Open main menu

The ruins of Spiš Castle (Slovak: Spišský hrad, About this sound pronunciation ; Hungarian: Szepesi vár; German: Zipser Burg) in eastern Slovakia form one of the largest castle sites in Central Europe. The castle is situated above the town of Spišské Podhradie and the village of Žehra, in the region known as Spiš (Hungarian: Szepes, German: Zips, Polish: Spisz, Latin: Scepusium). It was included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1993 (together with the adjacent locations of Spišská Kapitula, Spišské Podhradie and Žehra). This is one of the biggest European castles by area (41 426 m²).

Spiš Castle (Spišský hrad)
Castle
Spissky Hrad-LV-2.jpg
Spiš Castle
Country Slovakia
Region Prešov
District Spišská Nová Ves
Municipality Žehra
Elevation 634 m (2,080 ft)
Coordinates 49°00′02″N 20°46′06″E / 49.00056°N 20.76833°E / 49.00056; 20.76833Coordinates: 49°00′02″N 20°46′06″E / 49.00056°N 20.76833°E / 49.00056; 20.76833
Area 41,426 m2 (445,906 sq ft)
Styles Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance
Material Masonry
Founded 12th century
Abandoned 1760
Visitation 208,000 (2016)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Name Levoča, Spišský Hrad and the Associated Cultural Monuments
Year 1993 (#17)
Number 620
Region Europe and North America
Criteria iv
Location of Spiš Castle in Slovakia
Location of Spiš Castle in Slovakia
Location of Spiš Castle in the Prešov Region
Location of Spiš Castle in the Prešov Region
Wikimedia Commons: Spiš Castle

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Aerial photography of the castle
 
Spiš castle - the central part.

Spiš Castle was built in the 12th century on the site of an earlier castle. It was the political, administrative, economic and cultural centre of Szepes County[1] of the Kingdom of Hungary. Before 1464, it was owned by the kings of Hungary, afterwards (until 1528) by the Zápolya family, the Thurzó family (1531–1635), the Csáky family (1638–1945), and (since 1945) by the state of Czechoslovakia then Slovakia.

Originally a Romanesque stone castle with fortifications, a two-story Romanesque palace and a three-nave Romanesque-Gothic basilica were constructed by the second half of the 13th century. A second extramural settlement was built in the 14th century, by which the castle area was doubled. The castle was completely rebuilt in the 15th century; the castle walls were heightened and a third extramural settlement was constructed. A late Gothic chapel was added around 1470. The Zápolya clan performed late Gothic transformations, which made the upper castle into a comfortable family residence, typical of late Renaissance residences of the 16th and 17th centuries. The last owners of the Spiš Castle, the Csáky family, abandoned the castle in the early 18th century because they considered it too uncomfortable to live in. They moved to the newly built nearby village castles/palaces in Hodkovce near Žehra and Spišský Hrhov.

Decline and reconstructionEdit

In 1780, the castle was destroyed in a fire. The cause of the blaze is unknown, but there are a few theories. One is that the Csáky family purposely burned it down to reduce taxes as at the time additional taxes applied to roofed buildings. Another is that it was struck by lightning, which started the fire. A third is that some soldiers in the castle were making moonshine and in the process accidentally started the fire. Whatever the case, after the fire, the castle was no longer occupied and began to fall into disrepair.[2] The castle was partly reconstructed in the second half of the 20th century, and extensive archaeological research was carried out on the site. The reconstructed sections house displays of the Spiš Museum, and artifacts such as torture devices formerly used in the castle.

Image galleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kenneth Meyer Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, American Philosophical Society, 1984, p. 315 [1]
  2. ^ (in Slovak) [2]

External linksEdit