Statilia gens

The gens Statilia was a plebeian family of Lucanian origin at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the third century BC, when one of them led the Lucanian assault on the city of Thurii, and another commanded an allied cavalry troop during the Second Punic War; but at Rome the Statilii first come to attention in the time of Cicero, at which point they held equestrian rank. The first of the family to attain the consulship was Titus Statilius Taurus in 37 BC, and his descendants continued to fill the highest offices of the Roman state until the time of Marcus Aurelius.[1]

Titus Statilius Taurus, consul in 37 and 26 BC, from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum, by Guillaume Rouille (1518?-1589).

OriginEdit

The nomen Statilius belongs to a class of gentilicia ending in the suffix -ilius, derived from other names ending in the diminutive suffix -ulus.[2] Statilius is a derivative of the common Oscan praenomen Statius, the diminutive of which may have been Statulus. The same praenomen also gave rise to the Statia gens.[3]

PraenominaEdit

The earliest Statilii bore common Oscan praenomina, such as Sthenius (or Statius) and Marius. In the late Republic, we find Lucius and Quintus, both among the most common praenomina throughout all periods of Roman history. The consular families from the first centuries of the Empire used Titus to the exclusion of all other regular praenomina, although two of the Statilii Tauri exchanged their original praenomina for the names Sisenna and Taurus. In the case of Taurus, the name was simply the cognomen of the family used as a praenomen, while Sisenna commemorated the descent of the family from the Cornelii Sisennae, a noble family of the Republic, through a female line.

Branches and cognominaEdit

The most important branch of the Statilii bore the cognomen Taurus, referring to a bull, and belonging to a large class of surnames derived from the names of animals and everyday objects.[4] This family remained prominent from the end of the Republic to the reign of Claudius, and its name appears on coins of the era.[1]

Corvinus, borne as a surname by one of the consular Statilii, was inherited from his grandfather, Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, consul in 31 BC, a descendant of the illustrious house of the Valerii Messallae, and of Marcus Valerius Corvus, who obtained his cognomen when, as a young soldier, he defeated a giant Gaul in single combat, with the apparently divine intervention of a raven, or corvus.[5][6][7]

A later family of the Statilii bore the cognomina Maximus and Severus, both common surnames throughout Roman history. Titus Statilius Maximus Severus Hadrianus, consul in AD 115, was the descendant of wealthy Syrian colonists.[8] Maximus, the superlative of Magnus, "great", could have described someone of great stature or high achievement, but was more often used to designate the eldest of several brothers.[9] Severus was used to describe someone whose manner was "stern" or "serious".[9]

MembersEdit

 
Titus Statilius Taurus built the first stone amphitheatre built at Rome. It stood from 30 BC to the Great Fire in AD 64.
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Statilii TauriEdit

 
Statilia Messalina, Roman Empress from AD 66 to 68. 17th century woodcut, unknown artist.

Statilii OptatiEdit

  • Titus Statilius T. l. Optatus, a freedman buried at Rome during the first half of the first century, aged twenty-six, was probably part of the household of Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus, since a Corvinus is mentioned in the same inscription.[74]
  • Titus Statilius Optatus, praefectus annonae in the late first or early second century, had been a military tribune with the Legio VI Victrix and the Legio VI Ferrata, and prefect in charge of the census in Britain and Gaul.[75][76]
  • Statilius T. f. Homullus, the elder son of Titus Statilius Optatus, who along with his brother, Optatus, dedicated a late first- or early second-century monument at Rome to their father.[75][77]
  • Statilius T. f. Optatus, the younger son of Titus Statilius Optatus, joined with his brother, Homullus, in dedicating a monument to their father.[75][78]

