The spiny turbots are a family, Psettodidae, of relatively large, primitive flatfish found in the tropical waters of the east Atlantic and Indo-Pacific.[1] The family contains just three species, all in the same genus, Psettodes. The common name comes from the presence of spines in the dorsal and anal fins, which may indicate an evolutionary relationship with the Perciformes. They are less asymmetrical than other flatfish, although the region around the eyes is twisted.[2] They reach lengths of 55–80 cm (22–31 in).[3]

Spiny turbots
Indian halibut (P. erumei)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Pleuronectiformes
Family: Psettodidae
Bonaparte, 1846
Genus: Psettodes
E. T. Bennett, 1831
Type species
Psettodes belcheri
Bennett, 1831
Late stage larvae of P. erumei


The currently recognized species in this genus are:[3]


  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Psettodidae" in FishBase. November 2008 version.
  2. ^ Chapleau, Francois & Amaoka, Kunio (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 223–224. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). Species of Psettodes in FishBase. December 2012 version.