Urban rail transit in India

  (Redirected from Suburban rail in India)

Urban rail transit in India plays an important role in intracity transportation in the major cities which are highly populated. It consists of rapid transit, suburban rail, monorail and tram systems. According to a report published in 2021, a total of 2,636 million people travel annually in metro systems across India's thirteen major cities, placing the country as one of the busiest urban rapid transit hub in the world in terms of ridership. The combined length of metro systems in India makes it the fifth longest in the world with 731.5 km (454.5 mi) in operation.[1]

Map of cities in India with Urban Transit Systems such as rapid transit, suburban rail, monorail, bus rapid transit and tram.

The Ministry of Urban Development's Urban Transport wing is the nodal division for coordination, appraisal and approval of Urban Transport matters including Metro Rail Projects at the central level. All the interventions in the urban transport by the Ministry of Urban Development are carried out as per the provisions of National Urban Transport Policy, 2006.[2]

TerminologyEdit

Indian cities have various types of urban transit systems operational, under construction and planned. These systems are being implemented based on the population of a city, financial feasibility and demand.

HistoryEdit

 
The first EMU service, launched in 1925
 
Life-size model of a horse-drawn tram at the City Centre arcade, Salt Lake

The first-ever mode of the urban rail transit system in India was commuter rail (or suburban rail), built in Mumbai on 16 April 1853. The first passenger train was flagged off from Bori Bunder (present-day Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai) from where it travelled to Thane, covering a distance of 34 km in an hour and fifteen minutes. This made it the Asia's first suburban railway.[3] At the turn of 20th century, tram systems began to sprawl across four major cities of India and helped local population to meet their intracity transportation needs. Horse-drawn tram was first introduced in Kolkata in 1873 and the electric trams began to operate in Chennai in 1895, later the cities of Mumbai, Kanpur, and Delhi saw trams being introduced. These services were discontinued in all Indian cities between 1933 and 1964, except for Kolkata where they operate on streets till the present day.[4]

In September 1919, during a session of the Imperial Legislative Council at Shimla, a committee was set up by W. E. Crum that recommended a metro line for Kolkata.[5] The next proposal for a metro system was mooted by government of West Bengal in 1949-50 and a survey was conducted by French experts. However, the proposal could not be brought into the effect and India had to wait for its first metro service. It was 23 years later when the foundation stone was laid in Kolkata in 1972 to commence the construction of the ambitious metro system. On 24 October 1984, India saw its first metro system operational in Kolkata. After several struggles and bureaucratic hurdles, a stretch of 3.4 km was opened with five stations on the line.[6]

 
Kolkata Metro's old non AC rake.

In 1905, the capital of India was moved from Kolkata to Delhi. This created a massive urban sprawl, which boosted the city's population by many folds. The first concept of an urban rapid transit system came out during 1969,[7] when a traffic and travel characteristics study was conducted. The bus systems which catered the public transportation in the city added to the traffic problems, this soon became a growing concern. The concepts for an urban transit system were considered as the need for the country's capital.[7] After planning, a proposal was made in 1984, which revealed plans for constructing three underground corridors and augmentation of the existing suburban rail system. The construction began on 1 October 1998 and the first line was operational on 24 December 2002.[6][8] With 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi), the Delhi Metro went on to be the longest and by far the busiest metro system in India.[9]

While the political capital of India was expanding on its success by constructing new metro lines, suburban railways remained as the dominant mode of transport in the financial capital, Mumbai. According to Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) the city bus services operating in narrow and crowded areas of the city were slow-moving and caused traffic congestion and hence a rapid transit system was necessary. Since the city already had planned metro services and since the suburban railways also connected major parts of the city, a feeder system to these services was proposed in the form of Monorail.[10] After the construction was completed, On 1 February 2014, Mumbai Monorail became the first of its kind in India.[11][12]

Following the grand success of Delhi Metro, India soon had its first metro system operate in southern India in the form of Namma Metro of Bengaluru, which aimed at solving the massive traffic problems in the city.[6][13] Later in the following decade, several metro systems began to spring up in the major cities, expanding number of such systems to thirteen in the country.[6]

Rapid transit systemsEdit

 
The Blue Line of the Delhi Metro, the largest metro system in India.
 
The station at Salt Lake Stadium, East West Line. The North South Line of Kolkata Metro was the oldest in India
 
An underground station of the Chennai Metro.

