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Ahmed Mamow on the stage at Late Night Fredag on Parkteatret

Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them. The performer is commonly known as a comic, stand-up comic, comedian, comedienne, stand-up comedian, or simply a stand-up.[1] Comedians give the illusion that they are dialoguing, but in actuality, they are monologuing a grouping of humorous stories, jokes and one-liners, typically called a shtick, routine, act, or set.[8] Some stand-up comedians use props, music or magic tricks[9] to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedy is stated to be the "freest form of comedy writing" that is regarded as a fictionalized "extension of" the person performing.[18]

OverviewEdit

 
Bridget Christie at Parkteatret. The event is part of Crap Comedy festival 2017 and took place on 28. January 2017 in Oslo.

Stand-up is often compared to jazz, poetry, songwriting, and sword making.[24] Some of the main types of humor in stand-up comedy include observational comedy, blue comedy, dark comedy, clean comedy, and cringe comedy. Alternative stand-up comedy deviates from the traditional, mainstream comedy by breaking either joke structure, performing in an untraditional scene, or breaking an audience's expectations; this includes, but is not limited to, the use of shaggy dog stories and anti-jokes.

Stand-up comedy is often performed in corporate events, comedy clubs, bars and pubs, nightclubs, neo-burlesques, colleges and theatres (audiences will give applause breaks more often in theaters[25]).[26] Outside live performance, stand-up is often distributed commercially via television, DVD, CD and the internet.[1][27]

It can take an amateur comedian about 10 years to perfect the technique needed to be a professional comedian;[28][29][30] this is a constant process of learning through failure.[31][32][33]

As the name implies, "stand-up" comedians usually perform their material while standing, though this is not mandatory. Similar acts performed while seated can be referred to as "sit-down comedy".

"Comedians are more likely to exhibit psychotic[-like] traits" than the average person; most comedians display "magical thinking" and are "introverted[ly]" "anhedoni[c]".[34]

Stand-up comedy showEdit

 
Tiffany Haddish, comedian, tells jokes to audience members during a performance October 21, 2013, at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey.

In stand-up comedy, the feedback of the audience is instant and crucial for the comedian's act, even from the moment they enter the venue.[35] Audiences expect a stand-up comedian to provide a constant stream of laughs, calculated at four to six laughs per minute,[40] and a performer is always under pressure to deliver, especially the first two minutes.[45]

Basic formatEdit

A stand-up comedy show is rarely one comedian. It is usually a multi-person, showcase format, often with a traditional opener, feature performer, and headliner.[46] A traditional format typically features an opening act known as a host, compère (UK),[47] master of ceremonies (MC/emcee), or simply "opener" who, for 10–12 minutes,[48] usually warms up the crowd, interacts with audience members, makes announcements, and then introduces the other performers;[49] this is followed by a "middle"/"feature" act that lasts 15–20 minutes but is expected to have "30 minutes of solid material"; the feature act is followed by the headliner, who performs for "an hour."[50] The second definition of an opener is applied when the opening act of a traveling comedian may perform a 25-minute set (the opener doubles as a feature).[51] The "showcase" format consists of several acts who perform for roughly equal lengths of time, typical in smaller clubs such as the Comedy Cellar, or Jongleurs, or at large events where the billing of several names allows for a larger venue than the individual comedians could draw. A showcase format may still feature an MC.

Open micEdit

Many smaller venues hold open mic events, where anyone can take the stage and perform for the audience. This offers an opportunity for amateur performers to hone their craft and perhaps to break into the profession, or for established professionals to work on their material.[52] Industry scouts will sometimes go to watch open mics.[53] Breaking into the business requires "10 minute[s]" of "A" material. Roadhouses (remote clubs) start booking people for "20 minutes of 'A' material".[50] "A" material means getting a big laugh at least "75% of the time".[54]

Bringer showsEdit

"Bringer shows" are open mics that require amateur performers to bring a specified number of paying guests to receive stage time. Some view this as exploitation, while others disagree.[55][56] The guests usually have to pay a cover charge and there is often a minimum number of drinks that must be ordered. These shows usually have a "showcase" format. Different comedy clubs have different requirements for their bringer shows. Gotham Comedy Club in New York City, for example, usually has ten-person bringers, while Broadway Comedy Club in New York City usually has six-person bringers.[57][58] In the '90s, the New York Comedy Club had pre-shows that were bringer shows; they also had audition scams with an "accelerated pre-show program."[59]

Guest setEdit

This is an unpaid, five-to-ten-minute time slot (during the emcee's time slot of a professional show) that is essentially an audition to get booked for paid gigs.[60]

The comedian's setEdit

Stand-up jokeEdit

In stand-up comedy, a "canned" joke[61][62] is made of a "premise...point of view" and "twist" ending.[63][64] A joke contains the least amount of information necessary to be conveyed, understood, and laughed at;[65][66] the setup contains the information needed by the audience in order to understand the punchline.[67][68][69] Most of stand-up comedy's jokes are the juxtaposition of two incongruous things.[75] According to the founding editor of The Onion, there are eleven types of jokes.[76] Stand-up comedians will normally deliver their jokes in the form of a typical joke structure, using comedic timing to deliver the setup and then the punch line.[77] Stand-ups will normally frame their stories as having happened "recently."[78] The comedian's delivery of a joke—the pause, inflection, "ener[gy]," and look—is "everything".[79] Comedians often include taglines (dependent punchlines that follow another punchline)[80] and toppers (independent afterthoughts that follow a punchline).[81][82] Some sources may use tags, toppers, and afterthoughts as synonyms.[83]

A jokoid is a placeholder joke, which will eventually be superseded by a funnier joke.[84] Stock jokes are similar to jokoids (as placeholders) and are hack jokes that are for "specific situations".[85] A paraprosdokian is a popular method that is used by comedians, creating a surprising punchline that causes the listener to reinterpret the setup. Stand-ups will often use the rule of three.[86][87][88][89] Comedians will normally include stylistic and comedic devices, such as tropes, idioms, stop consonants, and wordplay.[90][91]

A comedian's ideas and jokes will fail nine times out of ten; this may require a comedian to write hundreds of jokes to achieve enough successful ones to fill a set.[92][93][94]

The setEdit

A traditional set is made of jokes (setup and punchline), bits (a joke or "3 or 4 jokes"), and chunks (multiple bits linked by a topic that may last "10-15 minutes").[95][96][97] Long bits must have the biggest laugh at their endings.[98] Once a setup is established for a bit, the proceeding "jokes" should get shorter and shorter.[99] A segue is the link between jokes.[100][101] A callback is a reference to a previous joke.[100][102][103] Bombing refers to when a comedian has failed to get an intended laugh.[104] A stand-up comedian uses a persona or character to deliver their jokes.[105] The quality of a comedian's material is more important than their persona,[106][107] unless they are well known.[108] Other sources say that personality trumps material.[109][110] A good comedian will create a tendentious-like tension that the audience releases with laughter.[115] This is known as a "relief/release" laugh.[116] A comedian's stand-up persona/voice consists of the type of material they perform, the format of the material, the aggregate set, the comedian's rapport with the audience, and the comedian's "own identity."[117][118]

Crowd workEdit

When a set is consistently bombing, most comedians will perform "crowd work" by communicating with audience members to save face; much of crowd work is prewritten with added improvisation. [119] Some comedians will use small talk that directs audience members to answer "a question" that the comedian "[has] a topper" for. Other comedians will become more intimate with their questions until they get multiple big laughs, before moving on. [120] The result of crowd work is often an inside joke.

