Open main menu

Stockbridge, Hampshire

LocationEdit

The A30 road goes through the town, which once carried most of the traffic from London to Dorset, south Somerset, Devon and Cornwall in the South West. However, engineering of the A303 dual carriageway today provides a flatter, unimpeded route in the north by Andover used for travel between the regions mentioned, just as the M4 replaced the A4. The bridge over the Test led to the town's name,[2] allegedly as a coach stop where provisions (stock) could be taken aboard, in fact because an earlier bridge was made of stocks, that is to say tree trunks. Salisbury is 15 miles (24 km) by road; Winchester is 8.3 miles (13.4 km) by the B3049 road that joins the A30 by the town. This historic town is en route from the medieval cathedral cities of Winchester and Salisbury. The town's civil parish has an area of 1,323 acres (535 ha).

The town's street crosses the River Test, marking the border of the parishes of Stockbridge and Longstock by a low bridge of three arches rebuilt and widened in 1799.[3][4]

Five smaller river channels flow through the town. For a brief time, to provide space for fish, these were split into eight artificial ditches just above the town.[5]

The town is on a shared pedestrian/footpath, the Test Way.[6]

History and economyEdit

The place-name 'Stockbridge' is first attested in Charter Rolls of 1239, where it appears as Stocbrigge. In Inquisitiones post mortem of 1258 it appears as Stokbregg. The name means 'stock bridge', referring to a bridge constructed from stocks (meaning 'tree trunks').[7]

Stockbridge was the scene of the capture of Robert of Gloucester by William of Ypres in 1141.[4] Edward I stayed in Stockbridge in August 1294, as did the last Catholic King, James II, on his way to Salisbury to meet the forces of the Prince of Orange. He dined at the Swan Inn in November 1688, which still exists.[4]

The town (as the parcel known as The Street in King's Somborne manor) was given the right to hold a market before 1190 in the reign of Richard I,[4] reviewed and confirmed in 1200 and extended to an annual three-day fair by Henry III.[4] As in the 12th century, the town consists almost wholly of one long wide street[2][4] and it is to this characteristic that it owed its early name of Le Street. The town grew and prospered as an unincorporated mesne borough before, probably by plague, the place became almost deserted and the poverty of the remaining inhabitants was so great that the market which had been confirmed to the town by Henry V and Henry VI was discontinued.[8]

By the mid-Tudor era, under Edward VI, the wealthy burgages numbered 58, partly in consequence of this, in 1562 two members of parliament were granted. Charles I had confirmed the right to annual fairs in 1641, however during the start of the nineteenth century a marked decline in trade was noted at the three increasingly agricultural fairs,[9] with one continuing until after 1911[4] The population of the parish was 853 in 1871, with 185 inhabited houses.[10]

Hampshire's four tourist Pocket Guides cover the traditional towns of Stockbridge, Alresford, Bishops Waltham and Wickham.[11]

ManorEdit

In the medieval centuries passed as a mentioned part and parcel of King's Somborne manor, not specifically in that manor at Domesday but likely as there was mention of the manor here specifically being in Richard I's time,[4] as when they were forfeited to the crown when Henry IV (of Lancaster) took the throne, in 1402.

Then it was let which gave rents of assizes to various men, including to Joseph Foster Barham, MP, on whose death in 1832, it went to his wife who married the Earl of Clarendon to hold for their son; then sold to George G. Maitland then to Charles Warner then to Francis Hardinge and then to the more nationally famous person mentioned below. One of the mills belonged to the lord of Leckford Abbotts in 1548[4]

BuildingsEdit

Name Grade of Listing Century
Fairways The Grosvenor Hotel (frontage protrudes further than the others) II* 19th and an 18th cottage[12]
The Old Town Hall II* 18th, 19th and 20th[13]
Remains of Old Church II* cusp of 13th and 14th[14]
Kings Head House/Lane House (includes Residence, Antiques and Salon) II* 17th, 18th and 19th[15]
The Old Rectory II 19th[16]
Waterlow II 16th and 18th[17]
The Old Three Cups Hotel II 17th, 18th and 20th[18]
Elizabeth Viney Antiques/John Robertson, Butchers II 17th, 18th, 19th and new glazing/door[19]
J and L Inglis Stables of Vine Inn II 18th and 19th[20]
Vine Inn II 18th and 19th[21]
Mulberry II 18th and 19th[22]
Stokes Restaurant (formerly N J Stokes Garage) II 19th, see famous people.[23]
Stockbridge Motors, The Cottage II 17th, 18th and 19th[24]
Stockbridge Antiques / Stockbridge Pharmacy / Trout Cottage II 18th, 19th and 20th[25]
Stockbridge War Memorial II 20th[26]
Sheriff House Hotel II 18th and 19th[27]
White Hart Inn II 18th and 19th[28]
Seven Gables II 18th, part 20th[29]
Leet Cottage / The Greyhound II 18th, part 19th[30]
Manor House II 16th, 17th, 18th and refronted 19th[31]
Touchwood II 18th and 20th[32]
Church of St Peter II 19th but some windows 13th and 15th[33]