Statilii Maximi et SeveriEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Sthenius (or Stenius) in Pliny, Statius in Valerius Maximus. Both were regular Oscan praenomina.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 901 ("Statilia Gens").
  2. ^ Chase, pp. 122, 123.
  3. ^ Chase, pp. 131, 136, 137.
  4. ^ Chase, pp. 112, 113.
  5. ^ Livy, vii. 26.
  6. ^ Dionysius, xv. 1.
  7. ^ a b Suetonius, "The Life of Claudius", 13.
  8. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 319.
  9. ^ a b Chase, p. 111.
  10. ^ Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, xxxiv. 6. s. 15.
  11. ^ Valerius Maximus, i. 8. § 6.
  12. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 187.
  13. ^ Livy, xxii. 42, 43.
  14. ^ Frontinus, Strategemata, iv. 7. § 36.
  15. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Fabius Maximus", 20.
  16. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 251.
  17. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 17, 43, 46, 47, 55.
  18. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam, iii. 3, 6.
  19. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, ii. 4.
  20. ^ Cicero, Pro Roscio Comoedo, 10.
  21. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 13, 14.
  22. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Cato the Younger", 65, 66, 73.
  23. ^ Cassius Dio, lxii. 42.
  24. ^ PIR, S. 589/
  25. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Vespasian", 3.
  26. ^ PIR, S. 592.
  27. ^ Galen, De Compositione Medicamentorum Secundum Locos Conscriptorum, i. 3, vol. xii. De Compositione Medicamentorum per Genera, ii. 11, vi. 1, vol. xiii.
  28. ^ PIR, S. 596.
  29. ^ Callistratus, Digesta, xlviii. 3. § 12.
  30. ^ PIR, S. 607.
  31. ^ CIL VI, 2086.
  32. ^ PIR, S. 593.
  33. ^ Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Clodius Albinus", 12.
  34. ^ PIR, S. 594.
  35. ^ AE 2007, 1257.
  36. ^ CIL VI, 41197.
  37. ^ PIR, S. 591.
  38. ^ Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 156.
  39. ^ CIL VI, 2086, CIL VI, 2104, CIL VI, 2105, CIL VI, 2106.
  40. ^ PIR, S. 612.
  41. ^ Guido Bastianini, "Lista dei prefetti d'Egitto dal 30a al 299p", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 17 (1975), p. 317
  42. ^ Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, vol. iv, p. 495.
  43. ^ Brunck, Analecta Veterum Poetarum Graecorum, vol. ii, p. 262.
  44. ^ Jacobs, Anthologia Graeca, vol. ii, p. 238, vol. xiii., p. 955.
  45. ^ PIR, S. 596a.
  46. ^ Charisius, Ars Grammatica, pp. 175, 176, 192 et alibi, ed. Putschius.
  47. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, v. 97–99, 103, 105, 109, 118, Bella Illyrica, 27.
  48. ^ Cassius Dio, xlix. 14, 38, l. 13, li. 20, 23, liii. 23, liv. 19, lxii. 18.
  49. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Antony", 65.
  50. ^ Tacitus, Annales, iii. 72, vi. 11.
  51. ^ Velleius Paterculus, ii. 127.
  52. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Augustus", 29.
  53. ^ PIR, S. 615.
  54. ^ PIR, S. 616.
  55. ^ Cassius Dio, lvi. 25.
  56. ^ PIR, S. 617.
  57. ^ Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, vii. 49. s. 48.
  58. ^ Seneca the Younger, Epistulae, lxxvii.
  59. ^ PIR, S. 620.
  60. ^ Cassius Dio, lvii. 15.
  61. ^ Tacitus, Annales, ii. 1.
  62. ^ Velleius Paterculus, ii. 14.
  63. ^ PIR, S. 613.
  64. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xii. 59.
  65. ^ PIR, S. 618.
  66. ^ Cassius Dio, lx. 25.
  67. ^ Phlegon, Peri Thaumasion, 6.
  68. ^ PIR, S. 595.
  69. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xv. 68.
  70. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Nero", 35, "The Life of Otho", 10.
  71. ^ PIR, S. 625.
  72. ^ CIL III, 6025, CIL XIII, 6817, CIL XIV, 246.
  73. ^ PIR, S. 619.
  74. ^ CIL VI, 6273.
  75. ^ a b c CIL VI, 41272.
  76. ^ PIR, S. 606.
  77. ^ PIR, S. 597.
  78. ^ PIR, S. 605.
  79. ^ Cassius Dio, lxviii. 24, 25.
  80. ^ Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten, pp. 112–115.
  81. ^ PIR, S. 604.
  82. ^ AE 1910, 203.
  83. ^ PIR, S. 603.
  84. ^ CIL III, 12371, CIL III, 12513.
  85. ^ AE 1987, 879, AE 1980, 797.
  86. ^ PIR, S. 598.
  87. ^ CIL VI, 1978.
  88. ^ PIR, S. 610.
  89. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, pp. 176–191.

BibliographyEdit