Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, psycholinguist, popular science author, and public intellectual. He is an advocate of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind.
Pinker is the Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, and his academic specializations are visual cognition and developmental linguistics. His experimental subjects include mental imagery, shape recognition, visual attention, children's language development, regular and irregular phenomena in language, the neural bases of words and grammar, as well as the psychology of cooperation and communication, including euphemism, innuendo, emotional expression, and common knowledge. He has written two technical books that proposed a general theory of language acquisition and applied it to children's learning of verbs. In particular, his work with Alan Prince published in 1989 critiqued the connectionist model of how children acquire the past tense of English verbs, positing that children use default rules, such as adding -ed to make regular forms, sometimes in error, but are obliged to learn irregular forms one by one.
Pinker is the author of nine books for general audiences. The Language Instinct (1994), How the Mind Works (1997), Words and Rules (2000), The Blank Slate (2002), and The Stuff of Thought (2007) describe aspects of psycholinguistics and cognitive science, and include accounts of his own research, positing that language is an innate behavior shaped by natural selection and adapted to our communication needs. Pinker's The Sense of Style (2014) is a general language-oriented style guide. Pinker's book The Better Angels of Our Nature (2011) posits that violence in human societies has generally declined over time, and identifies six major trends and five historical forces of this decline, the most important being the humanitarian revolution brought by the Enlightenment and its associated cultivation of reason. Enlightenment Now (2018) further argues that the human condition has generally improved over recent history because of reason, science, and humanism. The nature and importance of reason is also discussed in his next book Rationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters (2021).
In 2004, Pinker was named in Time's "The 100 Most Influential People in the World Today", and in the years 2005, 2008, 2010, and 2011 in Foreign Policy's list of "Top 100 Global Thinkers". Pinker was also included in Prospect Magazine's top 10 "World Thinkers" in 2013. He has won awards from the American Psychological Association, the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Institution, the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, and the American Humanist Association. He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 2013. He has served on the editorial boards of a variety of journals, and on the advisory boards of several institutions. Pinker was the chair of the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary from 2008 to 2018.
Pinker was born in Montreal, Quebec, in 1954, to a middle-class Jewish family. His grandparents emigrated to Canada from Poland and Romania in 1926, and owned a small necktie factory in Montreal. His father, Harry, was a lawyer. His mother, Roslyn, was a guidance counsellor and, later, a high-school vice-principal. His brother, Robert, is a policy analyst for the Canadian government, while his sister, Susan Pinker, is a psychologist and writer who authored The Sexual Paradox and The Village Effect.
Pinker graduated from Dawson College in 1973. He graduated from McGill University in 1976 with a Bachelor of Arts in psychology, then did doctoral studies in experimental psychology at Harvard University under Stephen Kosslyn, receiving a PhD in 1979. He did research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a year, then became a professor at Harvard and then Stanford University.
From 1982 until 2003 Pinker taught at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, was the co-director of the Center for Cognitive Science (1985–1994), and eventually became the director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience (1994–1999), taking a one-year sabbatical at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1995–96. Since 2003 he has been serving as the Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard and between 2008 and 2013 he also held the title of Harvard College Professor in recognition of his dedication to teaching. He currently gives lectures as a visiting professor at the New College of the Humanities, a private college in London.
Pinker married Nancy Etcoff in 1980 and they divorced in 1992; he married again in 1995 and again divorced. His third wife, whom he married in 2007, is the novelist and philosopher Rebecca Goldstein. He has two stepdaughters, the novelist Yael Goldstein Love and the poet Danielle Blau. Pinker adopted atheism at 13, but at various times was a serious "cultural Jew." Pinker is an avid cyclist.
Pinker's research on visual cognition, begun in collaboration with his thesis adviser, Stephen Kosslyn, showed that mental images represent scenes and objects as they appear from a specific vantage point (rather than capturing their intrinsic three-dimensional structure), and thus correspond to the neuroscientist David Marr's theory of a "two-and-a-half-dimensional sketch." He also showed that this level of representation is used in visual attention, and in object recognition (at least for asymmetrical shapes), contrary to Marr's theory that recognition uses viewpoint-independent representations.
In psycholinguistics, Pinker became known early in his career for promoting computational learning theory as a way to understand language acquisition in children. He wrote a tutorial review of the field followed by two books that advanced his own theory of language acquisition, and a series of experiments on how children acquire the passive, dative, and locative constructions. These books were Language Learnability and Language Development (1984), in Pinker's words "outlin[ing] a theory of how children acquire the words and grammatical structures of their mother tongue", and Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure (1989), in Pinker's words "focus[ing] on one aspect of this process, the ability to use different kinds of verbs in appropriate sentences, such as intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, and verbs taking different combinations of complements and indirect objects". He then focused on verbs of two kinds that illustrate what he considers to be the processes required for human language: retrieving whole words from memory, like the past form of the irregular verb "bring", namely "brought"; and using rules to combine (parts of) words, like the past form of the regular verb "walk", namely "walked".