Political historyEdit

Stockbridge elected two members to the unreformed House of CommonsElizabeth I granted the two members of parliament in 1562;[4] elections proved corrupted and a private Bill for the disfranchisement of the borough was introduced in 1693 but was rejected at the third reading.[4] In 1714, Mr Steele one of the members of parliament (see Stockbridge) was forced out for bribery and writing seditious pamphlets.

The Reform Act 1832 resulted in the end of the borough.

Stockbridge had a railway station on the Andover & Redbridge Railway (colloquially the Sprat and Winkle Line), later a branch line of the LSWR. This closed in 1967 under the Beeching cuts.

Religious buildingsEdit

 
One of the branches of the River Test which flow under the High Street with the spire of St Peter's in the background

Only the chancel measuring about 8 metres by 5 metres, some of the windows[n 1][4] and the graveyard survive of the original parish church at the eastern end of the town, now known as Old St Peter's Church. A licence to give divine service from 1323-1333 was given to John Fromond, architecturally this places about a century after the likely building of the church's chancel.[4] A Victorian Gothic church, St Peter's, designed by J Colson, was built in 1866 at a central location in the High Street.[34] The Roman Catholic church of St Thomas More is a modern brick built hall off of the High Street near the Town Hall.[35]

Sport and leisureEdit

Due to its hatchery south of the town and many channels, Stockbridge is renowned for trout fishing.[2] One of the UK's most exclusive clubs, described by Country Life as the dream of every fly-fisher, with exclusive fishing rights over 13 miles of prime trout breeding and fishing waters, the Houghton Fishing Club founded in 1822, for many years met socially at The Grosvenor Hotel, a current landmark by its prominent jutting out into the pavement.[4][12][36]

Stockbridge has the Non-League football club Stockbridge F.C., which plays at The Recreation Ground.

Famous residentsEdit

  • Hicks Withers-Lancashire was Lord of the Manor from a date in the 1890s until 1902, when sold was to Mr R. P. Attenborough.[4]
  • Lillie Langtry, mistress to the United Kingdom monarch who succeeded Queen Victoria, Edward VII lived at the property that is now NJ Stokes Garage.[23]

Notes and referencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ 12th-century date. One of these windows, serving as the west window of the north aisle, is of two lancet lights with a circular light over and an external label with grotesque animal drips

References

  1. ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Stockbridge Pocket Guide, 2011, Test Valley Borough Council, for distribution centres other than Andover and Romsey see Council website
  3. ^ "Stockbridge Bridge". Hampshire County Council. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Parishes: Stockbridge, William Page (editor), Institute of Historical Research, 1911, A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4, retrieved 8 October 2012
  5. ^ Test Valley B.C. Conservation Areas Archived 14 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Test Valley cycle route missing link funded, Test Valley B.C.
  7. ^ Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, p.444.
  8. ^ Duchy of Lancaster Misc. Bks, 1911, xxb folio 2b.
  9. ^ Duchy of Lancaster Misc. Bks, 1911, xxb folio 3b.
  10. ^ William White (1878) History, Gazetter and Directory of the County of Hampshire p 582-3
  11. ^ Putting Stockbridge on the map Test Valley Council
  12. ^ a b Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093088)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  13. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093093)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  14. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1302362)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  15. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093091)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  16. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093089)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  17. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093090)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  18. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093092)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  19. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093094)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  20. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093095)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  21. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093096)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  22. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093130)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  23. ^ a b Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093131)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  24. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1178379)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  25. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1178416)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  26. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1093099)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  27. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1178444)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  28. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1178517)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  29. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1302390)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  30. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1302477)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  31. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1339443)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  32. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1339444)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  33. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1339465)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  34. ^ "St Peter's Church, Stockbridge". British Listed Buildings Photographs website. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  35. ^ "St Thomas More, Stockbridge". hampshiredowns.org. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Stockbridge, Hampshire at Wikimedia Commons