100 Million" (Press release). U.S.Postal Service. April 7, 2006. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Businessman Boxer, Time, June 25, 1951, Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Flatter, Ron. "The sugar in the sweet science". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  19. ^ Schwartz, Larry. "A brooding genius". ESPN. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c Nichols, Joseph C. (November 1, 1941). Harlem Fighter Still Unbeaten, The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  21. ^ a b Dawson, James P. (January 17, 1942). "Robinson Knocks Out Zivic in Tenth Round to Score 27th Victory in Row". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  22. ^ Nichols, Joseph C. (October 3, 1942). "Robinson Takes Unanimous Decision Over La Motta in Garden 10-Round Bout". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  23. ^ a b c Robinson's Streak Ended by LaMotta, The New York Times, Associated Press. February 6, 1943. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  24. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 110.
  25. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 120–129.
  26. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 126–130.
  27. ^ Ray Robinson, FBI. Retrieved June 6, 2007.[failed verification]
  28. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 130.
  29. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pp. 94
  30. ^ "Sugar: Too sweet for Raging Bull". BBC News. July 13, 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  31. ^ "The Lineal Welterwweight Champs". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  32. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. p. 93
  33. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pp. 105–06
  34. ^ a b Anderson, Dave (April 13, 1989). "Sports of the Times; The Original Sugar Ray 'Never Lost'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
  35. ^ "Sugar Ray Robinson – Dreams Come True". YouTube. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  36. ^ a b c d Sugar Ray Robinson, Contemporary Black Biography, The Gale Group, 2006 ISBN 0-7876-7927-5, via Answers.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  37. ^ Robinson's biographer Wil Haygood stated during a September 25, 2010, book festival appearance that Doyle was pushing himself to fight to "buy his mother a house" and after Doyle's death in 1947, Robinson gave the earnings of his next four fights to Doyle's mother, so she could buy that house."
  38. ^ Wil Haygood, Book TV, September 2010
  39. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 165.
  40. ^ "The Lineal Middleweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  41. ^ "Jake LaMotta". BoxRec. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived April 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 187–88.
  43. ^ Dethroned in London, The New York Times, July 15, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  44. ^ Sugar Ray Gives Mme. Auriol Kiss; Boxer as Cancer Fund 'Envoy,' Busses French Chief's Wife Twice on Each Cheek, The New York Times, May 17, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  45. ^ "Sugar's Lumps". Time. July 23, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  46. ^ Daley, Arthur (September 12, 1951). "Sports of The Times; For the Championship". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  47. ^ Harlem Hails Robinson; More Than 10,000 Cheer Verdict, Sing and Dance in Street, The New York Times, September 13, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  48. ^ Rose, Murray (December 27, 1951). "Sugar Ray Robinson Named Fighter Of Year". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  49. ^ "The Lineal Light Heavyweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  50. ^ Robinson and Anderson. p. 227
  51. ^ Robinson and Anderson. p. 266
  52. ^ Nichols, Joseph C. (May 1, 1957). "Utah 160-Pounder to Defend Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  53. ^ a b c d e Nichols, Joseph C. (May 2, 1957). "Robinson Knocks Out Fullmer in Fifth Round to Regain Middleweight Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  54. ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. p. 40
    *Gene Fullmer, ibhof.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived December 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ "Basilio Takes Title By Beating Robinson". The New York Times. September 24, 1957. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  56. ^ a b Nichols, Joseph C. (March 26, 1958). "Robinson Outpoints Basilio and Wins World Middleweight Title Fifth Time". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  57. ^ a b Nichols, Joseph C. (January 23, 1960). "5–1 Choice Loses A Split Decision", The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  58. ^ Conkilin, William R. (October 22, 1961) "Robinson Beats Moyer in Ten-Rounder Here". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  59. ^ Teague, Robert L. (February 18, 1962). "Denny Moyer Defeats Robinson". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  60. ^ a b Left Hook Floors Sugar Ray in 4th, The New York Times, June 25, 1963. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  61. ^ a b "Robinson Beaten in Archer Fight". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 11, 1965. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  62. ^ "Robinson Declares Bout With Archer Was His Last Fight". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 12, 1965. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  63. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 4.
  64. ^ Mission Impossible Archived October 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  65. ^ Wiley. p. 223
  66. ^ a b Pace, Frank (August 1976). "Keeping Pace with Sugar Ray Robinson". LA Sports Magazine. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007 – via Hall of Fame Magazine.
  67. ^ "Sugar Ray Robinson". Find a Grave. November 6, 1998. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  68. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 91–2.
  69. ^ Wiley, Ralph (July 13, 1987). "Bittersweet Twilight for Sugar". Sports Illustrated Vault.
  70. ^ "Remembering Sugar Ray: Edna Mae Robinson recalls the glitter and pain of her past". Ebony. XLV (2): 74, 76, 78. December 1989.
  71. ^ Chenault. p. 31
  72. ^ "Ray Robinson's' Sister Dies". The New York Times, April 21, 1959. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  73. ^ "Sugar Beats Paternity Suit On His 40th Birthday". Jet. XX (4): 54. May 18, 1961. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  74. ^ a b Wiley. p. 221
  75. ^ "Famous Free Masons: Athletes". U.S. News & World Report. May 14, 2013. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  76. ^ "Well Known Freemasons". Grand Lodge of British Columbia A.F. & A. M. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  77. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 75.
  78. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. p. 271
  79. ^ a b Sugar Ray Robinson quotes, cgmworldwide.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ Hauser. p. 29
  81. ^ a b Mulvaney, Kieran. Who's the Greatest?, ESPN. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  82. ^ Sugar Ray Bio Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, cgmworldwide.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
    *Review Joe and Teddy Pick Their Top Fighters[dead link], espn.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
    * Smith, Michael David (May 13, 2007). ESPN Greatest Boxers List: Sugar Ray Robinson No. 1 Archived June 3, 2012, at archive.today, AOL News. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
    * Wiley. p. 226
    *Anderson, Dave (April 13, 1989). "Sugar Ray Robinson, Boxing's 'Best,' Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
    * Trickett, Alex, and Dirs, Ben. Who is the greatest of them all?, bbc.co.uk, June 13, 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007."Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 4, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  83. ^ Kehoe, Patrick. Ray Robinson: The champions' champion Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. secondsout.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  84. ^ Hauser. p. 212
  85. ^ Sugar Ray named century's best, ESPN, Associated Press. December 8, 1999. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
  86. ^ Ring Magazine's 100 Greatest Punchers, The Ring, (2003), available online at about.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  87. ^ "IBRO Rankings". Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  88. ^ "Madison Square Garden Gets Walk Of Fame". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. September 12, 1992. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  89. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. p. 105
  90. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (November 25, 2009). "Sugar Ray's Harlem: Back in the Day". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  91. ^ Goldman, Albert (October 8, 1968). "Sugar Ray: Is He a Black Gable?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
    * Sammons. p. xii
    *"The Man Who Comes Back". Time, April 7, 1958. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  92. ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. pp. 205–06
  93. ^ Robinson and Anderson, p. 169.
  94. ^ Daley, Robert (May 13, 1962). "Sugar Ray Is Still Young in Paris; Age Hasn't Dimmed Robinson's Skills in Frenchmen's Eyes". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  95. ^ Anderson, Dave (June 18, 1980). "For Some People there is only One Sugar Ray". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2010 – via The Miami News.[dead link]
  96. ^ Schuyler, Ed (September 21, 1998). Article: Sugar Shane wants to look sweet for Sugar Ray, Associated Press. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  97. ^ Iole, Kevin (September 6, 2008). "Few pegged Rashad Evans' main-event status". MMAjunkie.com. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  98. ^ "Jimmy Doyle". boxrec.com. Retrieved July 30, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