In 1988 Pinker and Alan Prince published a critique of a connectionist model of the acquisition of the past tense (a textbook problem in language acquisition), followed by a series of studies of how people use and acquire the past tense. This included a monograph on children's regularization of irregular forms and his popular 1999 book, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language. Pinker argued that language depends on two things: the associative remembering of sounds and their meanings in words, and the use of rules to manipulate symbols for grammar. He presented evidence against connectionism, where a child would have to learn all forms of all words and would simply retrieve each needed form from memory, in favour of the older alternative theory, the use of words and rules combined by generative phonology. He showed that mistakes made by children indicate the use of default rules to add suffixes such as "-ed": for instance 'breaked' and 'comed' for 'broke' and 'came'. He argued that this shows that irregular verb-forms in English have to be learnt and retrieved from memory individually, and that the children making these errors were predicting the regular "-ed" ending in an open-ended way by applying a mental rule. This rule for combining verb stems and the usual suffix can be expressed as Vpast → Vstem + d, where V is a verb and d is the regular ending. Pinker further argued that since the ten most frequently occurring English verbs (be, have, do, say, make ... ) are all irregular, while 98.2% of the thousand least common verbs are regular, there is a "massive correlation" of frequency and irregularity. He explains this by arguing that every irregular form, such as 'took', 'came' and 'got', has to be committed to memory by the children in each generation, or else lost, and that the common forms are the most easily memorized. Any irregular verb that falls in popularity past a certain point is lost, and all future generations will treat it as a regular verb instead.
In 1990 Pinker, with Paul Bloom, published a paper arguing that the human language faculty must have evolved through natural selection. The article provided arguments for a continuity-based view of language evolution, contrary to then-current discontinuity-based theories that see language as suddenly appearing with the advent of Homo sapiens as a kind of evolutionary accident. This discontinuity-based view was prominently argued by two main authorities, linguist Noam Chomsky and Stephen Jay Gould. The paper became widely cited and created renewed interest in the evolutionary prehistory of language, and has been credited with shifting the central question of the debate from "did language evolve?" to "how did language evolve?" The article also presaged Pinker's argument in The Language Instinct.
In 2006 Pinker provided to Alan Dershowitz, a personal friend of Pinker's who was Jeffrey Epstein's defense attorney, Pinker's own interpretation of the wording of a federal law pertaining to the enticement of minors into illegal sex acts via the internet. Dershowitz included Pinker's opinion in a letter to the court during proceedings that resulted in a plea deal in which all federal sex trafficking charges against Epstein were dropped. In 2019, Pinker stated that he was unaware of the nature of the charges against Epstein, and that he engaged in an unpaid favor for his Harvard colleague Dershowitz, as he had regularly done. He stated in an interview with BuzzFeed News that he regrets writing the letter. Pinker says he never received money from Epstein and met with him three times over more than a dozen years, and said he could never stand Epstein and tried to keep his distance.
Popularization of scienceEdit
Human cognition and natural languageEdit
Pinker's 1994 The Language Instinct was the first of several books to combine cognitive science with behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology. It introduces the science of language and popularizes Noam Chomsky's theory that language is an innate faculty of mind, with the controversial twist that the faculty for language evolved by natural selection as an adaptation for communication. Pinker criticizes several widely held ideas about language – that it needs to be taught, that people's grammar is poor and getting worse with new ways of speaking, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis that language limits the kinds of thoughts a person can have, and that other great apes can learn languages. Pinker sees language as unique to humans, evolved to solve the specific problem of communication among social hunter-gatherers. He argues that it is as much an instinct as specialized adaptative behavior in other species, such as a spider's web-weaving or a beaver's dam-building.
Pinker states in his introduction that his ideas are "deeply influenced" by Chomsky; he also lists scientists whom Chomsky influenced to "open up whole new areas of language study, from child development and speech perception to neurology and genetics" – Eric Lenneberg, George Miller, Roger Brown, Morris Halle and Alvin Liberman. Brown mentored Pinker through his thesis; Pinker stated that Brown's "funny and instructive" book Words and Things (1958) was one of the inspirations for The Language Instinct.