Tight fiveEdit

A "tight five" is a five-minute stand-up routine that is well-rehearsed and consists of a stand-up comedian’s best material that reliably gets laughs.[121] It is often used for auditions or delivered when audience response is minimal.[122][123][124] A tight five is the stepping stone to getting a paid spot.[125][126]

Memory techniquesEdit

Comics memorize their jokes through the use of on-stage practice/blocking.[127] Some comedians employ a mnemonic device called the method of loci (memory palace technique) to remember their jokes.[128][129] Some write their jokes over and over, while others have a set list in front of them; for professionals, this may be on cue cards or a stage monitor. [130][131]

TerminologyEdit

HecklerEdit

In stand-up, a heckler is a person who interrupts a comedian's set. Comedians will often have a repertoire of comebacks for hecklers.[132] Comedians will sometimes get into physical altercations with hecklers.[133]

Punching downEdit

The term "punching down" is sometimes used to describe jokes that are made at the expense of disenfranchised groups or their members. It carries with it the assumption that comedy should be directed at the powerful rather than the afflicted.[134]

Pejorative termsEdit

Claiming one can smell the road on a comic is a pejorative phrase for a comedian who has compromised their own originality to get laughs while travelling.[135][136][137] Comedian Seth Meyers coined the term "clapter": when an audience cheers or applauds for a joke that they agree with but that is not funny enough to get a laugh.[138][139]

HackEdit

A hack is a pejorative term for a comedian with rushed, unoriginal, low-quality, or cliché material.[145] One proposed amelioration to hackneyed material is an essay by George Orwell called "Politics and the English Language: The Six Rules".[146]

Joke theftEdit

When someone is accused of stealing a joke, the accused's defense is sometimes cryptomnesia[147] or parallel thinking.[148]

Warm-up comedianEdit

A warm-up act (crowd warmer) performs at comedy clubs, before the filming of a television comedy in front of a studio audience, or the beginning of music concerts to prepare the crowd for the show or main act.

History of EuropeEdit

United KingdomEdit

 
Bronze statue of Britain's Max Miller

Stand-up comedy in the United Kingdom began in the music halls of the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable "front-cloth comics" who rose through the 20th century variety theatre circuit were Morecambe and Wise, Arthur Askey, Ken Dodd and Max Miller.[149][150][151][152] Until 1968, the heavy censorship regime of the Lord Chamberlain's Office required all comedians to submit their acts for censorship. The act would be returned with unacceptable sections underlined in blue pencil (possibly giving rise to the term "blue" for a comedian whose act is considered bawdy or smutty). The comedian was then obliged not to deviate from the act in its edited form.[1]

The rise of the post-war comedians coincided with the rise of television and radio, and the traditional music hall circuit suffered greatly as a result.[citation needed] By the 1970s, music hall entertainment was virtually dead. Alternative circuits had evolved, such as working men's clubs.[1] Some of the more successful comedians on the working men's club circuit—including Bernard Manning, Bobby Thompson, Frank Carson and Stan Boardman—eventually made their way to television via such shows as The Wheeltappers and Shunters Social Club. The "alternative" comedy scene also began to evolve. Some of the earliest successes came from folk clubs, where performers such as Billy Connolly, Mike Harding and Jasper Carrott started as relatively straight musical acts whose between-song banter developed into complete comedy routines. The 1960s had also seen the satire boom, including the creation of the club, the Establishment, which, amongst other things, gave British audiences their first taste of extreme American stand-up comedy from Lenny Bruce.[153] Victoria Wood launched her stand-up career in the early 1980s, which included observational conversation mixed with comedy songs. Wood was to become one of the country's most successful comedians, in 2001 selling out the Royal Albert Hall for 15 nights in a row.[citation needed]

In 1979, the first American-style stand-up comedy club, the Comedy Store was opened in London by Peter Rosengard, where many alternative comedy stars of the 1980s, such as Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders, Alexei Sayle, Craig Ferguson, Rik Mayall and Ade Edmondson began their careers.[154] The stand-up comedy circuit rapidly expanded from London across the UK. The present British stand-up comedy circuit arose from the 'alternative' comedy revolution of the 1980s, with political and observational humor being the prominent styles to flourish. In 1983, young drama teacher Maria Kempinska created Jongleurs Comedy Clubs, now the largest stand-up comedy chain in Europe. Stand up comedy is believed to have been performed originally as a one-man show. Lately, this type of show started to involve a group of young comedians, especially in Europe.[citation needed]

 
Bob Hope, the United States of America's most famous stand-up comedian during World War II

SpainEdit

Although the antecedents of this genre can be traced back to the monologues of Miguel Gila in the 1950s, the rise of live comedy in Spain took a long time in comparison with the American continent. The first generalized relationship with this comic genre occurred in 1999 with the creation of the Paramount Comedy channel, which included the New Comics program as one of its flagship programs, where monologuists such as Ángel Martín, José Juan Vaquero, David Broncano, and Joaquín Reyes stood out. Also, in 1999 began the journey of the program The club of comedy, an open adaptation of the popular comic format. In its first stage (1999-2005), it underwent several chain changes and released comedians like Luis Piedrahita, Alexis Valdes or Goyo Jiménez. In its new stage, starting in 2011 in La Sexta and presented by Eva Hache, it tries to start in the genre of comic monologue media characters from different artistic fields such as: Imanol Arias, José Luis Gil, Isabel Ordaz and Santiago Segura. Special mention deserves the Buenafuente program, started in 2005. The presenter, Andreu Buenafuente, made an initial monologue of about 9 to 11 minutes where he links current issues with everyday humorous situations. This became the most famous part of the program and made him one of the most recognized comedians in Spain, for his connection with the public and his ability to improvise. On the other hand, the comedian Ignatius Farray became one of the most representative icons of this genre today.

History of the AmericasEdit

United StatesEdit

Stand-up comedy in the United States got its start from the stump-speech monologues of minstrel shows in the early 19th century.[155] It also has roots in various traditions of popular entertainment of the late 19th century, including vaudeville, English music hall, burlesque or early variety shows, humorist monologues by personalities such as Mark Twain, and circus clown antics.[156] With the turn of the century and ubiquitousness of urban and industrial living, the structure, pacing and timing, and material of American humor began to change. Comedians of this era often depended on fast-paced joke delivery, slapstick, outrageous or lewd innuendo, and donned an ethnic persona—African, Scottish, German, Jewish—and built a routine based on popular stereotypes. Jokes were generally broad and material was widely shared, or in some cases, stolen. Industrialized American audiences sought entertainment as a way to escape and confront city living.