SourcesEdit

  • Boyd, Herb, and Robinson, Ray II. Pound for Pound: A Biography of Sugar Ray Robinson, New York: HarperCollins, 2005 ISBN 0-06-018876-6
  • Chenault, Julie. Edna Mae Robinson Still Looking Good in Her Mink. Jet, Johnson Publishing Company November 5, 1981, issue ISSN 0021-5996 (available online)
  • Donelson, Thomas, and Lotierzo, Frank. Viewing Boxing from Ringside, Lincoln: iUniverse, 2002 ISBN 0-595-23748-7
  • Fitzgerald, Mike H., and Hudson, Dabid L. Boxing's Most Wanted: The Top Ten Book of Champs, Chumps and Punch-drunk Palookas, Virginia: Brassey's, 2004 ISBN 1-57488-714-9
  • Hauser, Thomas. The Black Lights: Inside the World of Professional Boxing, Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000 ISBN 1-55728-597-7
  • Nagler, Barney. "Boxing's Bad Boy: Sugar Ray Robinson". SPORT Magazine. October 1947.
  • Robinson, Sugar Ray, and Anderson, Dave. Sugar Ray, London: Da Capo Press, 1994 ISBN 0-306-80574-X
  • Sammons, Jeffrey Thomas. Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998 ISBN 0-252-06145-4
  • Wiley, Ralph. Serenity: A Boxing Memoir, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8032-9816-1

External linksEdit

Sporting positions
World titles
Preceded by World Welterweight champion
December 20, 1946 – December 25, 1950
Vacated
Vacant
Title next held by
Kid Gavilán
Preceded by World Middleweight champion
January 14, 1951 – July 10, 1951
Succeeded by
Preceded by World Middleweight champion
September 12, 1951 – December 19, 1952
Retired
Vacant
Title next held by
Carl Olson
Preceded by World Middleweight champion
May 18, 1956 – January 2, 1957
Succeeded by
Preceded by World Middleweight champion
May 1, 1957 – September 23, 1957
Succeeded by
Preceded by NBA Middleweight champion
March 25, 1958 – May 4, 1959
Stripped
Vacant
Title next held by
Gene Fullmer
World Middleweight champion
March 25, 1958 – January 2, 1960
Succeeded by
Records
Preceded by Most world title reigns
in middleweight division
5

March 25, 1958 – present
Incumbent