There has been debate about the explanatory adequacy of the theory. By 2015, the nativist views of Pinker and Chomsky had a number of challenges on the grounds that they had incorrect core assumptions and were inconsistent with research evidence from psycholinguistics and child language acquisition. The reality of Pinker's proposed language instinct, and the related claim that grammar is innate and genetically based, has been contested by linguists such as Geoffrey Sampson in his 1997 book, Educating Eve: The 'Language Instinct' Debate. Sampson argues that "while it may seem attractive to argue the nature side of the 'nature versus nurture' debate, the nurture side may better support the creativity and nobility of the human mind." Sampson denies there is a language instinct, and argues that children can learn language because people can learn anything. Others have sought a middle ground between Pinker's nativism and Sampson's culturalism.
The assumptions underlying the nativist view have also been questioned in Jeffrey Elman's Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development, which defends the connectionist approach that Pinker attacked. In his 1996 book Impossible Minds, the machine intelligence researcher Igor Aleksander calls The Language Instinct excellent, and argues that Pinker presents a relatively soft claim for innatism, accompanied by a strong dislike of the 'Standard Social Sciences Model' or SSSM (Pinker's term), which supposes that development is purely dependent on culture. Further, Aleksander writes that while Pinker criticises some attempts to explain language processing with neural nets, Pinker later makes use of a neural net to create past tense verb forms correctly. Aleksander concludes that while he doesn't support the SSSM, "a cultural repository of language just seems the easy trick for an efficient evolutionary system armed with an iconic state machine to play."
Two other books, How the Mind Works (1997) and The Blank Slate (2002), broadly surveyed the mind and defended the idea of a complex human nature with many mental faculties that are genetically adaptive (Pinker is an ally of Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins in many disputes surrounding adaptationism). Another major theme in Pinker's theories is that human cognition works, in part, by combinatorial symbol-manipulation, not just associations among sensory features, as in many connectionist models. On the debate around The Blank Slate, Pinker called Thomas Sowell's book A Conflict of Visions "wonderful", and explained that "The Tragic Vision" and the "Utopian Vision" are the views of human nature behind right- and left-wing ideologies.
In Words and Rules: the Ingredients of Language (1999), Pinker argues from his own research that regular and irregular phenomena are products of computation and memory lookup, respectively, and that language can be understood as an interaction between the two. "Words and Rules" is also the title of an essay by Pinker outlining many of the topics discussed in the book. Critiqueing the book from the perspective of generative linguistics Charles Yang, in the London Review of Books, writes that "this book never runs low on hubris or hyperbole". The book's topic, the English past tense, is in Yang's view unglamorous, and Pinker's attempts at compromise risk being in no man's land between rival theories. Giving the example of German, Yang argues that irregular nouns in that language at least all belong to classes, governed by rules, and that things get even worse in languages that attach prefixes and suffixes to make up long 'words': they can't be learnt individually, as there are untold numbers of combinations. "All Pinker (and the connectionists) are doing is turning over the rocks at the base of the intellectual landslide caused by the Chomskian revolution."
In The Stuff of Thought (2007), Pinker looks at a wide range of issues around the way words related to thoughts on the one hand, and to the world outside ourselves on the other. Given his evolutionary perspective, a central question is how an intelligent mind capable of abstract thought evolved: how a mind adapted to Stone Age life could work in the modern world. Many quirks of language are the result.
Pinker is critical of theories about the evolutionary origins of language that argue that linguistic cognition might have evolved from earlier musical cognition. He sees language as being tied primarily to the capacity for logical reasoning, and speculates that human proclivity for music may be a spandrel – a feature not adaptive in its own right, but that has persisted through other traits that are more broadly practical, and thus selected for. In How the Mind Works, Pinker reiterates Immanuel Kant's view that music is not in itself an important cognitive phenomenon, but that it happens to stimulate important auditory and spatio-motor cognitive functions. Pinker compares music to "auditory cheesecake", stating that "As far as biological cause and effect is concerned, music is useless". This argument has been rejected by Daniel Levitin and Joseph Carroll, experts in music cognition, who argue that music has had an important role in the evolution of human cognition. In his book This Is Your Brain On Music, Levitin argues that music could provide adaptive advantage through sexual selection, social bonding, and cognitive development; he questions the assumption that music is the antecedent to language, as opposed to its progenitor, noting that many species display music-like habits that could be seen as precursors to human music.