The founders of modern American stand-up comedy include Moms Mabley, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, George Burns, Fred Allen, Milton Berle and Frank Fay all of whom came from vaudeville or the Chitlin' Circuit.[157] They spoke directly to the audience as themselves, in front of the curtain, known as performing "in one". Frank Fay gained acclaim as a "master of ceremonies" at New York's Palace Theater. Vaudevillian Charlie Case (also spelled Charley Case) is often credited with the first form of stand-up comedy, performing humorous monologues without props or costumes. This had not been done before during a vaudeville show.

Nightclubs and resorts became the new breeding ground for stand-ups. Acts such as Alan King, Danny Thomas, Martin and Lewis, Don Rickles, Joan Rivers and Jack E. Leonard flourished in these new arenas.

In the 1950s and into the 1960s, stand-ups such as Mort Sahl began developing their acts in small folk clubs like San Francisco's hungry i (owned by impresario Enrico Banducci and origin of the ubiquitous "brick wall" behind comedians)[158] or New York's Bitter End. These comedians added an element of social satire and expanded both the language and boundaries of stand-up, venturing into politics, race relations, and sexual humor. Lenny Bruce became known as 'the' obscene comic when he used language that usually led to his arrest.[159] After Lenny Bruce, arrests for obscene language on stage nearly disappeared until George Carlin was arrested on 21 July 1972 at Milwaukee's Summerfest after performing the routine "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television"[160] (the case against Carlin was eventually dismissed).

Other notable comics from this era include Woody Allen, Shelley Berman, Phyllis Diller, and Bob Newhart. Some Black American comedians such as Redd Foxx, George Kirby, Bill Cosby, and Dick Gregory began to cross over to white audiences during this time.

In the 1970s, several entertainers became major stars based on stand-up comedy performances. Richard Pryor and George Carlin followed Lenny Bruce's acerbic style to become icons. Stand-up expanded from clubs, resorts, and coffee houses into major concerts in sports arenas and amphitheaters. Steve Martin and Bill Cosby had levels of success with gentler comic routines. The older style of stand-up comedy (no social satire) was kept alive by Rodney Dangerfield and Buddy Hackett, who enjoyed revived careers late in life. Don Rickles, whose legendary style of relentless merciless attacks on both fellow performers and audience members alike kept him a fixture on TV and in Vegas from the 1960s all the way to the 2000s, when he appeared in the wildly popular Pixar Toy Story films as Mr Potato Head, who just happened to share Don's grouchy onstage mannerisms. Television programs such as Saturday Night Live and The Tonight Show helped publicize the careers of other stand-up comedians, including Janeane Garofalo, Bill Maher and Jay Leno.

From the 1970s to the '90s, different styles of comedy began to emerge, from the madcap stylings of Robin Williams, to the odd observations of Jerry Seinfeld and Ellen DeGeneres, the ironic musings of Steven Wright, to the mimicry of Whoopi Goldberg, and Eddie Murphy. These comedians would serve to influence the next generation of comedians.

MexicoEdit

In terms of live comedy in Mexico, the predecessors of this comic style are:

  • The Tepichines are a comic duo who were predecessors of a style consisting of parodies and double senses with creativity
  • Miguel Galván (1957-2008) Originally from Juan Aldama, Zacatecas. He dropped out of architecture at the Universidad del Valle de México to take theater classes at the "Dimitrio Sarrás Actors Studio" for three years.
  • Mara Escalante, is an actress, comedian and Mexican singer. She is known for the television series María de Todos los Ángeles, in which she has two characters, including the protagonist. She began her career in the mid-1990s.
  • Polo Polo (1944-), whose routines are characterized by a high content of sexual references, with a touch of misogyny, relayed as a personal anecdote.
  • Adal Ramones (1961-) was one of the first to transport the genre to Mexico from his nocturnal program, using the comic monologue.
  • Evelio with V Chica (Evelio Arias Ramos, 1966-2008).
  • Eugenio Derbez

The new generation of comedians decided to use their own lives as the theme of their comedy, imitating the American style:

  • Héctor Suárez Gomís, son of Mexican comedian Héctor Suárez, is currently the host of the Latin American version of the comedy program Stand Up Comedy Central Presents, broadcast by Comedy Central from 2011 until 2014.
  • Adal Ramones since 2013 leads the program called STANDparados broadcast by Comedy District before Classic TV.
  • Kikis, (1980) comedian since late 2011, openly lesbian, has participated in Comedy Central Latin America as well as with Adal Ramones in STANDparados Comedy District.
  • Luiki Wiki (1985-) began making comedy in January 2013 in Mexico City and later moved to Monterrey NL to start the first Open Mic in Monterrey (an event in which comedians can participate to try out new material with a real audience) together with other comedians of the genre. Later they created the first collective of comedy in Monterrey called For Laughter Standup Comedy. Luiki Wiki has participated in programs such as Es de Noche and I already arrived with René Franco and as with Adal Ramones in the 3rd season of the STANDparados program aired by Comedy District.
  • Franco Escamilla (1981-) Comedian, musician, radio announcer and founder of "La Diablo Squad". He is mainly known for his comedy shows, has performed throughout the Mexican Republic and Latin America, even starting his own "World Tour", arriving to have confirmed performances in Europe and the United States, including trips to Japan and Australia. Currently known as the largest representative of Stand up Comedy in this country.
  • Hugo "El Cojo Felíz" (1988-), is a comedian, radio announcer, part of the devil Squad, has the radio program "La Hora Felíz" with the "Uncle Rober" and is considered the best pen in Mexico.
  • Roberto Andrade Cerón the "Uncle Rober" (1979-) is a comedian, writer, radio announcer and has "La Cojo Feliz" the radio program "La Hora Felíz".

History of AsiaEdit

IndiaEdit

 
Kapil Sharma an Indian stand up comedian, known for comedy nights with Kapil

Modern stand-up comedy in India is a young artform, however Chakyar koothu was prominent in Trivandrum and southern Kerala during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had all the attributes of modern stand-up comedy and is widely considered to be the oldest known staged comedy act anywhere in the world.[citation needed]

Even though the history of live comedy performances in India traces its early roots back to 1980s, for a long time stand-up comedians were only given supporting/filler acts in various performances (dance or music).[citation needed]

In 1986, India's Johnny Lever performed in a charity show called "Hope 86", in front of the whole Hindi film industry as a filler and was loved by audience. His talent was recognized, and he would later be described as "the iconic comedian of his generation".[161][162]

It was not until 2005, when the TV show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge garnered huge popularity and stand-up comedy in itself started getting recognised. Thus, a lot more comedians became popular and started performing various live and TV shows. The demand for comedy content continues to increase. Some popular comedians around 2005-2008 include Raju Srivastav, Kapil Sharma, Sunil Pal etc. Most of them performed their acts in Hindi.

