Srikakulam district

Srikakulam district is one of the twenty-six districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, with its headquarters located at Srikakulam.[5][6] It is one of the nine coastal districts, located in the extreme northeastern direction of the state. It was formerly known as Chicacole.

Srikakulam district
700 CE Mukhalingeswara Temples Group, Kalinga architecture, Mukhalingam, Andhra Pradesh - 84.jpg
2nd century BCE to 8th century CE Salihundam Buddhist site, Andhra Pradesh - 54.jpg
Ancient Buddhist site, Kalingapatnam Andhra Pradesh - 12.jpg
11th century Kurmanatha Swamy Temple, Srikurmam Andhra Pradesh 02.jpg
Megalithic Dolmen at Dannanapeta 03.jpg
Category: Srimukhalingam Temple at Mukhalingam, Ruined Stupa near Salihundam, Kurmanathaswamy temple, Srikurmam, Dolmens near Dannanapeta, Buddhist site at Kalingapatnam
Location in Andhra Pradesh
Location in Andhra Pradesh
Srikakulam district
Coordinates: 18°25′N 84°01′E / 18.417°N 84.017°E / 18.417; 84.017Coordinates: 18°25′N 84°01′E / 18.417°N 84.017°E / 18.417; 84.017
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
HeadquartersSrikakulam
Administrative Divisions
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesSrikakulam, Vizianagaram
 • Assembly constituencies08
Area
 • Total4,591 km2 (1,773 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total2,191,437
 • Density463/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
  • Rank6th
 • Urban
[3]: 14 
436,703
 • Rural
[3]: 14 
2,266,411
 • Households
681,330
 • Sex ratio
1,015 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Literacy
 • Literates1495381
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
532xxx
Area codes+91–8942
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[4]
Websitesrikakulam.ap.gov.in

HistoryEdit

 
Iron Age megalithic Dolmen at Dannanapeta near Amudalavalasa

PrehistoryEdit

Evidence of early historic man and his activities during the Stone Age and Iron Age have been discovered at Sangamayya Konda and Dannanapeta. The speciality of Dannanapeta Iron Age megalithic site is a large single capstone as a dolmen with 36 ft in length and 14 ft in width and 2 ft thickness. Sailada Hills consists of 36 upright rocks and natural caves used for habitation by Iron Age man in Amudalavalasa mandal of the district.[7]

Jainism and BuddhismEdit

 
Salihundam Historic Buddhist Remains Site

Evidences of Jain monuments and Buddhist remnants were discovered near Sangamayya Konda. Jain rock beds were discovered at Dannanapeta near Amudalavalasa in the district. Salihundam is a famous Buddhist remnants site on the south bank of River Vamsadhara 5 kilometres west of Kalingapatnam and 18 kilometres from Srikakulam town.[8]

Post IndependenceEdit

Srikakulam District was carved out in 1950 by bifurcating it from Visakhapatnam District. It remained unaffected in its territorial jurisdiction for some time. But in November 1969 the district lost 63 villages from Saluru Taluk and 44 villages from Bobbili Taluk on account of their transfer to the then newly constituted Gajapathinagaram Taluk of Visakhapatnam District.

In May 1979, the district underwent major territorial changes with the formation of a new district with headquarters at Vizianagaram which involved transfer of Salur, Bobbili, Parvathipuram and Cheepurupalli Taluks to the new district. Srikakulam's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres.[9]

GeographyEdit

Srikakulam district occupies an area of 4,591 square kilometres (1,773 sq mi),[10] comparatively equivalent to Australia's Trinidad and Tobago.[11] It is within the geographic coordinates of 18°-20’ and 19°-10’ N and 83°-50’ and 84°-50’ E. The district is skirted to a distance by Kandivalasagedda, Vamsadhara and Bahuda at certain stretches of their courses while a line of heights of the great Eastern Ghats run from the northeast. Vizianagaram district and Parvathipuram Manyam district flanks in the south and west while Odisha bounds it on the north and Bay of Bengal on the East. Srikakulam district can be divided into two main distinct natural divisions. A portion of Srikakulam district is plain terrain with intense agriculture and the other is rocky and hilly terrain covered with forests. Some of the Mahendragiri Hills covers Srikakulam district. Most of the forest area of the plain terrain has been damaged by intense agriculture. Kotthuru, Hiramandalam, Pathapatnam, Kalingadal reservoir and some other areas are still covered with dense forests. Srikakulam is 100 km (62 mi) north of Visakhapatnam. It has a population of 2,703,114 of which 10.98% is urban as of 2001. Srikakulam district has the longest coastline (about 193 km (120 mi)) in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