Pinker has also been critical of "whole language" reading instruction techniques, stating in How the Mind Works, "... the dominant technique, called 'whole language,' the insight that [spoken] language is a naturally developing human instinct has been garbled into the evolutionarily improbable claim that reading is a naturally developing human instinct." In the appendix to the 2007 reprinted edition of The Language Instinct, Pinker cited Why Our Children Can't Read by cognitive psychologist Diane McGuinness as his favorite book on the subject and noted:
One raging public debate involving language went unmentioned in The Language Instinct: the "reading wars," or dispute over whether children should be explicitly taught to read by decoding the sounds of words from their spelling (loosely known as "phonics") or whether they can develop it instinctively by being immersed in a text-rich environment (often called "whole language"). I tipped my hand in the paragraph in [the sixth chapter of the book] which said that language is an instinct but reading is not. Like most psycholinguists (but apparently unlike many school boards), I think it's essential for children to be taught to become aware of speech sounds and how they are coded in strings of letters.
The Better Angels of Our NatureEdit
In The Better Angels of Our Nature, published in 2011, Pinker argues that violence, including tribal warfare, homicide, cruel punishments, child abuse, animal cruelty, domestic violence, lynching, pogroms, and international and civil wars, has decreased over multiple scales of time and magnitude. Pinker considers it unlikely that human nature has changed. In his view, it is more likely that human nature comprises inclinations toward violence and those that counteract them, the "better angels of our nature". He outlines several "major historical declines of violence" that all have their own socio/cultural/economic causes.
Response to the book was divided. Many critics found its arguments convincing and its synthesis of a large volume of historical evidence compelling. Other aspects drew criticism, including the use of deaths per capita as a metric, Pinker's liberal humanism, the focus on Europe, the interpretation of historical data, and its image of indigenous people. Archaeologist David Wengrow summarized Pinker's approach to archaeological science as "a modern psychologist making it up as he goes along".
English writing style in the 21st centuryEdit
In his seventh popular book, The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century (2014), Pinker attempts to provide a writing style guide that is informed by modern science and psychology, because a long time has passed since William Strunk wrote The Elements of Style in 1918.
Pinker is a frequent participant in public debates surrounding the contributions of science to contemporary society. Social commentators such as Ed West, author of The Diversity Illusion, consider Pinker important and daring in his willingness to confront taboos, as in The Blank Slate. According to West, the doctrine of tabula rasa remained accepted "as fact, rather than fantasy" a decade after the book's publication. West describes Pinker as "no polemicist, and he leaves readers to draw their own conclusions".
In January 2005 Pinker defended comments by then-President of Harvard University Lawrence Summers. Summers had speculated that in addition to differing societal demands and discrimination, "different availability of aptitude at the high end" may contribute to gender gaps in mathematics and science. In a debate between Pinker and Elizabeth Spelke on gender and science, Pinker argued in favor of the proposition that the gender difference in representation in elite universities was "explainable by some combination of biological differences in average temperaments and talents interacting with socialization and bias".
In January 2009 Pinker wrote an article about the Personal Genome Project and its possible impact on the understanding of human nature in The New York Times. He discussed the new developments in epigenetics and gene-environment interactions in the afterword to the 2016 edition of his book The Blank Slate.
In a November 2009 article for The New York Times Pinker wrote a mixed review of Malcolm Gladwell's essays, criticizing his analytical methods. Gladwell replied, disputing Pinker's comments about the importance of IQ on teaching performance and by analogy the effect, if any, of draft order on quarterback performance in the National Football League. Advanced NFL Stats addressed the issue statistically, siding with Pinker and showing that differences in methodology could explain the two men's differing opinions.
In an appearance for BBC World Service's "Exchanges At The Frontier" programme, an audience member questioned whether the virtuous developments in culture and human nature (documented in The Better Angels of Our Nature) could have expressed in our biology either through genetic or epigenetic expression. Pinker responded that it was unlikely since "some of the declines have occurred far too rapidly for them to be explicable by biological evolution which has a speed limit measured in generations, but crime can plummet in a span of 15 years and some of these humanitarian reforms like eliminating slavery and torture occurred in say 50 years". Helga Vierich and Cathryn Townsend wrote a critical review of Pinker's sweeping "civilizational" explanations for patterns of human violence and warfare in response to a lecture he gave at Cambridge University in September 2015.
In his 2018 book Enlightenment Now, Pinker posited that Enlightenment rationality should be defended against attacks from both the political left and political right. In a debate with Pinker, post-colonial theorist Homi Bhabha said that Enlightenment philosophy had immoral consequences such as inequality, slavery, imperialism, world wars, and genocide, and that Pinker downplayed them. Pinker argued that Bhabha had perceived the causal relationship between Enlightenment thinking and these sources of suffering "backwards", responding in part that "The natural state of humanity, at least since the dawn of civilization, is poverty, disease, ignorance, exploitation, and violence (including slavery and imperial conquest). It is knowledge, mobilised to improve human welfare, that allows anyone to rise above this state."