 
New generation stand up comedian Raju Srivastav

Raju Srivastav first appeared on the comedy talent show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge. He finished as second runner-up and then took part in the spin-off, The Great Indian Laughter Challenge — Champions, in which he won the title of "The King of Comedy".[163] Srivastava was a participant on season 3 of Bigg Boss. He has participated in the comedy show Comedy Ka Maha Muqabla.[164]

Kapil Sharma is ranked no. 3 at the most admired Indian personality list by The Economic Times in 2015.[165] Currently he is hosting the most popular Indian comedy show "The Kapil Sharma Show" after "Comedy Nights with Kapil".[166] Sharma had been working in the comedy show Hasde Hasande Raho on MH One, until he got his first break in The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, one of the nine reality television shows he has won. He became the winner of the show in 2007 for which he won 10 lakhs as prize money.[166]

Sharma participated in Sony Entertainment Television’s Comedy Circus.[167] He became the winner of all six seasons of "Comedy Circus" he participated in.[168] He has hosted dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa Season 6[169] and also hosted comedy show Chhote Miyan.[170][171] Sharma also participated in the show Ustaadon Ka Ustaad.

Around the 2008-2009, two other popular comedians Papa CJ and Vir Das returned to India and started making their marks on Indian comedy scene. Both of them were exposed to UK and US comedy routines and they performed mostly in English. At the same time, a few more youngsters got inspired and started taking plunge into stand-up comedy.

Since 2011, the stand-up comedy has been getting substantial appreciation.[citation needed] The Comedy Store from London opened an outlet in Mumbai's Palladium Mall where people would regularly enjoy comedians from UK. The Comedy Story also supported local comedians and helped them grow. This outlet eventually become Canvas Laugh Club in Mumbai.

Around 2011, people started organizing different comedy open mic events in Mumbai, Delhi (and Gurgaon), Bangalore. All of this happened in association with growth of a counterculture in Indian cities which catered to the appetite of younger generations for live events for comedy, poetry, storytelling, and music. Various stand up events were covered by popular news channels such NDTV / Aajtak etc. and were appreciated by millions of viewers.

As a result of these developments, plus the increasing penetration of YouTube (along with Internet/World Wide Web), Indian stand up comedy started reaching further masses. While the established comedians such as Vir Das, Papa CJ were independently growing through various corporate / international performances, other comedians such as Vipul Goyal, Biswa Kalyan Rath, Kenny Sebastian, Kanan Gill grew popular through YouTube videos. The industry, still in its early stages, now sees a lot more influx of aspiring comedians as it transforms the ecosystem around it. Aasharya,Dores,Lekman grew from Nepal starting comedy from class.[citation needed]

Training and improvisationEdit

Mark Twain and Jerry Seinfeld, both American masters of stand-up comedy, believe in practice and rehearsal. Twain prepared, rehearsed, revised and adapted his material for his popular humorous presentations.[172] Seinfeld says: "Most contemporary comedy is profane, outraged and disposable" but his philosophy is to give the best that he has.[173]

Comedy schools work with new comics to workshop material, assisting comics work to overcome stage fright and better their writing skills by helping their classmates improve their sets.[174] Comedy schools offer improvisation classes for comics so that they are more comfortable straying from written material such as when dealing with hecklers. Improvisation is also necessary when working among crowd and interacting with the audience.

FestivalsEdit

 
Janeane Garofalo performing at "Sweet" in New York City

Stand-up comedy is the focus of four major international festivals: the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Edinburgh, Scotland; Just for Laughs in Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario in Canada; HBO's U.S. Comedy Arts Festival in Aspen, CO, and the Melbourne International Comedy Festival in Melbourne, Australia. [175] A number of other festivals operate around the world, including The Comedy Festival in Las Vegas, the Vancouver Comedy Festival, the New York Comedy Festival, the Boston Comedy and Film Festival, the New York Underground Film Festival, the Sydney Comedy Festival, and the Cat Laughs Comedy Festival in Kilkenny, Ireland. Radio hosts Opie and Anthony also produce a comedy tour called Opie and Anthony's Traveling Virus Comedy Tour, featuring their own co-host, Jim Norton as well as several other stand-up comedians regularly featured on their radio show. There is also a festival in Hong Kong called the HK International Comedy Festival.

The festival format attracts attention from the media to the art of stand-up and is often used as scouting and proving ground by industry professionals seeking new comedy talent.[176][177]

Stand-up circuitsEdit

Defunct American circuitsEdit

Theatre Owners Booking Association (T.O.B.A.)Edit

This was black vaudeville that predated the Chitlin' Circuit.

Chitlin' CircuitEdit

The Chitlin' Circuit was a "collection of all-black venues, clubs, [and] theaters".[178][179] The Apollo Theater was the performers' most sought after venue.[180] Notable performers for this circuit include Richard Pryor, Moms Mabley, Dick Gregory, Redd Foxx, and the duo Tim and Tom.[181]

Borscht BeltEdit

Also called the Jewish Alps, they hired performers that included stand-up comedians.[182] The Catskill Mountains are depicted in The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel.[182]

Playboy comedy circuitEdit

Before the advent of full-fledged American comedy clubs, Hugh Hefner created a chain of Playboy Clubs and employed people like Dick Gregory,[183] Mort Sahl, Steve Martin, and Lenny Bruce.[182][184][185][186][187] Hugh Hefner ok'd Burns and Carlin at the Playboy Club Tonight, which was not recorded in a Playboy club.

Contemporary circuitsEdit

Open mic circuit (UK)Edit

The open mic scene is referred to as the open mic circuit in the United Kingdom.[188][189]

College circuitEdit

There are two associations that lead the college circuit: the Association for the Promotion of Campus Activites (APCA) (which has 200 member colleges) and the National Association for Campus Activities (NACA) (which has 1,100 member colleges).[190]

Comedians in the USA and Canada audition for NACA to hundreds of college and university bookers,[191] first with a 90-second video submission, and then a ten-minute, in-person audtion to perform hour-long sets.[192]

Sets must not trigger students by "punching down," contain any denigrating material,[193] or contain dark or blue humor; it must be "intelligent humor"[192] and contain subjects that college-aged adults express contempt for.[194]

Higher education, that was once seen as the bastion of free speech is now criticized by comedians for being too PC (politically correct).[191] Many famous comedians no longer desire to perform at colleges and universities.[195][196][197][198]

Cruise circuit (CLIA)Edit

The Cruise Lines International Association contains 60 cruise liners. Comedians work an average of two days per week; this circuit is said to not aid in moving up in the field.[199] Cruiseliners have both clean comedy and blue comedy at different times during the day, but opinionated political material is frowned upon.[200] Hecklers are tolerated more in a cruise setting.[201]

Corporate circuitEdit

Corporate circuit comedy must be clean comedy that neither swears nor references sexual acts;[202] church (or “squeaky clean”) comedy is preferred; two celebrities that perform this type of comedy are Jim Gaffigan and Brian Regan.[203] In a lecture given at the University of Oxford, Stewart Lee stated that his character is unable to do corporate gigs, because he takes on the role of being superior to his audience.[204]

Christian comedy circuit (CCA)Edit

The Christian Comedy Association started in the 90s, in an attempt to use comedy as a "spiritual vehicle."[205] Comedian Doug Stanhope has criticized Christian comedy.[205] Heckling is almost nonexistent in the church circuit.[205] Christian comedy is clean comedy that claims to help one's soul.[206]