There are currently thirteen operational rapid transit (popularly known as 'metro') systems in thirteen cities across India. With Delhi Metro being the largest metro system which connects to few other nearby cities in the National Capital Region.[14] As of January 2021, India has 733.09 kilometres (455.52 miles) of operational metro lines and 542 stations across 13 systems.[15] A further 576.75km of lines are under construction. Metro rail lines in India are composed of mainly standard gauge. Projects like the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but all new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock is of standard gauge.

Apart from the Kolkata metro (which has its own zone under Indian Railways), these rapid transit metro lines are not operated by Indian Railways, but a separate set of local authorities. In addition to their metro systems, the cities of Chennai and Hyderabad have mass transit systems operated by the Indian Railways, known as the Chennai MRTS and the Hyderabad MMTS, respectively. The first rapid transit system in India is the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro has the largest network in the entire country.[16]

In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million).[17][18] On 11 August 2014, Union Government announced that it would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having a population of more than 1 million.[19][20] In May 2015, the Union Government approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implemented through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated 5 lakh crore (US$66 billion).[21][22] In a new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted state governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems.[23] In August 2017, the Union Government announced that it would not provide financial assistance to new metro rail project, unless some sort of private partnership is involved.[24][25][26]

ListEdit

As of 9 October 2021
System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Operator(s) Opened Recent Extension Annual Ridership (in millions)
Operational Under Construction Planned
Delhi Metro   Delhi 10[27] 254[Nb 1] 348.12 km (216.31 mi)[9] 108.59 km (67.47 mi) 30.07 km (18.68 mi) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 24 December 2002[28] 18 September 2021 1790[29]
Hyderabad Metro Telangana 3 57 67 km (42 mi) 2.94 km (1.83 mi) 11.20 km (6.96 mi) Hyderabad Metro Rail Ltd. (HMRL) 29 November 2017[30] 7 February 2020 173[1]
Namma Metro Bengaluru Karnataka 2 52[31] 56.1 km (34.9 mi)[32] 118.84 km (73.84 mi) 145 km (90 mi) Bengaluru Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL) 20 October 2011[13] 29 August 2021 174.22[33]
Chennai Metro   Chennai Tamil Nadu 2 42[34] 54.15 km (33.65 mi)[35] 118.91 km (73.89 mi) 16.00 km (9.94 mi) Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL) 29 June 2015[36] 14 February 2021 42[1]
Kolkata Metro     Kolkata West Bengal 2[37] 33[38] 38.56 km (23.96 mi)[37] 101.86 km (63.29 mi) 17.90 km (11.12 mi) 24 October 1984[39] 22 February 2021 256[1]
Nagpur Metro Nagpur Maharashtra 2 24 26.10 km (16.22 mi) 18.80 km (11.68 mi) 48.30 km (30.01 mi) MahaMetro 8 March 2019[40] 21 August 2021 4[1]
Kochi Metro   Kochi Kerala 1 22 25.6 km (15.9 mi) 2.94 km (1.83 mi) 11.20 km (6.96 mi) Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) 17 June 2017[41] 7 September 2020 17[1]
Noida Metro   Uttar Pradesh 1 21 25.6 km (15.9 mi) 80.95 km (50.30 mi) Noida Metro Rail Corporation (NMRC) 25 January 2019[42] 5[1]
Lucknow Metro   Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 1 21 22.87 km (14.21 mi) 85.00 km (52.82 mi) Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation (UPMRC) 5 September 2017[43] 8 March 2019 22[1]
Jaipur Metro   Jaipur Rajasthan 1[44] 11[44] 11.97 km (7.44 mi) 26.36 km (16.38 mi) Jaipur Metro Rail Corporation Limited (JMRC) 3 June 2015[44] 23 Sep 2020 7[1]
Rapid Metro Gurgaon   Gurugram Haryana 1 11 11.7 km (7.3 mi)[45] 17.00 km (10.56 mi) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) 14 November 2013[46] 31 March 2017 18[1]
Mumbai Metro   Mumbai Maharashtra 1 12[47] 11.4 km (7.1 mi)[47] 193.35 km (120.14 mi) 136.4 km (84.8 mi) Mumbai Metro One (MMO) 8 June 2014[47] 126[48]
Ahmedabad Metro Ahmedabad Gujarat 1 6 6 km (3.7 mi) 54.10 km (33.62 mi) 7.41 km (4.60 mi) Gujarat Metro Rail Corporation (GMRC) 4 March 2019[49] 0.4[1]