In 2020, an open letter to the Linguistic Society of America requesting the removal of Pinker from its list of LSA Fellows and its list of media experts was signed by hundreds of academics. The letter accused Pinker of a "pattern of drowning out the voices of people suffering from racist and sexist violence, in particular in the immediate aftermath of violent acts and/or protests against the systems that created them," citing as examples six of Pinker's tweets. Pinker said in reply that through this letter he, and more importantly, younger academics with less protection, were being threatened by "a regime of intimidation that constricts the theatre of ideas." Several academics criticized the letter and expressed support for Pinker. Conor Friedersdorf, writing in The Atlantic, said the letter engages in guilt by association and for creating a "chilling effect" on the speech of non-tenured academics. The executive committee of the Linguistic Society of America declined to strike Pinker from its lists and issued a response letter stating that "It is not the mission of the Society to control the opinions of its members, nor their expression."
Awards and distinctionsEdit
Pinker was named one of Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2004 and one of Prospect and Foreign Policy's 100 top public intellectuals in both years the poll was carried out, 2005 and 2008; in 2010 and 2011 he was named by Foreign Policy to its list of top global thinkers. In 2016, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
His research in cognitive psychology has won the Early Career Award (1984) and Boyd McCandless Award (1986) from the American Psychological Association, the Troland Research Award (1993) from the National Academy of Sciences, the Henry Dale Prize (2004) from the Royal Institution of Great Britain, and the George Miller Prize (2010) from the Cognitive Neuroscience Society. He has also received honorary doctorates from the universities of Newcastle, Surrey, Tel Aviv, McGill, Simon Fraser University and the University of Tromsø. He was twice a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, in 1998 and in 2003. Pinker received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1999. On May 13, 2006, he received the American Humanist Association's Humanist of the Year award for his contributions to public understanding of human evolution. For 2022 he was awarded the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of "Humanities and Social Sciences".
Pinker has served on the editorial boards of journals such as Cognition, Daedalus, and PLOS One, and on the advisory boards of institutions for scientific research (e.g., the Allen Institute for Brain Science), free speech (e.g., the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education), the popularization of science (e.g., the World Science Festival and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry), peace (e.g., the Peace Research Endowment), and secular humanism (e.g., the Freedom From Religion Foundation and the Secular Coalition for America).
From 2008 to 2018, Pinker chaired the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary. He wrote the essay on usage for the fifth edition of the Dictionary, published in 2011.
In February 2001, Pinker, "whose hair has long been the object of admiration, and envy, and intense study", was nominated by acclamation as the first member of the Luxuriant Flowing Hair Club for Scientists (LFHCfS) organized by the Annals of Improbable Research.
- Language Learnability and Language Development (1984)
- Visual Cognition (1985)
- Connections and Symbols (1988)
- Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure (1989)
- Lexical and Conceptual Semantics (1992)
- The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language (1994)
- How the Mind Works (1997)
- Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language (1999)
- The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (2002)
- The Best American Science and Nature Writing (editor and introduction author, 2004)
- Hotheads (an extract from How the Mind Works, 2005) ISBN 978-0-14-102238-3
- The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature (2007)
- The Seven Words You Can't Say on Television (2008)
- The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (2011)
- Language, Cognition, and Human Nature: Selected Articles (2013)
- The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century (September 30, 2014)
- Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress (February 13, 2018)
- Rationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters (September 28, 2021)
- ^ "Steven Pinker". Desert Island Discs. June 30, 2013. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- ^ "Steven Pinker Biography". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: the mind reader". The Guardian. November 6, 1991. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (1997). How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06973-0.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2016). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-20032-2.
- ^ Sherk, John. "Steven Pinker on Cognitive Psychology, Computational Theory, and Conversation".
- ^ "YouTube". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021.
- ^ The Sense of Style
- ^ Wright, Robert (April 26, 2004). "The 2004 Time 100". Time.
- ^ "World Thinkers 2013".
- ^ "APA PsycNet". psycnet.apa.org.
- ^ "Steven Pinker". www.nasonline.org.
- ^ "Humanist of the Year Award". American Humanist Association.
- ^ "George A. Miller Award".
- ^ "Curriculum Vitae of Steven Pinker" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
- ^ "Developmental Review Editorial Board". Elsevier.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2014). The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century. New York: Penguin.
- ^ Pinker, S. (2009). Language Learnability and Language Development, With New Commentary by the Author. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674042179. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (April 30, 2018). "A Montreal pilgrimage in the footsteps of Leonard Cohen (the girl standing next to the young Cohen in the group photo is my mother, Roslyn Wiesenfeld Pinker).https://www.jta.org/2018/04/24/news-opinion/montreal-pilgrimage-footsteps-leonard-cohen#.WucYP-F0APc.twitter …".
