Stanisław Grabski (April 5, 1871 in Borów, Łowicz County – May 6, 1949 in Sulejówek) was a Polish economist and politician, member of the Sejm, associated with the National Democracy political camp. Stanisław was the brother of another prominent Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister Władysław Grabski, and political activist Zofia Kirkor-Kiedroniowa.
|Minister of Religious Beliefs and Public Education|
27 October 1923 – 15 December 1923
|Preceded by||Maciej Rataj|
|Succeeded by||Bolesław Miklaszewski|
|Minister of Religious Beliefs and Public Education|
|Preceded by||Bolesław Miklaszewski|
|Succeeded by||Antoni Sujkowski|
|Member of the Sejm|
|Born||April 5, 1871|
Borów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire
|Died||May 6, 1949 (aged 78)|
|Resting place||Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw|
|Political party||National-Democratic Party|
Popular National Union
|Spouse(s)||Ludmiła Rożen (1895–1915)|
Zofia Smolikówna (1916–1949)
Stanisław Grabski became a political activist early in his life. In 1890 he was the editor of the Gazeta Robotnicza (i.e. 'workers' gazette') in Berlin. In 1892 he co-founded the Polish Socialist Party (PPS) but in 1901 he detached himself from that political movement to become a member of Roman Dmowski's "nationalist" camp (later known as National Democracy).
A member of the National League since 1905, a year later he became one of its leaders. From 1907 he was a member of Dmowski's party, the National-Democratic Party. During World War I Grabski, like Dmowski, supported the idea that Poles should ally with Russia, and later he joined Dmowski's Polish National Committee (Komitet Narodowy Polski) in Paris.
During the Polish-Soviet War (1919–1921) he strongly opposed the alliance between Poland and the Ukraine (represented by Symon Petlura). He resigned as chair of the parliamentary commission on foreign relations in protest of this alliance. During the negotiations of the Treaty of Riga (1921), where he was a Polish negotiator, he was to a great extent responsible for the disregarding of Ukrainian wishes, with resulting partitioning of Ukraine between Poland and the Soviet Union. This was in contrast to the idea of creation of an independent Ukrainian state, as advocated by one of the architects of the Polish-Ukrainian alliance, Józef Piłsudski.
In 1923 and from 1925 to 1926 he was the Minister of Religious Beliefs and Public Education. In that time he further pursued nationalist policies, especially Polonization. He was the architect of the 1924 Lex Grabski, which de facto sought to eliminate the Ukrainian language from Polish schools. These policies resulted in a dramatic increase in Ukrainian private schools and served to alienate Ukrainian youths from Polish authority. In 1926 he was also one of the first Poles to speak on radio, during the Polish Radio inauguration ceremony. He was also one of the principal Polish negotiators for the Concordat of 1925.
After Piłsudski's May Coup in 1926 he distanced himself from politics and concentrated on academic research into economics. Before the Second World War, he was a professor at the Lwów University, Dublany Agricultural Academy, and Jagiellonian University.
In the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of 1939, when the Soviet Union joined the German invasion and took control of Eastern Poland (Kresy), Grabski, like many prominent Polish intellectuals, was arrested by the Soviets and imprisoned. In the aftermath of the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement, he was released and moved to London, where he joined the Polish government in exile. He returned to Poland in 1945. Working closely together with Polish communist Wanda Wasilewska, Grabski (who referred to Stalin as "the greatest realist of all") sought to use Stalin to create a compact and ethnically homogenous Poland and helped to design a program for implementing policies to insure an ethnically pure Polish state. He proposed Polish and Ukrainian resettlement plans to Stalin, and traveled to Lviv in order to urge Poles to leave. He became one of the deputies to the president of the quasi-parliament State National Council, until the new Sejm was elected in the 1947 Polish legislative election. Afterwards he returned to his teaching career, becoming a professor at the University of Warsaw.
Grabski was an outspoken exponent of nationalist ideology in the interwar period. Agreeing with Roman Dmowski on the goal of assimilating the non-Polish population of the Kresy, Grabski differed in his approach. Whereas Dmowski apparently sought to recognize Ukrainians and Belorussians as folk variants of Poles, Grabski's approach was to reduce the non-Polish population to the status of second-class citizens and limiting their contact with the Polish majority. By creating a contrast between an advanced Polish culture and a primitive minority culture Grabski hoped that long term assimilation would be assured.
In 1895, Grabski married Ludmiła Rożen. The couple had five children – three daughters (Feliksa, Ludmiła, Janina) and two sons (Stanisław and Zbigniew). Stanisław died in 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War. Zbigniew (1907–1943) was a scoutmaster, jailed until 1941 by Soviets, he died as a result of an accident during his military duties. After the death of his wife in 1915, Stanisław Grabski married Zofia Smolikówna in 1916. They had two daughters - Anna (born 1919) and Stanisława (1922–2008).
- "We want to base our relationships on love, but there is one kind of love for countrymen and another for aliens. Their percentage among us is definitely too high (...) The foreign element will have to see if it will not be better off elsewhere. Polish land for the Poles!" (1919)
- "The transformation of the state territory of the Republic into a Polish national territory is a necessary condition of maintaining our frontiers."
- Zarys rozwoju idei społeczno-gospodarczych w Polsce (A sketch of the Development of Socioeconomic Ideas in Poland) (1903)
- Ekonomia społeczna (Social Economy) (1927–1929)
- Państwo narodowe (A Nation State) (1929)
- Ku lepszej Polsce (Toward a Better Poland) (1937)
- Na nowej drodze dziejowej (On a New Path of History) (1946)
- Pamiętniki (Memoirs), prepared for print and edited by W. Stankiewicz (1989)
- Snyder, T. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780300105865. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- Snyder, T. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780300105865. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- Ronald Grigor Suny, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the Successor States, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508105-6, Google Print, p.106
- Norman Davies, White Eagle..., Polish edition, p.99-103
- Snyder, T. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780300105865. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- Timothy Snyder. 2003). The Reconstruction of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. pg. 144
- Marcin Mierzejewski: Broadcasting Live from Poland at The Warsaw Voice website
- Timothy Snyder. 2003). The Reconstruction of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 180-181
- Symmons-Symonolewicz, Konstantin. "Polish Political thought and the problem of the eastern borderlands of Poland (1918-1939)." The Polish Review (1959): 65-81.
- "Jan Herman Brinks: Polish-Germans in Poland". sussex.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- Brubaker, R. (1996). Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780521576499. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
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