Major rivers flowing through the district are River Nagavali, River Vamsadhara, Mahendratanaya, Champavati, Bahuda, Kumbhikota Gedda, Suvarnamukhi, Vegavati, Gomukhi. The Nagavali and Vamsadhara are the major rivers in Srikakulam district. These two river basins together constitute about 5% of the area. The Mahendratanaya and Bahuda rivers are two minor river basins in the district. Others are Benjigedda, Peddagedda, Kandivalasa gedda. Major irrigation projects on these rivers — Vamsadhara Project, Narayanapuram Anicut, Thotapalli Regulator — and some medium projects at Pydigam Project, Onigadda provide a total ayacut of 69,373 acres (280.74 km2).

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2011 census Srikakulam district has a population of 2,703,114,[12] roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait[13] or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 147th in India (out of a total of 640).[12] The district has a population density of 462 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,200/sq mi).[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 6.38%.[12] Srikakulam has a sex ratio of 1014 females for every 1000 males,[12] and a literacy rate of 62.3%.[12] After reorganization the district had a population of 21,91,437. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 1,85,890 (8.48%) and 94,371 (4.31%) of the population respectively.[2]: 86–89 

Religions in Srikakulam district (2011)[14]
Religion Percent
Hindus
98.79%
Christians
0.54%
Other or not stated
0.67%
Distribution of religions

At the time of the 2011 census, 92.34% of the population spoke Telugu and 6.18% Odia as their first language. Saora is also spoken by over 20,000 people in the district.[15]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,060,467—    
19111,101,199+0.38%
19211,123,461+0.20%
19311,222,767+0.85%
19411,333,341+0.87%
19511,405,792+0.53%
19611,555,369+1.02%
19711,769,968+1.30%
19811,959,352+1.02%
19912,321,126+1.71%
20012,537,593+0.90%
20112,703,114+0.63%
source:[16]

Household indicatorsEdit

According to 2007–08, International Institute for Population Sciences,[17] 86.9% had access to electricity, 70.4% had drinking water, 18.5% toilet facilities, and 47.2% lived in a pucca (permanent) home.[17] 31.5% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 90.1% of interviewees carried a BPL card.[17]


Administrative DivisionsEdit

 
The revenue divisions of Srikakulam district are Srikakulam, Palakonda and Tekkali

The district has three revenue divisions — Srikakulam, Palasa and Tekkali. They are divided into 30 mandals in the district. The district has 12 towns and 973 villages. There are one municipal corporation, three municipalities, two nagar panchayats and seven census towns. The municipal corporation in the district is Srikakulam and three municipalities in the district are Amadalavalasa, Ichchapuram, Palasa-Kasibugga. The six census towns are Balaga, Hiramandalam, Narasannapeta, Ponduru, Sompeta, Tekkali.[18]

MandalsEdit

The 30 mandals in Srikakulam district under three revenue divisions are listed in the following table:[19][20]

# Palasa Division Tekkali Division Srikakulam Division
1 Ichchapuram mandal Tekkali mandal Srikakulam
2 Kaviti mandal Santha Bommali mandal Gara mandal
3 Sompeta mandal Kotabommali mandal Amadalavalasa mandal
4 Kanchili mandal Pathapatnam mandal Ponduru mandal
5 Palasa Meliaputti mandal Sarubujjili mandal
6 Mandasa mandal Saravakota mandal Burja mandal
7 Vajrapu Kotturu mandal Kothuru mandal Narasannapeta mandal
8 Nandigam mandal Hiramandalam mandal Polaki mandal
9 Laksminarasupeta mandal Etcherla mandal
10 Laveru mandal
11 Ranastalam mandal
12 Ganguvari Sigadam mandal
13 Jalumuru mandal

Parliament segmentEdit

Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency), Vizianagaram (Lok Sabha constituency)


Assembly segmentsEdit

The seven Assembly segments of Srikakulam Lok Sabha and One Assembly segment of Vijayanagaram Lok Sabha constituency are:

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
1 Ichchapuram None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
2 Palasa None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
3 Tekkali None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
4 Pathapatnam None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
5 Srikakulam None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
6 Amadalavalasa None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
7 Narasannapeta None Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency)
8 Etcherla None Vizianagaram (Lok Sabha constituency)

Erstwhile TalukasEdit

Before Formation of Mandals, Administration was done through Taluka system. Erstwhile Talukas in district is given below.