- ^ "At home: Steven Pinker". Financial Times. December 14, 2012. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022.
- ^ Brockman, John (January 7, 2019). Curious Minds: How a Child Becomes a Scientist. Vintage Books. ISBN 9781400076864 – via Google Books.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (June 26, 2006). "Groups and Genes". The New Republic. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- ^ Shermer, Michael (March 1, 2001). The Pinker Instinct. Altadena, CA: Skeptics Society & Skeptic Magazine. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
- ^ Steven Pinker: the mind reader The Guardian Accessed November 25, 2006.
- ^ "Britannica Encyclopedia".
- ^ Curriculum Vitae (PDF), Harvard University, archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2017, retrieved June 23, 2017
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "Official Biography. Harvard University". Pinker.wjh.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on December 29, 2005. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- ^ "The professoriate" Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, New College of the Humanities. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "Professor Steven Pinker", New College of the Humanities. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
- ^ Biography for Steven Pinker at imdb. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
- ^ "How Steven Pinker Works" by Kristin E. Blagg Archived October 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The Harvard Crimson Accessed February 3, 2006.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: the mind reader" by Ed Douglas The Guardian Accessed February 3, 2006.
- ^ Grothe, D.J. (February 23, 2007). "Podcast:Steven Pinker - Evolutionary Psychology and Human Nature". Point of Inquiry with D.J. Grothe. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- ^ "This Harvard Cognitive Psychologist Can't Stop Thinking Deeply About Cycling". April 2022.
- ^ The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven. "Steven Pinker: Long Biography". Harvard University. Archived from the original on December 29, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- ^ Pinker has written a piece on The Irregular Verbs Archived June 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, stating that "I like the Irregular verbs of English, all 180 of them, because of what they tell us about the history of the language and the human minds that have perpetuated it.
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven. "Words and rules (essay)" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, S. & Bloom, P. (1990). Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4): 707‐784
- ^ a b Kenneally, Christine. "Language Development:The First Word. The Search for the Origins of Language". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven; Bloom, Paul (1990). "The 20th Anniversary of Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom: Natural Language and Natural Selection (1990)". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Replicatedtypo.com. 13 (4): 707–726. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00081061. S2CID 6167614.
- ^ a b c "Jeffrey Epstein's First Criminal Case Was Helped By A Famous Harvard Language Expert". BuzzFeed News.
- ^ Johnson, Carolyn Y.; Svrluga, Susan (September 17, 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein, the academy and questions about male dominance in science". Washington Post.
- ^ a b c Pinker, Steven (1994). The Language Instinct. Penguin. pp. 23–24.
- ^ a b Pinker, Steven (1998). "Obituary: Roger Brown" (PDF). Cognition. 66 (3): 199–213 (see page 205). doi:10.1016/s0010-0277(98)00027-4. PMID 9689769. S2CID 6858457. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2015.
- ^ Kagan, Jerome (1999). "Roger William Brown 1925–1997" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. 77: 7.
- ^ * Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A. (2006). "27: Language learning in infancy". In Traxler and Gernsbacher (ed.). Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Academic Press. pp. 1027–1071. ISBN 9780080466415., quote p. 1030: "Some critiques directly challenge the logic of arguments made by Chomsky, Pinker, and like-minded theorists, questioning such core assumptions as the universality of generative grammar, the autonomy of syntax in language processing, and the fundamental unlearnability of language (e.g., Bates & Goodman, 1999; Braine, 1994; Pullum & Scholz, 2002; Tomasello, 1995). Other critiques focus on empirical evidence inconsistent with particular nativist assertions. For example, the claim that negative evidence is not available when children make grammatical errors, an assumption central to the "poverty of the stimulus" argument at the heart of Chomsky’s theory, is not supported by a recent analysis of parents’ reformulations in speech to children (Chouinard & Clark, 2003). These diverse challenges, both philosophical and data-driven, have fueled debate over four decades about the explanatory adequacy of nativist theories of language learning." * de Bot, Kees (2015). A History of Applied Linguistics: From 1980 to the Present. Routledge. ISBN 9781138820654., quote pp. 58–60: "GG is generally seen as a declining paradigm and its proponents now tend to stay away from conferences like AAAL (the American Association of Applied Linguistics) and University of Boston Child Language Development conferences, as a cursory count of papers on the basis of abstracts shows [...] In the psycholinguistic community, the idea of innateness and a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) were seen as problematic [...] Now that generation of GG linguists is retiring and there is a tendency in many universities not to replace them with younger scholars of that school, but rather appoint UB oriented linguists. There is almost a euphoria that the grip of the nativists on what constitutes linguistics is gone and that other approaches and more social orientations are seen as meaningful alternatives. Others try to explain the reasons for the decline of GG [...] Some informants are quite outspoken about the role of GG in AL. William Grabe states: "Fundamentally Chomsky is wrong and we wasted a lot of time. In 1964 Chomsky’s Aspects was published. Now, in 2014, we are 50 years later. What impact has all of that had in real world language use? This is an overstated theoretical direction." Jan Hulstijn summarizes: "Generative linguistics has had no noticeable (or durable) impact.""
