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Streptaxidae is a family of carnivorous air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the clade Stylommatophora. Six Streptaxidae subfamilies are accepted in the 2005 taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi.

Temporal range: Late Cretaceous (about 80 Mya)[1] - Recent
Gonospira uvula Reunion 0408.jpg
A live individual of Gonospira uvula
Scientific classification
Gray, 1860

Gray, 1860[2]

Enneinae Bourguignat, 1883
Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000
Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000
Orthogibbinae Germain, 1921
Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919
Streptaxinae Gray, 1860

58 genera

Streptaxidae are carnivorous except for one species Edentulina moreleti, which is herbivorous.[3] All streptaxids have well-developed radula, except Careoradula perelegans, which is the only known terrestrial gastropod without radula.[4]

Altogether 66 species from the family Streptaxidae are listed in the 2010 IUCN Red List.[5]



The historical area of origin of the Streptaxidae is probably Gondwanaland.[6]

The family is widely distributed across the tropical and subtropical areas of South America, Africa and Asia.[7] The Recent native distribution of Streptaxidae includes South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, Seychelles, Mayotte, Comores, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, India, Sri Lanka, Andamans, South-East Asia and the Philippines.[1] The genus Gibbulinella is found in the Canary Islands.[1]

The species diversity of Streptaxidae reaches its maximum in sub-Saharan Africa.[7]

With 13 genera and about 130 nominal species, the second most diverse streptaxid fauna can be found in Southeast Asia.[7] Streptaxidae are the most diverse among tropical Asian carnivorous snails.[7] In Indochina, streptaxid diversity was thought to comprise only 10 genera and about 40 species in 1967.[8] However, in 2006-2016, 21 new species (more than half the previous total) and one new genus had been described from Indochina.[8] Thirty-seven species are recorded from Thailand, 10 from Myanmar, 45 from Vietnam,[8][9] and 12 from Laos.[8]


Streptaxids can generally be recognized by their eccentric or cylindrical shells, while the animals have a bright yellow to red or orange body with external hook-like structures on the everted penis.[7]

Early classifications of the family such as Wilhelm Kobelt (1905–6), used mainly shell shape and the arrangement of apertural dentition.[8] However, many shell characters are highly conserved or occur recurrently, making some species and genera difficult to separate.[8] The reproductive organs of streptaxids can also be taxonomically significant.[8]


Prior to Schileyko’s revision in 2000 only two subfamilies, the Streptaxinae and the Enneinae had been recognized, which were primarily based on their shell morphology.[7]

2005 taxonomyEdit

Only the one family, Streptaxidae, was recognized within the Streptaxoidea in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).[10]

There are 6 subfamilies in the family Streptaxidae according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, that follows Schileyko (2000):[11]

  • Streptaxinae Gray, 1860 - synonym: Artemonidae Bourguignat, 1889
  • Enneinae Bourguignat, 1883[12] - synonym: Streptostelidae Bourguignat, 1889
  • Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000[13]
  • Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000[14]
  • Orthogibbinae Germain, 1921[15] - synonyms: Gibbinae Steenberg, 1936; Gonidominae Steenberg, 1936
  • Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919[16]

2010 taxonomyEdit

Sutcharit et al. (2010)[1] have established a new family Diapheridae within Streptaxoidea and they have added two genera Diaphera and Sinoennea into Diapheridae.[1]

In the recent decades, most of the taxonomic and systematic research on streptaxids has been performed on sub-Saharan African taxa.[7] Only a few publications focus on South American or Asian groups.[7]


Genera in the family Streptaxidae include:







Unsorted to subfamily:


See alsoEdit


This article includes CC-BY-3.0 text from the reference[7] and CC-BY-4.0 from the reference[8]