Systems in DevelopmentEdit

As of 2 September 2021

  Under construction
  Approved
  Proposed

System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Planned Opening
Kanpur Metro   Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 2 31 32.37 km (20.11 mi) 2021[50]
Pune Metro Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad Maharashtra 3 53 54.58 km (33.91 mi) 2021[51]
Navi Mumbai Metro   Navi Mumbai Maharashtra 1 20 23.40 km (14.54 mi) 2021[52]
Bhoj Metro Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2 28 105 km (65 mi) 2023[53]
Indore Metro Indore Madhya Pradesh 5 89 124 km (77 mi) 2023[54]
Patna Metro Patna Bihar 2 26 30.91 km (19.21 mi) 2024[55]
Agra Metro   Agra Uttar Pradesh 2 27 29.40 km (18.27 mi) 2024[56]
Surat Metro Surat Gujarat 2 38 40.35 km (25.07 mi) 2024[57]
Meerut Metro Meerut Uttar Pradesh 2 24 54.58 km (33.91 mi) 2025[58]
Guwahati Metro Guwahati Assam 4 54 61.40 km (38.15 mi) TBD[59]
Coimbatore Metro Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 5 TBD 144 km (89 mi)[60] TBD[61][62]

Abandoned SystemsEdit

  Defunct
  Scrapped

System Locale State / Union Territory Length Notes
Skybus Metro Margao Goa 1.60 km (0.99 mi) Defunct and Scrapped after the operation. Deemed unsafe by KRC.[63]
Chandigarh Metro Chandigarh Tricity Chandigarh 37.50 km (23.30 mi) Rejected due to commercial viability.

[64]

Cuttack Metro Cuttack and Bhubaneswar Odisha Rejected due to infeasibility. May be considered after 2040.[65]
Western Railway Elevated Corridor Mumbai Maharashtra 63.27 km (39.31 mi) Rejected due to infeasibility.[66]
Ludhiana Metro Ludhiana Punjab 28.30 km (17.58 mi) Rejected and replaced by bus rapid transit system.[67]

List of linesEdit

Note : Only operational lines are listed.

Urban rapid rail transit lines
Livery Line System Length Stations Rolling stock Commencement Latest extension
01Line 1 Kolkata 31.36 km (19.49 mi) 26 ICF and CRRC Dalian 24 October 1984 22 February 2021
02Line 2 16.60 km (10.31 mi) 7 BEML Limited 13 February 2020 4 October 2020
03Red Line Delhi 34.69 km (21.56 mi) 29 Mitsubishi, Hyundai Rotem and BEML Limited 25 December 2002 8 March 2019
03Yellow Line 49.31 km (30.64 mi) 37 Mitsubishi, Hyundai Rotem, BEML Limited and Bombardier Movia 20 December 2004 10 November 2015
03Blue Line (Main) 56.61 km (35.18 mi) 50 31 December 2005 9 March 2019
03Blue Line (Branch) 8.74 km (5.43 mi) 8 10 May 2009 14 July 2011
03Green Line (Main) 49.31 km (30.64 mi) 22 Mitsubishi, Hyundai Rotem and BEML Limited 3 April 2010 24 June 2018
03Green Line (Branch) 3.32 km (2.06 mi) 3 3 April 2010 27 August 2011
03Violet Line 46.63 km (28.97 mi) 34 3 October 2010 19 November 2018
03Airport Express 22.70 km (14.11 mi) 7 CAF 23 February 2011 December 2021
03Pink Line 58.43 km (36.31 mi) 38 Hyundai Rotem and BEML Limited 14 March 2018 6 August 2021
03Magenta Line 37.46 km (23.28 mi) 25 Hyundai Rotem 25 December 2017 28 May 2018
03Grey Line 5.19 km (3.22 mi) 4 4 October 2019 18 September 2021
01Purple Line Bengaluru 25.72 km (15.98 mi) 23 BEML Limited 20 October 2011 15 January 2021
01Green Line 30.37 km (18.87 mi) 29 1 March 2014 15 January 2021
01 Line 1 Gurgaon 11.70 km (7.27 mi) 11 Siemens 14 November 2013 31 March 2017
01Blue Line 1 Mumbai 10.81 km (6.72 mi) 23 CRRC Nanjing Puzhen 8 June 2014
01Pink Line Jaipur 11.97 km (7.44 mi) 11 BEML Limited 3 Jun 2015 23 Sep 2020
01Blue Line Chennai 32.10 km (19.95 mi) 25 Alstom 21 September 2016 14 February 2021
01Green Line 22.00 km (13.67 mi) 17 Alstom 29 June 2015 25 May 2018
01Line 1 Kochi 32.10 km (19.95 mi) 22 Alstom Metropolis 17 June 2017 7 September 2020
01Red Line Lucknow 22.87 km (14.21 mi) 21 Alstom 5 September 2017 8 March 2019
01Red Line Hyderabad 29 km (18 mi) 27 Hyundai Rotem 29 November 2017 24 September 2018
01Blue Line 27 km (17 mi) 23 29 November 2017 29 November 2019
01Green Line 11 km (6.8 mi) 10 7 February 2020
01East-West Corridor Ahmedabad 6 km (3.7 mi) 6 4 March 2019
01Orange Line Nagpur 15.60 km (9.69 mi) 13 CRRC 8 March 2019 21 August 2021
01Aqua Line 30.37 km (18.87 mi) 21 28 January 2020 6 April 2021