- ^ The 'Language Instinct' Debate. University of Sussex. 2005. ISBN 9780826473851.
- ^ a b "Empiricism v. Nativism: Nature or Nurture?". GRSampson.net. Retrieved June 8, 2014.. More at The 'Language Instinct' Debate
- ^ Cowley, S. J. (2001). "The baby, the bathwater and the 'language instinct' debate". Language Sciences. 23 (1): 69–91. doi:10.1016/s0388-0001(00)00017-6.
- ^ Aleksander, Igor (1996). Impossible Minds. pp. 228–234. ISBN 1-86094-030-7.
- ^ a b Sailer, Steve (October 30, 2002). "Q&A: Steven Pinker of 'Blank Slate'". United Press International. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "Words and Rules (book)". Harvard University. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ^ a b Yang, Charles (August 24, 2000). "Dig-dug, think-thunk (review of Words and Rules by Steven Pinker)". London Review of Books. 22 (6): 33.
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "The Stuff of Thought". Harvard University. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ^ Levitin, D. J.; Tirovolas, A. K. (2009). "Current Advances in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Music". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1156 (1): 211–231. Bibcode:2009NYASA1156..211L. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04417.x. PMID 19338510. S2CID 2856561.
- ^ Perlovsky, L (2011). "Music. Cognitive Function, Origin, And Evolution Of Musical Emotions". WebmedCentral Psychology. 2 (2): WMC001494.
- ^ Abbott, Alison (2002). "Neurobiology: Music, maestro, please!". Nature. 416 (6876): 12–14. Bibcode:2002Natur.416...12A. doi:10.1038/416012a. PMID 11882864. S2CID 4420891.
- ^ Cross, I. (1999). Is music the most important thing we ever did? Music, development and evolution. [preprint (html)] [preprint (pdf)] In Suk Won Yi (Ed.), Music, mind and science (pp 10–39), Seoul: Seoul National University Press.
- ^ "Interview with Daniel Levitin". Pbs.org. May 20, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- ^ Carroll, Joseph (1998). "Steven Pinker's Cheesecake For The Mind". Cogweb.ucla.edu. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- ^ Levitin, Daniel. 2006. This Is Your Brain On Music: The Science of a Human Obsession, New York: Dutton/Penguin.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (1997), How the Mind Works, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 342
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2007), The Language Instinct (3rd ed.), New York: Harper Perennial, p. 186
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2007), The Language Instinct (3rd ed.), New York: Harper Perennial, pp. PS14
- ^ Pinker, Steven (2011). The Better Angels of Our Nature. Allen Lane. p. 66
- ^ Pinker, Steven. "The Decline of Violence". IAI. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- ^ Coffman, Scott (September 28, 2012). "Book Review: 'The Better Angels of Our Nature'". Courier Journal. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013.
- ^ Kohn, Marek (October 7, 2011). "Book Review: 'The Better Angels of Our Nature: The Decline of Violence in History and its Causes', By Steven Pinker". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022.
- ^ Brittan, Samuel (October 22, 2011). "The Better Angels of Our Nature: The Decline of Violence in History and its Causes by Stephen Pinker". The Spectator.
- ^ Fry, D.P. (2013). Fry, Douglas P (ed.). War, Peace and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199858996.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-985899-6.
- ^ Epstein, R. (October 2011). "Book Review". Scientific American.
- ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (October 3, 2011). "Peace In Our Time: Steven Pinker's History of Violence in Decline". The New Yorker.
- ^ Corry, Stephen. "The case of the 'Brutal Savage': Poirot or Clouseau?: Why Steven Pinker, like Jared Diamond, is wrong" (PDF). Survival International. Retrieved May 30, 2014. (Summary at The myth of the ‘Brutal Savage’)
- ^ Graeber, David; Wengrow, David (2021). "On the pursuit of happiness". The Dawn of Everything: A New History of Humanity. New York. ISBN 978-0-374-72110-7. OCLC 1284998482.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: Using Grammar as a Tool, Not as a Weapon". Point of Inquiry. Center for Inquiry. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on May 19, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- ^ a b West, Ed (August 17, 2012). "A decade after Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, why is human nature still taboo?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ^ "Full Transcript: President Summers' Remarks at the National Bureau of Economic Research, Jan. 14 2005". The Harvard Crimson. February 18, 2005. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
- ^ Marks AR (2005). "Sex and the university system". J Clin Invest. 115 (4): 790. doi:10.1172/JCI24841. PMC 1070438. PMID 15841161.
