State of Somaliland

The State of Somaliland (Somali: Dawlada Soomaaliland, Arabic: دولة أرض الصومالDawlat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl) was a short-lived independent country in the territory of present-day Somaliland.[1] It was the name assumed by the former British Somaliland protectorate in the five days between June 26, 1960 and July 1, 1960, when the territory prepared for union as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian Administration (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic, a sovereign state that covered modern-day Somaliland and Somalia.

State of Somaliland

Dawlada Soomaaliland  (Somali)
دولة أرض الصومال (Arabic)
Dawlat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl
1960
Flag of Somaliland
Location of the State of Somaliland.
Location of the State of Somaliland.
StatusIndependent state
CapitalHargeisa
Common languagesSomali
Religion
Islam
Government
• Prime Minister
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal[1]
History 
• Independence from the United Kingdom
26 June 1960
• Unification with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic
1 July 1960
CurrencyEast African shilling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
British Somaliland
Somali Republic
Today part of Somaliland

History

 
Agreements and Exchanges of Letters between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Somaliland in connexion with the Attainment of Independence by Somaliland[2]

In May 1960, the British government stated that it would be prepared to grant independence to the then protectorate of British Somaliland, with the intention that the territory would unite with the Italian-administered Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian Administration (the former Italian Somaliland). The Legislative Council of British Somaliland passed a resolution in April 1960 requesting independence and union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland, which was scheduled to gain independence on 1 July that year. The legislative councils of both territories agreed to this proposal following a joint conference in Mogadishu.[3]

 
Somaliland Flying for the first time: The White and Blue Somali Flag at the Independence Celebrations on 26 June 1960 Prime Minister of the State of Somaliland and second president of Somaliland Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal salutes the flag.
 
The Somaliland Protectorate Constitutional Conference, London, May 1960 in which it was decide that 26 June be the day of Independence, and so signed on 12 May 1960. Somaliland Delegation: Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal, Ahmed Haji Dualeh, Ali Garad Jama& Haji Ibrahim Nur. From the Colonial Office: Ian Macleod, D. B. Hall, H. C. F. Wilks (Secretary)

On June 26, 1960, the former British Somaliland protectorate briefly obtained independence as the State of Somaliland, with the Trust Territory of Somaliland following suit five days later.[1][4] The following day, on June 27, 1960, the newly convened Somaliland Legislative Assembly approved a bill that would formally allow for the union of the State of Somaliland with the Trust Territory of Somaliland on 1 July 1960.[3]

Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, who had previously served as an unofficial member of the former British Somaliland protectorate's Executive Council and the Leader of Government Business in the Legislative Council, became the Prime Minister of the State of Somaliland during its planned transition to union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian Administration, the former Italian Somaliland.[5]

During its brief existence, the State of Somaliland received international recognition from 35 countries,[6] that included China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Israel, Libya, the Soviet Union. The United States Secretary of State Christian Herter sent a congratulatory message,[6][7][8] and the United Kingdom signed several bilateral agreements with Somaliland in Hargeisa on June 26, 1960.[6][9]

This a copy of the letter that Secretary of State Christian Herter sent

June 26, 1960
Their Excellencies,
Council of Ministers of Somaliland, Hargeisa.
Your Excellencies: I extend my best wishes and congratulations on the achievement of your independence. This is a noteworthy milestone in your history, and it is with pleasure that I send
my warmest regards on this happy occasion.
Christian a. Herter
Secretary of State, United States of America .[7]

And here is the letter that Elizabeth II send to the people of Somaliland in the independence day .

“I, my Government and my people in the United Kingdom, wish you well on this day of independence. The connection between our people goes back some 130 years and British administration of the Protectorate for 60 years. I look forward to a continuing and enduring friendship between our two countries.”[10]

There were also fears of clashes with populations in Ethiopia.[11]

On July 1, 1960, five days after the former British Somaliland protectorate obtained independence as the State of Somaliland, the territory united as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).[12][4]

A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967–1969). On July 20, 1961, and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[13] The constitution was widely regarded as unfair in the former Somaliland, however, and over 60% of the northern voters were against it in the referendum. Regardless, it was signed into law. Widespread dissatisfaction spread among the north's population,[14] and British-trained officers attempted a revolt to end the union in December 1961. Their uprising failed, and Somaliland continued to be marginalized by the south during the next decades.[15]

Use of state as a precedent for Somaliland

Today's self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland is a de facto sovereign state that claims to be the independent successor to the State of Somaliland.[16][17] However, unlike the former State of Somaliland, it is not internationally recognised as a country, instead being treated officially as an autonomous region within Somalia.[18][19]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Somalia". www.worldstatesmen.org.
  2. ^ http://foto.archivalware.co.uk/data/Library2/pdf/1960-TS0044.pdf
  3. ^ a b http://wardheernews.com/Articles_09/June/Roobdoon_Forum/29_Independence_week_series.html
  4. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835
  5. ^ Paolo Contini, The Somali Republic: an experiment in legal integration, (Routledge, 1969), p.6.
  6. ^ a b c http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/anotes_0211.pdf
  7. ^ a b "Read the eBook Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 43, Jul- Sep1960) by United States. Dept. of State. Office of Public Co online for free (page 25 of 100)". www.ebooksread.com.
  8. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Africa, Volume XIV - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.
  9. ^ "THE BRENTHURST FOUNDATION Strengthening Africa's economic performance AFRICAN GAme ChANGeR? The Consequences of Somaliland's International (Non) Recognition

    This list includes China (Republic of ), Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Israel, Libya, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom, and the United States.

    "
    (PDF).
  10. ^ "Biyokulule Online". www.biyokulule.com.
  11. ^ "Somaliland Marks Independence After 73 Years of British Rule" (fee required). The New York Times. 1960-06-26. p. 6. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
  12. ^ Somalia
  13. ^ Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p.338
  14. ^ Richards (2014), p. 84.
  15. ^ Richards (2014), p. 85.
  16. ^ "Somaliland Marks Independence After 73 Years of British Rule" (fee required). The New York Times. 1960-06-26. p. 6. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
  17. ^ "How Britain said farewell to its Empire". BBC News. 2010-07-23.
  18. ^ Lacey, Marc (2006-06-05). "The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  19. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). University of Pretoria. 2004-02-01. Retrieved 2010-02-02. "The Somali Republic shall have the following boundaries. (a) North; Gulf of Aden. (b) North West; Djibouti. (c) West; Ethiopia. (d) South south-west; Kenya. (e) East; Indian Ocean."

Works cited

External links