Suburban RailEdit

 
An EMU of the Mumbai Suburban Railway, the oldest Suburban Railway Network in India built in 1853
 
An elevated stretch of the Chennai MRTS.

Suburban rail plays a major role in the public transport system of many major Indian cities. These services are operated by Indian Railways. Suburban rail is a rail service between a central business district and the suburbs, a conurbation or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains are called suburban trains. These trains are also referred to as "local trains" or "locals". The suburban rail systems in Hyderabad, Pune, Lucknow–Kanpur and Bengaluru do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share tracks with long-distance trains. The suburban rail system of Chennai and Mumbai have both dedicated tracks and tracks shared with long-distance trains.

The first suburban rail system in India is Mumbai Suburban Railway which started operations in 1853. The Kolkata Suburban Railway has the largest network in the entire country. The Chennai Suburban Railway started its operations in 1931.

Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are all electric multiple units (EMUs). They usually have nine or twelve coaches, sometimes even fifteen to handle rush hour traffic. One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in the suburban rails run on 25 kV AC.[68] Ridership on India's suburban railways has risen from 1.2 million in 1970–71 to 4.4 million in 2012–13. The suburban railways of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai account for about 7.1% of the Indian Railways 20819.3  million train kilometres but contribute 53.2% of all railway passengers.[69] In some cities of India, the opening of rapid transit systems have led to a decline in the use of the suburban rail system.

As of 5 September 2021
System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Opened Annual Ridership (in Billions)
Mumbai Suburban Railway   Maharashtra 7 150 427.50 km (265.64 mi) 16 April 1853[3] 2.2
Kolkata Suburban Railway   West Bengal 24 458 1,501 km (933 mi) 15 August 1854[70] 1.2
Chennai Suburban Railway   Tamil Nadu 8 300+ 1,174 km (729 mi) 1931[71] 0.9
Delhi Suburban Railway   National Capital Region Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana 1 46 85 km (53 mi) 1 October 1975[72]
Pune Suburban Railway   Maharashtra 2 17 63 km (39 mi) 11 March 1978[73] 0.3
Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System

 

Telengana 3 28 50 km (31 mi) 9 August 2003[74] 0.8
Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System   Chennai Tamil Nadu 2 18 19.34 km (12.02 mi) 1 November 1995[75] 0.1

Systems in DevelopmentEdit

As of 5 September 2021

  Under construction
  Approved
  Proposed

System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Planned Opening
Bengaluru Commuter Rail   Bengaluru Karnataka 4 TBD 148.17 km (92.07 mi) 2026[76][77]
Ahmedabad Suburban Railway   Ahmedabad Gujarat 2 41 52.96 km (32.91 mi) TBD[78]
Nagpur Broad Gauge Metro   Nagpur Maharashtra 4[79] TBD 268.63 km (166.92 mi) TBD[80][81]
Coimbatore Suburban Railway   Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 5 TBD TBD TBD[82]

Regional railEdit

Regional Rapid Transit systems in India are passenger rail services that operate beyond the limits of urban areas, and either connect similarly-sized cities, or metropolitan cities and surrounding towns/cities, outside at the outer rim of a suburban belt. The following list excludes Passenger Train services provided by Indian Railways.