SalaryEdit

Many comedians have day jobs.[207] In a comedian's first five years, they will often lose money doing comedy.[208][209][210] Comedians will sometimes be paid for their performances with alcoholic beverages.[211] A stand-up's first comedy job will often be emceeing.[212] While it can take around a decade to make a living at comedy,[210] unknown comedians may achieve great financial success.[213]

As of 2015, hosts and MCs are paid $0-$150, depending on location and the time of week (emcees average $25[214]); showcase spots get $10-$75; features get approximately $300-$600; a headliner with no following gets $150-$1500, depending on many factors; headliners with a following or TV credits can make $1,500-$10,000 per show.[215][216][217] The headliner makes "10 times" more money than the feature act.[50] Famous headliners get paid from "door deals," or a percentage of the revenue, based on the number of seats sold; these comics rely on their notoriety to fill seats, which makes them more money than headliners with no following.[218][219] Comics will sell merchandise after their shows; this will make up for other expenses, like traveling.[220]

Mark Normand states that a set on Conan will pay "a couple grand" for five minutes.[221] In 2012, Comedy Central routinely offered $15,000 for a half-hour special.[222] As of 2015, Comedy Central will pay comedians about $20,000 for a thirty-minute set; an hour, Comedy Central special can be up to $150,000;[223] as of 2018, Netflix will pay comedians $26,000+ for a fifteen-minute set; Netflix pays celebrity-comedians different amounts from one another.[224][225]

The cruise-circuit comedian can make up to $10,000 per week,[199] some $85,000 per year; and, a college-circuit comedian can make six figures per year or thousands of dollars per gig.[222][226][227] Christian circuit comedy headliners make $1,500-$2,500 per show.[228] Although one source states that newer comics on the national (L.A.) circuit make $1,250-$2,500 per week, another source claims that this is very innacurate, and the amount of money one makes is closer to $20 for a spot.[229][230]

Famous comedians may pay lesser comedians thousands of dollars for jokes and hire them on as writers,[231][232] but many famous comedians do not reveal this, as it is considered a taboo to admit purchasing material for stand-up comedy sets.[233] Comedians may knowingly sell plagiarized jokes.[234]

Other mediaEdit

Many of the earliest vaudeville-era stand-ups gained their greater recognition on radio. They often opened their programs with topical monologues, characterized by ad-libs and discussions about anything from the latest films to a missed birthday. Each program tended to be divided into the opening monologue, musical number, followed by a skit or story routine. A "feud" between Fred Allen and Jack Benny was used as comic material for nearly a decade.

HBO presented comedians uncensored for the first time, beginning with Robert Klein in 1975, and was instrumental in reaching larger audiences. George Carlin was a perennial favorite, who appeared in 14 HBO comedy specials.

Continuing that tradition, most modern stand-up comedians use television or motion pictures to reach a level of success and recognition unattainable in the comedy-club circuit alone.

Late-night talk shows and award show ceremonies are commonly hosted by comedians, delivering monologues similar to stand-up.

Since the mid-2000s, online video-sharing sites such as YouTube have also provided a venue for stand-up comedians, and many comedians' performances can be viewed online.[235]

An Amazon TV show, The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, depicts the fictional life of a woman comedian, set in the late 1950s. She often interacts with Lenny Bruce.

List of comediansEdit

Other types of stand-upEdit

  • Macchietta — Italian 19th century comedy act
  • Manzai — style of stand-up comedy in Japan
  • Rakugo — Japanese verbal entertainment
  • Xiangsheng — Chinese traditional stand-up comedy

