Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially as stannous fluoride (from Latin stannum, 'tin'), is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2. It is a colourless solid used as an ingredient in toothpastes.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||156.69 g/mol|
|Melting point||213 °C (415 °F; 486 K)|
|Boiling point||850 °C (1,560 °F; 1,120 K)|
|31 g/100 mL (0 °C); |
35 g/100 mL (20 °C);
78.5 g.100 mL (106 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in KOH, KF; |
negligible in ethanol, ether, chloroform
|C2/c, No. 15|
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 0860|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Tin(II) chloride, |
|Germanium tetrafluoride, |
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Stannous fluoride was introduced as an alternative to sodium fluoride for the prevention of cavities. It was introduced for this purpose by Joseph Muhler and William Nebergall. In recognition for their innovation, these two individuals were inducted into the Inventor's Hall of Fame.
Stannous fluoride converts the calcium mineral apatite into fluorapatite, which makes tooth enamel more resistant to bacteria-generated acid attacks. ; over time these react with sodium fluoride to form calcium fluoride, which is almost completely insoluble and thus ineffective for tooth protection. Stannous fluoride is a more stable ingredient and thus remains effective in strengthening tooth enamel upon longer storage. Stannous fluoride has been shown to be as effective as sodium fluoride in reducing the incidence of dental caries and controlling gingivitis.
Stannous fluoride was used under the trade name Fluoristan in the original formulation of the toothpaste brand Crest, though it was later replaced with sodium monofluorophosphate under the trade name Fluoristat. Stannous fluoride is the active ingredient in Crest Pro Health brand toothpaste. Crest Pro Health issues a warning on the tube that stannous fluoride may cause staining, which can be avoided by proper brushing, and that its particular formulation is resistant to staining. However, any stannous fluoride staining that occurs due to improper brushing is not permanent. Stannous fluoride is also used in Oral-B Pro-Expert. Stannous fluoride is also readily available in over-the-counter rinses.
- SnO + 2 HF → SnF2 + H2O
Readily soluble in water, SnF2 is hydrolysed. At low concentration, it forms species such as SnOH+, Sn(OH)2 and Sn(OH)3−. At higher concentrations, predominantly polynuclear species are formed, including Sn2(OH)22+ and Sn3(OH)42+. Aqueous solutions readily oxidise to form insoluble precipitates of SnIV, which are ineffective as a dental prophylactic. Studies of the oxidation using Mössbauer spectroscopy on frozen samples suggests that O2 is the oxidizing species.
SnF2 acts as a Lewis acid. For example, it forms a 1:1 complex (CH3)3NSnF2 and 2:1 complex [(CH3)3N]2SnF2 with trimethylamine, and a 1:1 complex with dimethylsulfoxide, (CH3)2SO·SnF2.
In solutions containing the fluoride ion, F−, it forms the fluoride complexes SnF3−, Sn2F5−, and SnF2(OH2). Crystallization from an aqueous solution containing NaF produces compounds containing polynuclear anions, e.g. NaSn2F5 or Na4Sn3F10 depending on the reaction conditions, rather than NaSnF3. The compound NaSnF3, containing the pyramidal SnF3− anion, can be produced from a pyridine–water solution. Other compounds containing the pyramidal SnF3− anion are known, such as Ca(SnF3)2.
SnF2 is a reducing agent, with a standard reduction potential of Eo (SnIV/ SnII) = +0.15 V. Solutions in HF are readily oxidised by a range of oxidizing agents (O2, SO2 or F2) to form the mixed-valence compound Sn3F8 (containing SnII and SnIV and no Sn–Sn bonds).
The monoclinic form contains tetramers, Sn4F8, where there are two distinct coordination environments for the Sn atoms. In each case, there are three nearest neighbours, with Sn at the apex of a trigonal pyramid, and the lone pair of electrons sterically active. Other forms reported have the GeF2 and paratellurite structures.
In the vapour phase, SnF2 forms monomers, dimers, and trimers. Monomeric SnF2 is a non-linear molecule with an Sn−F bond length of 206 pm. Complexes of SnF2, sometimes called difluorostannylene, with an alkyne and aromatic compounds deposited in an argon matrix at 12 K have been reported.
SnF2 can cause redness and irritation if inhaled or comes into contact with the eyes. At acute levels (over 2 mg/m3), if ingested, it can cause abdominal pains and shock. Rare but serious allergic reactions are possible (symptoms include itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing). When used in dental products, mild tooth discoloration may also occur; this can be removed by brushing.
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