  1. ^ Dadagulella is placed here within Ptychotrematinae, because Dadagulella and Gulella are supposed to be sister groups.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  2. ^ Gray J. E. (October 1860) "On the arrangement of the land pulmoniferous Mollusca into families". Annals and Magazine of Natural History, serie 3, 6: 267-269. Streptaxidae is on the page 268.
  3. ^ Gerlach J. (2001). "Edentulina moreleti", the first herbivorous streptaxid (Gastropoda)". Phelsuma 9: 75. PDF.
  4. ^ Gerlach J. & van Bruggen A. C. (1998). "A first record of a terrestrial mollusc without a radula". Journal of Molluscan Studies 64(2): 249-250. doi:10.1093/mollus/64.2.249.
  5. ^ IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <>. Downloaded on 27 September 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Gerlach J. & Bruggen A. C. van (1999). "Streptaxidae Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, western Indian Ocean". Zoologische Verhandelingen 328: 1-60. abstract, PDF.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Siriboon, T.; Sutcharit, C.; Naggs, F.; Panha, S. (2013). "Three new species of the carnivorous snail genus Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905 from Thailand (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae)". ZooKeys. 287: 41–57. doi:10.3897/zookeys.287.4572. PMC 3677355. PMID 23794847.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Inkhavilay, Khamla; Siriboon, Thanit; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Rowson, Ben; Panha, Somsak (2016-05-16). "The first revision of the carnivorous land snail family Streptaxidae in Laos, with description of three new species (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Streptaxidae)". ZooKeys. 589: 23–53. doi:10.3897/zookeys.589.7933. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 4926661. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  9. ^ Sang, Do Duc; Do Duc, Sang (2017). "Checklist of the genus Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905 (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae) of Vietnam, with description of a new species". Folia Malacologica. 25 (2): 95–100. doi:10.12657/folmal.025.009. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  10. ^ a b Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
  11. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae; Chlamydephoridae; Systrophiidae; Haplotrematidae; Streptaxidae; Spiraxidae; Oleacinidae; Testacellidae". Ruthenica Supplement 2 Part 6: 731–880.
  12. ^ Bourguignat J. R. (1883) Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, serie 6, 15, Art. 2: page 74.
  13. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae, Chlamydephoridae, Systrophiidae, Haplotrematidae, Streptaxidae, Spiraxidae, Oleacinidae, Testacellidae". Ruthenica, Suppl. 2, Part 6: 731-880. page 828.
  14. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae, Chlamydephoridae, Systrophiidae, Haplotrematidae, Streptaxidae, Spiraxidae, Oleacinidae, Testacellidae". Ruthenica, Suppl. 2, Part 6: 731-880. page 830.
  15. ^ Germain (1921) Faune malacologique terrestre et fluviatile des iles Mascareignes: 415, 461.
  16. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1919) Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 40: 180.
  17. ^ Wenz W. v. (1947) "Zur Taxonomie der Euthyneura". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 76(1): 336.
  18. ^ Dance S. P. (1972). "Bruggennea n.gen., proposed for Recent streptaxids from Borneo (Gastropoda, Streptaxidae)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 102: 131-132.
  19. ^ Bequaert J. & Clench W. J. (1936). "Studies of African land and fresh-water mollusks. Notes on Gonaxis Taylor, with description of a new species". Journal of Conchology London, 20: 263-273.
  20. ^ Rowson B. & Tattersfield P. (2013). "Revision of Dadagulella gen. nov., the “Gulella radius group” (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae) of the eastern Afrotropics, including six new species and three new subspecies". European Journal of Taxonomy 37: 1-46. doi:10.5852/ejt.2013.37.
  21. ^ Gerlach J. (2001). "Conturbatia, a new genus of Streptaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata)". Zoosystematics and Evolution 77(2): 297-302. doi:10.1002/mmnz.20010770213.
  22. ^ Emberton K. C. (2002). "Parvedentulina and edentate Gulella of Madagascar (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Streptaxidae)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 131(1/2): 67-165. abstract.

Further readingEdit

  • Zilch A. (1961). "Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg 24: Mollusca, Streptaxidae". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 90: 79-120.

External linksEdit