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Fisher, J Tommy Cooper: Always Leave Them Laughing ISBN 978-0-00-721511-9
  2. ^ Wayne Federman (9 July 2019). "S2 Ep. 06: Meltdown". The History of Standup (Podcast). Dana Gould. The Podglomerate. Event occurs at 21:40-21:54. Retrieved 27 August 2019. A low ceiling and proximity to the stage is important because standup comedy is not a performance. It is a conversation in which the comedian does all of the talking.
  3. ^ Morris, Andrea (26 July 2018). "A Robot Stand-Up Comedian Learns The Nuts And Bolts Of Comedy". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019. [A lot of] stand-up comedy…as a general art form…is pre-scripted
  4. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Jerry Seinfeld explains: ‘Comedy is a dialogue, not a monologue—that’s what makes an act click. The laughter becomes the audience’s part, and the comedian responds’
  5. ^ Stewart Lee (3 July 2013). On Not Writing (Lecture) (YouTube). St Edmund Hall: University of Oxford. Event occurs at 48:54-48:58. Retrieved 13 February 2019. On the whole, you have to give the illusion that it’s a dialogue
  6. ^ Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 190. ISBN 0-325-00179-0.
  7. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 90. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. A comic's material about his life may have some connection to reality, but basically an act is just that, an act—it’s a fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps, more relevant to people’s lives.
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  9. ^ Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-1-4165-5364-9. I was demonstrating tricks eight to twelve hours a day
  10. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Jerry Seinfeld. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 199. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. That’s the goal—to become yourself.
  11. ^ Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 12. ISBN 1-59257-231-6.
  12. ^ Munro, David (2018). "The Art of the Joke". CRAFTSMANSHIP Quarterly: The Architecture of Excellence. The Craftsmanship Initiative. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  13. ^ Evans, Bradford (7 August 2012). "Stand-Up Comedians and Their Alternate On-Stage Personas". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  14. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. [A stand-up’s] act [is a] fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps more relevant to people’s lives...Every stand-up goes onstage as a character to some extent. Some may adopt a persona that’s very similar to their own personality, but it’s still a separate entity...even observational comics...use truth...as a foundation on which to build jokes by taking the truth to its farthest [sic] extreme.
  15. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 262. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. (loosely) autobiographical comedy is the dominant form of stand-up today.
  16. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Gary Shandling. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 209. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. I [Gary Shandling] think you can only be on stage what you are in real life.
  17. ^ Katzif, Mike (16 November 2018). "Mo Amer: Working The Classroom Comedy Circuit". NPR. Retrieved 11 September 2019. [I]f you're not real…people will sniff that out.
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  19. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Roseanne Barr. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. pp. 190–191. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. I’ve [Roseanne Barr] always thought that comedy was about music and jazz…I used to think of it like the clarinet. I worked really hard to hear the music in my comedy.
  20. ^ George Carlin, Charlie Rose (26 March 1996). George Carlin (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 7:43-8:23. Retrieved 1 February 2019. [Stand-up] is the only art-form where the intended receiver of the art is present at the delivery, and the art form can be altered according to their appreciation of it, as you go...[like] jazz or improv [theatre]...[The comedian is not limited to] tempo and key.
  21. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Larry Miller. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 235. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Comics are like poets
  22. ^ Woodward, Jenny (20 December 2012). "Jerry Seinfeld: How to Write a Joke" (video). The New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 1 February 2019. I'm looking for the connective tissue...link [between bits]. You will shave letters off words. You count syllables...to get it just...it's more like songwriting
  23. ^ Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 23:32-24:00. Retrieved 3 February 2019. the way they [used to] make samurai swords…they bang it…fold it…bang it again…fold it and keep banging it…they pound on it…fold it so that they’re squeezing out all the oxygen...just keep making it perfect…write another hour, and then fold it into that one. And then, get rid of all the impurities and all the bad stuff, and then keep doing that.
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  27. ^ Fearless delivery sets Will Ferrell apart. The Denver Post, 24 June 2005. Accessed on 29 March 2010.
  28. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. George Wallace. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 240. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. How did you answer them? 'By being George Wallace, and finding out who you are as a comedian. And that takes between seven and eleven years.'
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  30. ^ Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 3:59-4:03. Retrieved 3 February 2019. A stage presence comes pretty quickly [but] how to write jokes and how to generate material and know it’s going to work; [concerning these, the] first ten years are building the [base] skills
  31. ^ Bobby Lee (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 1:02:38-1:02:48. Bombing is a necessary event. It’s the only way one gets better, but every time it happens, it’s very painful.
  32. ^ John Thomson (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 1:02:52-1:02:55. You’ve got to die to get good.
  33. ^ Seabaugh, Julie (18 March 2014). "Hannibal Buress: 'Bombing Can Be Good'". The Village VOICE. Hannibal Buress. VILLAGE VOICE, LLC. Retrieved 4 February 2019. Yeah, bombing can be good…you grow up and realize it’s about continuing to work. It’s about making progress.
  34. ^ Khazan, Olga (27 February 2014). "The Dark Psychology of Being a Good Comedian". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  35. ^ Lee, Stewart (2010). How I Escaped My Certain Fate: The Life and Deaths of a Stand-up Comedian. London, UK: faber and faber Ltd. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-571-25481-1. A show begins the moment the audience walk into a venue.
  36. ^ Chris Rock (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 11:24-11:31. A lot of comedians just want laugh, laugh, laugh…every, what is it, 15 seconds they say?
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  38. ^ Roye, Steve. "How Many Jokes Are In A Minute Of Stand-up Comedy Material?". Stand-up Comedy Tips. Retrieved 26 January 2019. If a comedian wants to generate headliner laughter levels, they need to average 4-6+ laughs per minute.
  39. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 253–254. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. As each comic’s usage of material varies (some say they use as few as two jokes a minute, other comics say they need a laugh every fifteen seconds or the act goes ‘in the toilet’)
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  41. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Stephen K Amos. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. The first two minutes is very important with a stand-up
  42. ^ Pete Lee (2017). I Need You To Kill (Motion picture). Comedy Dynamics. Event occurs at 31:27-31:56. I call the first two minutes, your flash. And that’s where you…go up there and…hook them with whatever material it is, so that they know exactly what’s funny about you and they trust you and they’ll come along with you for everything.
  43. ^ MacInnes, Paul (15 August 2004). "How can he show his face?". The Guardian. Karen Koren. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 22 March 2019. If you don't make them laugh in the first two minutes, you're fucked
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  50. ^ a b c Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-61373-692-0.
  51. ^ Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. pp. 136, 139. ISBN 978-1-4165-5364-9. One week, I opened for a show...I was now capable of doing two different twenty-five-minute sets per evening
  52. ^ Oswalt, Patton (14 June 2014). "A Closed Letter to Myself About Thievery, Heckling and Rape Jokes". Patton Oswalt. Patton Oswalt. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Open mikes are where, as a comedian [like Daniel Tosh and his controversy], you’re supposed to be allowed to fuck up.
  53. ^ Schaefer, Sara (16 March 2012). "Advice to a Young Comedian (& Myself)". Sara Schaefer. Retrieved 1 February 2019. the next day, my friend who was also on the show [in a theatre above a porn shop across from the Port Authority], told me a scout from casting at Fox was in the audience and they wanted to meet with him.
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  55. ^ Dunican, Angus (10 September 2012). "What do 'bringer' shows REALLY bring to the circuit?". Chortle. Retrieved 28 January 2019. it gets tarred with the brush of new-act exploitation and lumped in with less scrupulous nights and the insidious blight of pay-to-play...[but] I, personally, have found it to be a very nice room.
  56. ^ Kelly-Clyne, Luke (20 September 2018). "I Want Out How to Leave the Boring Job You Don't Like and Start Your Comedy Career". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. In order to get stage time at [bringer shows]…you [have to] bring…5 to 15 friends, each of whom must show up and agree to buy at least two drinks…Some people think bringers are a scam, and they kind of are. They’re a cash grab for club owners