As of 9 October 2021
Service State / Union Territory Stations Length Opened
Pernem–Karwar Suburban Railway   Goa and Karnataka 12 117.20 km (72.82 mi) 2015[83]
Lucknow–Kanpur Suburban Railway   Uttar Pradesh 16 72 km (45 mi) 1867
Barabanki–Lucknow Suburban Railway   Uttar Pradesh 10 37 km (23 mi) 30 June 2013[84]

Systems in DevelopmentEdit

As of 5 September 2021

  Under construction
  Approved
  Proposed

System State / Union Territory Stations Length Planned Opening
Delhi–Meerut RRTS Delhi and Uttar Pradesh 22 82 km (51 mi) 2023[85]
Delhi–Alwar RRTS Delhi, Haryana and Rajasthan 22 164 km (102 mi) 2025[86]
Delhi–Sonipat–Panipat RRTS Delhi and Haryana 15 103 km (64 mi) 2025[87]

MonorailEdit

 
The Mumbai Monorail The only operational Monorail system in India.

The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014, is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India.[88] Many other Indian cities had planned monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, but after the Mumbai monorail failed with multiple issues, other cities are reconsidering the plan and may go ahead with much efficient and proven modes of transport such as the Light rail transit system.[89][90]

System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Opened Annual Ridership (in millions)
Mumbai Monorail   Mumbai Maharashtra 1 17 19.53 km (12.14 mi) 2 February 2014[11] 1.2

Systems in DevelopmentEdit

  Approved
  Proposed

System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Notes
Coimbatore Monorail Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 1 TBD TBD Proposed.[91]
Warangal Monorail Warangal Telangana 1 TBD 15 km (9.3 mi) Proposed.[92]
Aizawl Monorail Aizawl Mizoram 1 TBD 5 km (3.1 mi) On paper since 2012.[93]
Tiruchirappalli Monorail Tiruchirapalli Tamil Nadu 3 27 TBD On paper since 2014.[94]
Madurai Monorail Madurai Tamil Nadu 1 TBD TBD On paper since 2014.[94]


Abandoned SystemsEdit

  Defunct
  Scrapped

System Locale State / Union Territory Length Notes
Chennai Monorail Chennai Tamil Nadu 57 km (35 mi) Replaced with Metro Rail project.[95]
Kolkata Monorail Kolkata West Bengal 177 km (110 mi) New Town route was converted into a Ropeway project.[96]
Kanpur Monorail Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 63 km (39 mi) Unheard of since 2010, it is most probably scrapped since construction of Metro system commenced.[97]

Light rail/MetroliteEdit

Light rail transit (LRT) or Metrolite is a form of urban rail transit characterized by a combination of rapid transit and tram systems. It usually operates at a higher capacity than trams, and often on an exclusive right-of-way similar to rapid transit. Several tier-2 cities in India have opted it since it is a cheap and efficient mode of urban transit which serves for a lower demand.

  Under construction
  Approved
  Proposed

System Locale State / Union Territory Lines Stations Length Type Planned opening
Greater Nashik Metro Nashik Maharashtra 2 30 32 km (20 mi) Rubber-tyred metro 2023[98] [99]
Jammu metro Jammu Jammu and Kashmir 2 40 43.50 km (27.03 mi)[100] 25 kV AC railway electrification 2024[101]
Srinagar Metro Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 2 24 25 km (16 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification 2024[102]
Thane Metro Thane Maharashtra 1 22 29 km (18 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification 2025[103]
Delhi Metrolite Delhi Delhi 2 37 40.88 km (25.40 mi) Rubber-tyred metro[104] TBD[105]
Gorakhpur Metro Gorakhpur Uttar Pradesh 2 27 27.41 km (17.03 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification TBD[106]
Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 1 19 21.82 km (13.56 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification TBD[107]
Kozhikode Light Metro Kozhikode Kerala 1 14 13.30 km (8.26 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification TBD[108]
Prayagraj Metro Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh 2 39 42 km (26 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification TBD[109]
Varanasi Metro Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 2 26 29.23 km (18.16 mi) 25 kV AC railway electrification TBD[110]
Uttarakhand Metro Dehradun Uttarakhand 2 25 22.42 km (13.93 mi) Rubber-tyred metro TBD[111]
Chennai Light Rail Chennai Tamil Nadu 1 TBD 15.50 km (9.63 mi) Rubber-tyred metro[112] TBD
Mysuru Metro Neo Mysuru Karnataka 1 TBD TBD Rubber-tyred metro TBD[113]

TramEdit

 
The Kolkata Tram built in 1873, the only tram in India still operational. Mostly used as a heritage ride.