- ^ "Psychoanalysis Q-and-A: Steven Pinker" The Harvard Crimson Accessed March 7, 2019.
- ^ "The Science of Gender and Science: Pinker Vs. Spelke, A Debate". Edge.org. May 16, 2005. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (January 11, 2009). "My Genome, My Self". The New York Times.
- ^ "A Talk with Professor Steven Pinker". August 8, 2017.
- ^ Pinker, Steven (November 15, 2009). "Malcolm Gladwell, Eclectic Detective". The New York Times.
- ^ "Let's Go to the Tape". The New York Times. November 29, 2009.
- ^ Burke, Brian (April 22, 2010). "Steven Pinker vs. Malcolm Gladwell and Drafting QBs". Advanced NFL Stats. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- ^ "Exchanges At The Frontier 2011", BBC.
- ^ Human violence and morality http://online.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk/doi/pdf/10.3828/hgr.2015.7
- ^ Can Science Justify Itself? Ada Palmer. Harvard Magazine, March–April 2018.
- ^ "Does the Enlightenment Need Defending?". IAI TV – Philosophy for our times: cutting edge debates and talks from the world's leading thinkers. September 13, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- ^ a b c Friedersdorf, Conor (July 20, 2020). "The Chilling Effect of an Attack on a Scholar". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- ^ "Open Letter to the LSA". July 2020 – via Google Docs.
- ^ a b Powell, Michael (July 15, 2020). "How a Famous Harvard Professor Became a Target Over His Tweets". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- ^ Stanley, Tim (July 18, 2020). "Steven Pinker – The man who refused to be cancelled". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ Isackson, Peter (July 22, 2020). "Steven Pinker and the Debate Over 'Cancel Culture'". Fair Observer.
- ^ Smith-Laing, Tim (July 20, 2020). "The stink of academic hypocrisy: Steven Pinker usurps the very humanist values he claims to hold". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ Whitworth, Damian (July 9, 2020). "Steven Pinker: I had to speak out. Cancel culture is Orwellian". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
- ^ Bailey, Ronald (July 10, 2020). "Steven Pinker Beats Cancel Culture Attack". Reason.com. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
- ^ "Steven Pinker: How Our Minds Evolved" by Robert Wright Archived December 30, 2005, at the Wayback Machine Time Accessed February 8, 2006.
- ^ "The Prospect/FP Top 100 Public Intellectuals" Archived December 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Foreign Policy (free registration required) Accessed 2006-02-08
- ^ "Intellectuals". Prospect. 2009. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009.
- ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers (2010)". Foreign Policy. Foreignpolicy.com. 2010. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010.
69. Steven Pinker
- ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers (2011)". Foreign Policy. Foreignpolicy.com. 2011. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012.
48. Steven Pinker: For Looking on Bright Side
- ^ National Academy of Sciences Members and Foreign Associates Elected, News from the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, May 3, 2016, retrieved May 14, 2016.
- ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- ^ "Steven Pinker Receives Humanist of the Year Award". American Humanist Association. May 12, 2006. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006.
- ^ BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award 2022
- ^ "About". Steven Pinker. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- ^ "Usage Panel". American Heritage Dictionary. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- ^ "The Luxuriant Flowing Hair Club for Scientists". Annals of Improbable Research. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Official website
- Steven Pinker on Twitter
- Selective compilation of articles and other works, hosted at Harvard faculty pages
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- 7th Avenue interview on "Better Angels", 2014
- Steven Pinker on The Hour
- Steven Pinker Multimedia audio and video files
- Mosaic Science (Wellcome) interview
- Steven Pinker at TED
- The Better Angels of our Nature Archived March 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Royal Institution, November 2011
- Linguistics, Style and Writing in the 21st Century: With Steven Pinker Archived July 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Royal Institution, October 2015
- Q&A – Linguistics, style and writing with Steven Pinker Archived July 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Royal Institution, October 2015
- Steven Pinker & Michael Shermer, Pangburn, September 2018
- The Two Steves Debate with neurobiologist Steven Rose
- The Science of Gender and Science Debate with cognitive psychologist Elizabeth Spelke (Video of the debate on YouTube)
- The Decline of Violence Debate with economist Judith Marquand, BHA chief executive Andrew Copson and BBC broadcaster Roger Bolton