Stephen I of Croatia

Stephen I (Croatian: Stjepan I.; c. 988 – 1058) was King of Croatia from c. 1030 until his death in 1058 and a member of the Trpimirović dynasty (Krešimirović branch). Stephen I was the first Croatian king whose given name was "Stephen" ("Stjepan"), as Držislav added the name Stephen at his coronation. His ban was Stephen Praska.

Stephen I
King of Croatia
Reign1030–1058
PredecessorKrešimir III
SuccessorPeter Krešimir IV
Bornc. 988
Died1058
Burial
Church of St. Stephen, Solin
SpouseHicela Orseolo
DynastyTrpimirović
FatherSvetoslav Suronja
ReligionChristianity

BiographyEdit

BackgroundEdit

Stephen was the son of former King Svetoslav Suronja,[1] who gave him as a hostage to the Venetian doge, Pietro II Orseolo. He married the latter's daughter, Hicela Orseolo, who bore him two sons: Peter Krešimir IV, who succeeded him as the King of Croatia, and Častimir, the father of the future Croatian King Stephen II.

Reign as kingEdit

Stephen formally succeeded his uncle Krešimir III in 1030, although it is likely that he co-ruled with him from 1028. The King continued his predecessors' ambitions of spreading rule over the coastal cities and expended much effort in that regard, but it was all eventually in vain.

In 1035, Croatia under Stephen involved itself in the affairs of the neighbouring Holy Roman Empire between the Carinthian count Adalbero and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II. Aldabero was accused on 18 May 1035 during the Bamberg assembly of conspiring against the emperor with help from the Croats. Because of this, the Emperor strengthened the southeastern part of his state, where it bordered with Croatia.[2]

Between 1038 and 1041, Stephen managed to successfully conquer Zadar from the Venetians for a short period, possibly with the help of the newly crowned Hungarian king Peter Orseolo, his wife's nephew.[2] Stephen controlled the city until 1050, when it was reconquered by doge Domenico I Contarini.

 
Croatian Kingdom c. 1045, during the reign of king Stephen I of Croatia

In an effort to maintain Roman influence over the Dalmatian cities, the Byzantine emperor granted Stephen Praska, a ban serving under king Stephen I, the title of Protospatharios.

Later life and deathEdit

Stephen I established the diocese of Knin in 1040, which stretched to the north until it met the river Drava.[3] The bishop of Knin had also the nominal title of "Croatian bishop" (Latin: episcopus Chroatensis).

Trade and commerce flourished under Stephen I. A burgeoning aristocracy emerged in Zadar, Biograd, Knin, Split and other coastal cities.

Stephen I ruled until 1058 when his son, Petar Krešimir IV, took over. His successors referenced his burial place as the "fields of Klis" (Clisio campo).[4] Most historians assert that he was most likely buried in the Church of St Stephen on Otok.

FamilyEdit

Married Hicela Orseolo c. 1008

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nada Klaic, Sources for Croatian History before 1526, 1972
  2. ^ a b Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara, 1925, Zagreb ISBN 86-401-0080-2
  3. ^ Thomas the Archdeacon, Historia Salonitana
  4. ^ http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/136572

SourcesEdit

  • Intervju - ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа. Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989.
  • Royal Croatia
Stephen I of Croatia
Born: c. 988 Died: 1058/9
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Krešimir III of Croatia
King of Croatia
1030–1058
Succeeded by
Peter Krešimir IV