In 1978, the number of talukas in Srikakulam district was increased from 14 to 19. Later in 1985, 19 Talukas were divided into 60 mandals, out of which 14 talukas were in Srikakulam further bifurcated into 38 Mandals.

S.No. Erstwhile Talukas

in 1971

Newly Formed Talukas

in 1978

Newly Formed Mandals

in 1985

1 Srikakulam Srikakulam Srikakulam, Gara,
Amadalavalasa Amadalavalasa, Burja [part], Sarubujjili,
2 Palakonda Palakonda Palakonda, Vanagara, Burja [part], Seethampeta,
Rajam Veeraghattam, Regidi, Rajam, Santhakaviti,
3 Pathapatnam Pathapatnam Pathapatnam, Kothuru [part], Hiramandalam[part], Saravakota, Meliaputti, Tekkali [part],
Hiramandalam Hiramandalam[part], Bhamini, Kothuru [part], Lakshminarsupeta
4 Narasannapet Narasannapet Narasannapet, Polaki [part],
Kotabommali Kotabommali [part], Polaki [part], Jalumuru, Santhabommali [part],
5 Tekkali Tekkali Tekkali [part], Kotabommali [part], Santhabommali [part], Nandigam [part], Varjapukothuru [part]
Palasa Palasa, Nandigam [part], Varjapukothuru [part],
6 Sompeta Sompeta Sompeta, mandasa,
7 Ichchapuram Ichchapuram Ichchapuram, Kaviti,
8 Cheepurupalle Ranasthalam Ranasthalam, Laveru,
Ponduru Ganguvari sigadam, Pondhuru, Etcherla,
***Cheepurupalle [New Vizianagaram] Vizianagaram District
9 Bobbili ***Bobbili [New Vizianagaram]
10 Salur ***Salur [New Vizianagaram]
11 Parvathipuram ***Parvathipuram [New Vizianagaram]

Parliamentary and Assembly constituenciesEdit

There are three Parliamentary Constituencies and 10 assembly constituencies in Srikakulam district. Parliamentary constituencies include Srikakulam, Araku, and Vizianagaram.[21]

The 10 Assembly Constituencies are Amadalavalasa, Rajam, Tekkali, Ichchapuram, Palasa, Narasannapeta, Palakonda, Pathapatnam, Srikakulam and Etcherla.

Municipalities in DistrictEdit

S.No. City / Town Civic Status of Town No.of

Wards

Municipality

Formation year

2011 Census Population 2001 Census Population 1991 Census Population 1981 Census Population 1971 Census Population 1961 Census Population 1951 Census Population
1 Srikakulam Municipal Corporation 50 1856 1,37,944 1,17,320 88,883 68,145 45,179 35,071 24,212
2 Palasa-Kasibugga Municipality Grade - 2 31 2000 57,507 49,899 33,057 23,737 17,439 -- --
3 Amadalavalasa Municipality Grade - 2 27 1987 39,799 37,931 34,395 18,005 13,842 -- --
4 Ichapuram Municipality Grade - 3 23 1986 36,493 32,662 29,564 19,152 15,850 12,961 11,390

EconomyEdit

 
Khadi weaving at Ponduru, Srikakulam district

The gross district domestic product (GDDP) of the district is 19,942 crore (US$2.5 billion) and it contributes 3.8% to the gross state domestic product (GSDP). For FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 57,174 (US$720). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 4,855 crore (US$610 million), 4,114 crore (US$520 million) and 10,973 crore (US$1.4 billion) respectively.[22]

Tribal communities such as the Saora and Jatapus still practise the traditional podu system of cultivation.[23]

Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, a major pharmaceutical company, is at Pydibhimavaram.

TransportEdit

 
APSRTC bus depot locations

The total road length of state highways in the district is 959 km (596 mi).[24] Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation runs bus services to all the major cities and towns of the state from the district. Major railway stations in the district include Amudalavalasa, Srikakulam Road railway station, Palasa railway station ( major station) Naupada, Ichchapuram and Sompeta etc.