  57. ^ Richardson, Jim (11 December 2013). "Evil "Bringer Shows" & "Pay-to-Play Shows" Are even worse Than the already discredited Open Mic system". Jim Richardson's Organized Comedy. Retrieved 28 January 2019. Some clubs require 10 bringers/show. If you show up with 9 people, you will not get on and your friends will not get their money back.
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  61. ^ Salvatore Attardo, ed. (2014). Encyclopedia of Humor Studies. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 417. ISBN 978-1-4129-9909-0. A canned joke is a generally short narrative ending in a punchline…[that] the speaker has memorized.
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  63. ^ Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 46. ISBN 1-59257-231-6. [T]he Universal Joke Formula: Premise + Point of View + Twist = Joke
  64. ^ Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 104. ISBN 1-879505-21-5. we can craft a joke just by creating and then defeating that specific expectation...introduction, validation, violation
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  66. ^ Neill, Geoffrey (22 December 2015). Hitting Your Funny Bone: Writing Stand-up Comedy, and Other Things That Make You Swear. San Bernardino, CA. p. Chapter 4. ISBN 9781515180661. A setup is the information a person needs to get the joke.
  67. ^ Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-61373-692-0. The setup is the essential information the audience needs in order to get the punchline
  68. ^ Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-444-10726-5. A joke…must have all the information implicit in the setup, so…the punchline…makes sense.
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  93. ^ Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 2:20-2:38. Retrieved 3 February 2019. failure is the road to being a great comic…failure is not succeeding in the moment
  94. ^ Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-58297-357-9. For every ten jokes written, only one might be acceptable
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  97. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Abby Stein. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 248. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. A ‘bit,’ Reiser explains, ‘is a group of words used to incorporate a premise and all variations thereof’
  98. ^ Woodward, Jenny (20 December 2012). "Jerry Seinfeld: How to Write a Joke" (video). The New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 1 February 2019. If you have a long bit, the biggest laugh has to be at the end. It has to be. It can't be in the middle or the beginning.
  99. ^ Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-58297-357-9. Since the setup has already been established, the second, third, and fourth jokes are short, shorter, shortest.
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  102. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 112–114, 118. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0.
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  104. ^ Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 190. ISBN 0-325-00179-0.
  105. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 91. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Every stand-up goes onstage as a character to some extent. Some may adopt a persona that’s very similar to their own personality, but it’s still a separate entity—a person telling jokes as opposed to telling the truth, which no ‘real’ person does. Even observational comics, who base their material in reality, use the truth not as an end but as a foundation on which to build jokes by taking the truth to its farthest [sic] extreme.
  106. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Budd Friedman. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 261. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. [W]hat’s more important, material or delivery? I had to say it’s the material.
  107. ^ Budd Friedman (28 January 2010). I Am Comic (film). IFC Films. Event occurs at 31:25-31:34. when the material is good, you can overlook anything
  108. ^ Alleyne, Richard (6 May 2011). "Why comedians get laughs for even their worst jokes". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 22 March 2019. We argue that using the name of someone who people consider funny generates an expectancy of humour when hearing a joke.
  109. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Irvin Arthur. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 274. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. I [Irvin Arthur] firmly believe that it’s the persona first, and then the material.
  110. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Abby Stein. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 252. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. [P]ersonality is far more important than material
  111. ^ Oliver Double (2011). Alan Yentob (ed.). The Art of Stand-Up (TV). United Kingdom: BBC: One. Event occurs at 47:23-47:48. The classic theorist would be Freud. Tendentious jokes…a difficult or edgy subject is going to create a certain tension in the audience, and having created the tension, if your punchline is funny, the laugh is bigger.
  112. ^ Strauss, Neil (24 January 1999). "My Brief, Weird Life as a Stand-Up Comic". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 February 2019. A good standup creates a tension in the room, which the audience wants to break with laughter. If you can do this, any punch line will work as a release valve.
  113. ^ Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 53. ISBN 1-879505-21-5. Every time you start a joke, you create some tension...If the joke works, then all that stored is released at the punchline in the form of laughter.
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  117. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0.
  118. ^ Stuart Goldsmith (5 March 2014). "The Comedian's Comedian with Stuart Goldsmith: 67 – GARY DELANEY (LIVE)". The Comedian’s Comedian (Podcast). Stuart Goldsmith. Event occurs at 5:00-5:38. Retrieved 3 February 2019. You start off, and you want to be like your heroes…you start out under the naive belief that you get to choose your style…[but] your style of comedy chooses you…it's a misnomer when people say you need to think about your persona…its all bollocks about persona and timing. I didn’t set out to be a one-liner comic, but I was shit at everything else.
  119. ^ Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. pp. 66–72. ISBN 978-1-61373-692-0.
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  121. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 168. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. After deciding to become a stand-up…Cathy Ladman worked to develop ‘five decent minutes’
  122. ^ Maxwell, Dobie (December 2013). "A Tight Five..." Comedy of Chicago. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  123. ^ Waithe, Elsa (2017-11-06). "How to Write a 5-Minute Comedy Set". Gold Comedy. Gold Comedy. Retrieved 25 March 2019. ‘tight five’ —five minutes of solid go-to jokes that show who you are and reliably get laughs.
  124. ^ Roye, Steve (26 February 2019). "Your First 5 Minutes Of Stand-up Comedy Material". Real First Steps. Retrieved 25 March 2019. A tight 5 minutes of stand-up comedy material generates an average 4-6+ collective audience laughs each performing minute.
  125. ^ Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-61373-692-0. If you have an all 'A' [material] 5-minute set, you'll get paid nothing.
  126. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 169. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. Fran Capo [states that]…an audition is usually five minutes.
  127. ^ Richardson, Jim (29 December 2013). "The physical brain prefers concrete over abstract activities: How to Easily Memorize Your Jokes". Jim Richardson's Organized Comedy. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  128. ^ Morgan, Nick (5 March 2015). "The Public Speaking Secrets Of Comedians". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. . Retrieved 22 March 2019. To avoid going blank on stage, use the Memory Palace.
  129. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Gary Delaney. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. I'm currently using memory palaces or I think the loci method
  130. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Hannibal Buress. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. I will put a set list on the stage monitor
  131. ^ Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. pp. 176–178. ISBN 978-1-61373-692-0.
  132. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Jim Jefferies. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 230–231. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. I have a list of three or four [comebacks]...and the rest will be off the cuff
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  138. ^ Sacks, Mike (2014). Poking a Dead Frog: Conversations with Today's Top Comedy Writers. NY, NY: Penguin Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-14-312378-1.
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  142. ^ Schwenson, Dave (2005). COMEDY FAQS AND ANSWERS: HOW THE STAND-UP BIZ REALLY WORKS. New York, NY: ALLWORTH PRESS. p. 68. ISBN 1-58115-411-9.
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  144. ^ Jeff McBride, Harrison Tweed. "Episode 48 The Setup". Let’s Talk About Sets (Podcast). Event occurs at 8:35-8:49. Retrieved 29 August 2019. One definition of hack is that you [the stand-up comedian] are thinking about what the audience wants instead of what you think is funny…as opposed to being the artist that comes up with something new.
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  149. ^ Double, Oliver (19 September 2012). Britain Had Talent: A History of Variety Theatre. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 9781137265623. The line connecting Max Miller to modern comedians such as Michael McIntyre is by no means unbroken, but the fact is that the very form of stand-up evolved from music hall song, and started life as the front cloth comedy of variety.
  150. ^ "The last of Vaudeville: Ken Dodd died on March 11th". The Economist. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2019. [Ken Dodd] was the last of the front-cloth comedians, meaning they dropped a cloth behind you while they cleared up the stage from the Liberty Horses and got it ready for the man who pulled doves out of his jacket, and there you were, but with an act that had been burnished until it was a jewel. And he knew he was the last, for all the greats, from Max Miller on, had crossed the boards before him.