In addition to trains, trams were introduced in many cities in the late 19th century, though almost all of these were phased out. The Kolkata Tram is currently the only tram system in the country.

System City State / Union Territory Lines Stops Length Opened
Kolkata Tram Kolkata West Bengal 6 N/A 28 km (17 mi) 1873[114]

Defunct SystemsEdit

System City State / Union Territory Lines Stops Length Opened Discontinued
Mumbai Tram[Nb 2] Mumbai Maharashtra 1873 1964
Nashik Tram Nashik Maharashtra 10 km (6.2 mi) 1889 1931
Chennai Tram Chennai Tamil Nadu 1895 1953
Patna Tram Patna Bihar 1903
Kanpur Tram Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 6.04 km (3.75 mi) 1907 16 May 1933
Kochi Tram Kochi Kerala 1907 1963
Delhi Tram Delhi Delhi 1908 1963
Bhavnagar Tram Bhavnagar Gujarat 1926 1960s

ManufacturingEdit

There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.[116]

Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML)Edit

BEML is a Bengaluru-based Public Sector Undertaking company that manufactures mining equipment, heavy engineering as well as metro rail coaches. It manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Rotem.

  • Delhi Metro – 1,184 coaches[117]
  • Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
  • Namma Metro – 150 coaches
  • Kolkata Metro (Line 2) – 84 coaches
  • Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
  • Mumbai Metro (Red & Yellow Line) – 378 coaches[118]

Bombardier IndiaEdit

Bombardier (Now, Alstom India) built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro.[119] Production at Savli began in June 2009.[120] In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.[120] In July 2020, Bombardier won a contract to supply 201 coaches along with the train control & signaling system for the Kanpur and Agra metro projects with extremely tight deadline of just 65 Weeks.[121] Bombardier was acquired by Alstom on 29 January 2021.[122][123]

  • Delhi Metro – 816 Coaches[124]
  • Agra & Kanpur Metro – 201 Coaches
  • Mumbai Metro (Green Line) - 234 Coaches

Alstom IndiaEdit

In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro.[125] The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.[126] It also provides signalling & telecommunications systems.

  • Chennai Metro – 208 coaches
  • Lucknow Metro – 80 coaches
  • Kochi Metro – 75 coaches
  • Mumbai Metro (Aqua Line) – 248 coaches[127]

Integral Coach Factory (ICF)Edit

Integral Coach Factory manufactures rolling stock (under Kolkata Urban Transit). ICF has manufactured "Medha Rakes" and is in the process of supplying them to various suburban systems.

  • Kolkata Metro (Line 1,3,4) – 456 coaches

Titagarh FiremaEdit

In 2019, Titagarh Firema was awarded the contract to supply 102 aluminum bodied metro rail coaches for the Pune Metro by Mahametro.[128]

Medha Servo Drive Pvt LtdEdit

In 2017, Medha Servo Drive planned to invest 8,000 million for metro rail coach factory in Telangana.[129] In 2021, it got a contract to supply 10 rakes for Mumbai Monorail worth 590 crore INR.

Others

LegislationEdit

The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to former Minister of Urban Development Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."[131]

Construction of metros in India is governed by the centrally enacted The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith.[132] Operation and maintenance of metros are governed by The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009.[133] The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India.[134] Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refused certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.[134]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 24 transfer stations. If transfer stations are counted only once, the result will be 229 stations. Ashok Park Main station, where the two diverging branches of Green Line share tracks/platforms, is anyway counted as a single station. Stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are not counted. If stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are counted, the result will be 285 stations[27]
  2. ^ Almost 60 years after being decommissioned, the trams might make a comeback on the streets of Mumbai like old times to decongest the Bandra Kurla Complex area.[115]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ashish Chandrorkar (19 February 2021). "A comprehensive report on India's metro rail systems" (PDF). Swarajyamag.
  2. ^ "Urban Transport". Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  3. ^ a b "The History Of Mumbai's Local Trains In 1 Minute". The Culture Tip. 13 September 2016.
  4. ^ Smith, R.V. "When trams plied". The Hindu.
  5. ^ "Kolkata's Tube Railway plan nipped in bud a century ago". Times of India. 5 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d "History of Metro rail in India: Trams to driverless metro". Urban Transport News. 21 May 2021.
  7. ^ a b Siemiatycki, Matti (June 2006). "Message in a Metro: Building Urban Rail Infrastructure and Image in Delhi, India". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 30.2: 277–292.
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