Statspolitiet

Statspolitiet (transl. the State Police; shortened STAPO) was from 1941 to 1945 a National Socialist armed police force that consisted of Norwegian officials after Nazi German pattern. It operated independently of the ordinary Norwegian police. The force was established on 1 June 1941 during the German occupation of Norway. The initiative for the force came from the later chief Karl Marthinsen and other prominent members of the collaborationist party Nasjonal Samling. At its peak, in 1944 there were 350 employees in Statspolitiet, in addition to a larger number who collaborated or rendered services for them.[1] Its purpose was primarily to combat so-called political crimes, refugees, espionage, sabotage, armed resistance and other kinds of resistance against the German occupation forces or the Norwegian collaborationist Quisling regime. Statspolitiet played an important role during the Holocaust in Norway, aiding in the deportation of the Jews in Norway.[2] Norwegians were arrested by contemporary laws, and many were later sent to prison camps in Norway and concentration camps in what was then Germany. Statspolitiet was organized with a headquarters in Oslo and six subsidiaries in Oslo and Aker, Stavanger, Bergen, Trondheim, Tromsø and Kirkenes.[3][4] Statspolitiet was subordinate to the chief of the security police and the Norwegian Minister of Police, Jonas Lie. Statspolitiet also received orders directly from the Reich Security Main Office.[5][6] The general of Statspolitiet, Karl A Marthinsen was assassinated by the Norwegian resistance movement on 8 February 1945. This caused massive reprisals, in which 34 imprisoned resistance fighters were executed at Akershus Fortress.[7]

Statspolitiet
Vidkun Quisling (left) and Reichskommissar Josef Terboven (center) inspects an honor company of Statspolitiet officers in 1942
Vidkun Quisling (left) and Reichskommissar Josef Terboven (center) inspects an honor company of Statspolitiet officers in 1942
AbbreviationSTAPO
Agency overview
Formed1 June 1941 (1941-06-01)
Dissolved8 May 1945 (1945-05-08)
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionGerman occupied Norway

After World War IIEdit

After the German capitulation on May 8, 1945, Statspolitiet was disbanded immediately. Former officers of Statspolitiet were arrested and tried in Norwegian courts, and were found guilty of varying degrees of such crimes as treason, illegal detention, torture, maltreatments, murders and illegal executions.[8] The punishments were harsh and included the use of capital punishment. The death sentences for the Statspolitiet officers Reidar Haaland, Arne Saatvedt, Hans Jacob Skaar Pedersen, Holger Tou, Ole Wehus, Olav Aspheim and Einar Dønnum were fulfilled, the officers being executed by firing squad.[5][9]

Ranks and rank insigniaEdit

 
Rank insignia of the Norwegian State Police.
 
Politikonstabel of Statspolitiet.
Insignia Rank Comparative rank
in the Wehrmacht
Collar Shoulder
  General i politiet General der Waffengattung
  Generalløjtnant i politiet Generalleutnant
  Generalmajor i politiet Generalmajor
  Politioberst Oberst
  Politioberstløytnant Oberstleutnant
  Politimajor Major
  Politikaptein Hauptmann
  Politiløytnant I Oberleutnant
  Politiløytnant II Leutnant
Enlisted
    Politoverbetjant
  Politiførstebetjant
  Politibetjent
  Politioverkonstabel
  Politikonstabel

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Namngjev nordmenn som torturerte Norwegian broadcasting corporation (in Nynorsk)
  2. ^ "Fra arbeiderkrig til verdenskrig" and "Politiet som aldri gikk lei", chapters of "«Samfunnets pansrede neve» by P.O. Johansen Institute for criminology and justice sociology University of Oslo (in Norwegian)
  3. ^ Statspolitiet - Hovedkontoret / Osloavdelingen National Archives of Norway (in Norwegian)
  4. ^ aftenposten.no Slik opererte det norske Gestapo Aftenposten October 22, 2012 (in Norwegian)
  5. ^ a b Eirik Veum: Nådeløse nordmenn: Statspolitiet 1941-1945. Kagge forlag, 2012 (in Norwegian) ISBN 9788248911746
  6. ^ Statspolitiet Norsk krigsleksikon 1940–1945, J.W. Cappelens forlag a.s, Oslo 1995, page 396 (in Norwegian) ISBN 82-02-14138-9
  7. ^ Eirik Veum: Nådeløse nordmenn Statspolitiet 1941-1945. Kagge Forlag A/S, Oslo 2012. pp 230-279 (in Norwegian) ISBN 978-82-489-1174-6
  8. ^ Norsk politi torturerte nordmenn Vi Menn Oct 28, 2014 (in Norwegian)
  9. ^ Asbjørn Jaklin: De dødsdømte (page 101), Gyldendal, Oslo 2011, (in Norwegian) ISBN 978-82-05-41088-6