  151. ^ Hunter, I.Q.; Porter, Laraine (2012). British Comedy Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 9781136508370. In 1929, he finally settled on Frank Randle and became a ‘front-cloth’ comic, performing his character sketch routines.
  152. ^ Double, Oliver (2005). Getting The Joke: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. A&C Black. pp. 34, 37. ISBN 9780413774767. [C]omedians like Max Miller, Tommy Trinder, Ted Ray, Billy Russell, Suzette Tarri, Beryl Reid and Frankie Howerd performed something which was stand-up comedy in all but name. These performers were known as 'front-cloth comics.' The name derives from the staging of British variety theatre, in which acts which used the full stage—such as sketch comedians who normally used the set—alternated with ones which could be performed in front of the [stage] curtain—the front-cloth comedians…Front-cloth comedy existed at least as early as the 1920s…[British] [f]ront-cloth comedians…[survived] their US equivalents, the monologists, because British variety survived decades longer than American vaudeville…[F]ront-cloth comics on the variety theatres had used catchphrases, costumes and comic personas, their acts fleshed out with songs and even dances
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  175. ^ Brown, Georgia (16 March 2007). "Five top comedy festivals around the world". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  176. ^ Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Jim Jefferies. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-4725-2638-0. Go to festivals, because that's where you get noticed by the media...[and] gauge [yourself against] everybody else.
  177. ^ Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Buddy Mora. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 280. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. I [Buddy Morra] go to the Montreal and Aspen comedy festivals, but I haven’t seen much that’s knocked me out.
  178. ^ Wayne Federman (18 June 2019). "S2 EP. 03: THE APOLLO AND THE CHITLIN' CIRCUIT". The History of Standup (Podcast). The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 3:12-4:00. Retrieved 17 August 2019. The Chitlin’ Circuit was a collection of all-black venues, clubs, [and] theaters—that was in the United States during the era of, basically racial segregation, and this is not just in the South my friend. This is in the North as well, where a lot of African-American families came north during what’s called the Great Migration and a number of clubs opened up specifically in these neighborhoods—which were redlined—and subsequently launched some of the greatest music and comedy acts we’ve ever known. And so the Apollo Theater was in the chitlin circuit. Not only in it, the crown jewel.
  179. ^ Nesteroff, Kliph (22 December 2015). "Make 'Em Laugh: 'The Comedians' Tells The Story Of Stand-Up". NPR. Retrieved 20 August 2019. The Chitlin' Circuit was African-American comedians performing for African-American audiences because comedy was segregated back then…But it was not acceptable in those days for a black comedian to address a white crowd, because as a comedian on stage, you are superior to your audience. You are giving them your point of view — and in those days it wasn't allowed, so the Chitlin' Circuit alleviated that thing.
  180. ^ McNary, Dave (13 February 2019). "Apollo Theater Documentary Selected as Tribeca Festival Opener". Variety. Retrieved 20 August 2019. The Apollo began operating in 1934 during the Harlem Renaissance and became the most prized venue on the ‘Chitlin’ Circuit’ during the time of racial segregation in the United States.
  181. ^ Barnes, Mo (9 January 2019). "A conversation with Luenell: When does Black comedy become hurtful?". rollingout. Retrieved 20 August 2019. Comedians such as Redd Foxx, Dick Gregory, Richard Pryor and Moms Mabley were popular first in clubs on the ‘Chitlin’ Circuit’ in urban hubs.
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  185. ^ Wayne Federman (11 June 2019). "S2 Ep. 02: The Playboy Circuit". Apple Podcasts (Podcast). Tom Dreesen. The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 23:00-23:30. Retrieved 17 August 2019. When I started out in show business, there were no comedy clubs. Every nightclub in America had a comic...They [Playboy] had two showrooms, The Penthouse and The Playroom...When they’re ready to start the show...The girl singer would go on and do 3 or 4 songs and then, she would finish, and we’d come on and we’d be doing like 45 minutes and she would do 15 like minutes
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  193. ^ Chris Fleming (comedian), Michael Moynihan (Vice News), Jason Meier (Emerson College booker), Kat Michael (Simmons College booker), Katy Hamm (Lesly University booker), Judy Gold (comedian) (24 May 2018). College Campuses Can Be Minefields For Comedians (HBO) (YouTube) (Streaming). Boston: VICE News Tonight: HBO. Event occurs at 3:32-3:39. Retrieved 8 February 2019. [A comedian] can talk about [their] experience, but [they] can't make fun of someone else's identity.
  194. ^ Ellis, Iain (8 February 2018). "Haven't You Learned How to Take a Joke? The Comedy-on-Campus Debates". popMATTERS: Culture. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Thus, college comedians can mock those groups "liberal" students deride—Evangelical Christians, Scientologists, working-class rural males—yet they dare not even flirt with jokes about race, gender, and sexuality.
  195. ^ Rich, Frank (1 December 2014). "In Conversation Chris Rock: What's killing comedy. What's saving America". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 10 February 2019. I stopped playing colleges…because they’re way too conservative…in their social views and their willingness not to offend anybody.
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  197. ^ Chris Fleming (comedian), Michael Moynihan (Vice News), Jason Meier (Emerson College booker), Kat Michael (Simmons College booker), Katy Hamm (Lesly University booker), Judy Gold (comedian) (24 May 2018). College Campuses Can Be Minefields For Comedians (HBO) (YouTube) (Streaming). Boston: VICE News Tonight: HBO. Event occurs at 4:15-4:26. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Judy gold is one of many famous comics, including Jerry Seinfeld and Chris Rock who say they avoid playing college campuses, because they believe younger audiences can't take a joke.
  198. ^ Ellis, Iain (8 February 2018). "Haven't You Learned How to Take a Joke? The Comedy-on-Campus Debates". popMATTERS: Culture. Retrieved 10 February 2019. It is notable that the majority of the most vociferous critics of today's student audiences—Seinfeld, Maher, Gottfried, Louis CK, Dennis Miller, Larry the Cable Guy—are middle-aged (or older), white, presumably heterosexual males...Ricky Gervais...too
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  204. ^ Stewart Lee (3 July 2013). On Not Writing (Lecture) (YouTube). St Edmund Hall: University of Oxford. Event occurs at 46:40-47:40. Retrieved 13 February 2019. I can’t ever do the lucrative, corporate gigs that…because in that…people can get paid a lot of money for doing half an hour at a bankers' convention, but you have to be the sort of person that appears to please people…[and not treat them as] deficient
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  207. ^ Guglielmi, Jodi (24 June 2013). "12 jobs comedians had before they were famous: Kevin Hart, Jon Stewart, Louis C.K. and more!". LaughSpin. LaughSpin. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
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  210. ^ a b Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Jay Leno. Silman-James Press. pp. 124–125. ISBN 1-879505-54-1. I've [Jay Leno] always told comedians that if you can do this for seven years, I mean physically make it to the stage for seven years, you’ll always make a living...You start to get paid at the end of the fourth or fifth year—I mean paid in terms of here’s $500 dollars for one night, not $15 or $20 for a set.
  211. ^ Koester, Megan (26 June 2014). "How to Be a Touring Stand-Up Comic". VICE. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  212. ^ Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 12. ISBN 9781468004847. The first paying position a comic can land is to emcee or host a show.
  213. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Chris Dipetta. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 67. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. People like Leno and Wright can make ten thousand dollars a show now—that’s not shocking. What’s shocking is that I’m a virtually unknown comic and I make about one hundred twenty-five thousand dollars a year.
  214. ^ Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 79. ISBN 9781468004847. An emcee will make usually from $10-$35 a show. It's usually $25.
  215. ^ Strauss, Duncan (3 November 1988). "Comedy: The Clubbing of America: The rise of comedy club chains". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 10 September 2019. At the better chains, middle acts earn a weekly salary of $600 and up; headliners, anywhere from $2000 to $10,000, plus air fare and lodging – usually at the club's 'comedy condo' in town...The chief variable is drawing power, based on accumulated TV and movie credits.
  216. ^ Hofstetter, Steve (2 July 2015). "What to Expect when You're Expecting...to be Paid at a Club". Comedy Hints: Helping Comedians Help Themselves. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  217. ^ O’Brien, Jane (21 October 2015). "No laughing matter: The secrets behind comedy success". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2019. If it's somebody starting off in the business it could be $1,500 a show. For somebody who's had some TV credits you could go from $4,500 to $7,500.
  218. ^ Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 87. ISBN 9781468004847. the famous comics have what’s called a “door deal” and get paid based on the amount of people in the crowd.
  219. ^ Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Rick Messina. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 68. ISBN 0-671-62620-5. It depends on the TV exposure of the comic, whether the comic draws and if he can command a higher ticket price.
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