CultureEdit

The district is renowned for the brassware products namely, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, which are made at Budithi village. These are registered as geographic indication from Andhra Pradesh.[25]

The district has many people from fields like film industry, music, art and architecture etc. Among the notable people are Vaddadi Papaiah, J. V. Somayajulu, Gidugu Venkata Ramamoorty, Sarat babu, LV Revanth(Indian idol), Rao Ramesh, Rao gopala Rao, Sai kumar, Pingali Nagendrarao, and Kalipatnam Ramarao.[citation needed]

SportsEdit

Kodi Rammurthy Naidu (body builder), Karnam Malleswari (Olympic medalist), Pujari Sailaja in weight lifting are famous people from the district.

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[26][27] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are 3,875 schools. They include, 55 government, 2,833 mandal and zilla parishads, 1 residential, 573 private, 14 model, 32 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 85 municipal and 282 other types of schools.[28] The number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district is 371,472.[29]

The only university in the district is Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Srikakulam[30] and medical colleges are Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences in Srikakulam town, GEMS—Great Eastern Medical Speciality and Hospital in Ragolu village.

TemplesEdit

There are seven temples under the management of Endowments Department.[31]

Trust controlled Temples
S.no Temple Mandal Village
1 Sri Kodanda Rama Swamy Temple SRIKAKULAM BALAGA (RURAL)
2 Sri Maninageswara Swamy Temple SRIKAKULAM KALLEPALLE
3 Sri Kothamma Ammavari Temple KOTABOMMILI KOTABOMMILI
4 Sri Kota Durga Ammavari Temple PALAKONDA PALAKONDA
5 Sri Neelamani Durga Ammavari Temple PATHAPATNAM PATHAPATNAM
6 Sri Yendala Mallikarjuna Swamy Temple TEKKALI RAAVI VALASA
7 Sri Hatakeswara Swamy Temple SRIKAKULAM Singupuram
8 Sri kurmam Temple GARA SRI KURMAM
9 Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Temple ARASAVELLI ARASAVELLI

Important Commodities Produced / Manufactured in the DistrictEdit

Following are the towns & villages with respective commodities produced across the district.[32]

S# Town Commodities
1 Srikakulam Jute, Bricks, Iron Articles
2 Palasa Kasibugga Cashew Nuts, Coir Ropes, Sugar
3 Ichchapuram Coir Ropes, Bricks, Stone Carving
4 Sompeta Cashew Nuts, Baskets
5 Hiramandalam Groundnut Oil
6 Palakonda Sugar
7 Tekkali Aluminium Moulding
8 Rajam Jute Twine, Synthetic, Yarn, Iron Rods
9 Amadalavalasa Sugar
10 Narasannapeta Jaggery
11 Balaga Jute, Bricks
12 Ponduru Textiles, Ground Nut

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ correspondent, dc (26 January 2022). "Government at doorstep: Andhra Pradesh to have 26 new districts". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book – Srikakulam" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book – Srikakulam" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  4. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Srikakulam | Andhra Pradesh | DISTRICTS OF INDIA". districts.nic.in. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Population of AP districts(2011)" (PDF). ap.gov.in. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  7. ^ "Iron Age habitation found in Srikakulam". The Hindu. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  8. ^ "Remnants of Jain monuments found". 21 August 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  9. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  10. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti; et al., eds. (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  11. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Melville Island 5,765km2
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Kuwait 2,595,62
  14. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  15. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  16. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  17. ^ a b c "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08: India. Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  18. ^ "ULB Lists". Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Mandals | District Srikakulam, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India". Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  20. ^ "New AP Map: Check Out Biggest and Smallest Districts in Andhra Pradesh". Sakshi Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  21. ^ "District-wise Assembly-Constituencies". ceoandhra.nic.in.
  22. ^ "Economy of Srikakulam District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  23. ^ von Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph (1982). Tribes of India: The Struggle for Survival. University of California Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-520-04315-2.
  24. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  25. ^ "State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications" (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  26. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  27. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  28. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  29. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Welcome :: Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University, Srikakulam, AP. INDIA". brau.in. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011.
  31. ^ "Trust Boards Abstract". AP Temples Portal, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  32. ^ https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/2811_PART_A_DCHB_SRIKAKULAM.pdf[bare URL PDF]

External linksEdit