Open main menu

Wikipedia β

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree n, denoted SU(n), is the Lie group of n×n unitary matrices with determinant 1.

(More general unitary matrices may have complex determinants with absolute value 1, rather than real 1 in the special case.)

The group operation is matrix multiplication. The special unitary group is a subgroup of the unitary group U(n), consisting of all n×n unitary matrices. As a compact classical group, U(n) is the group that preserves the standard inner product on Cn.[nb 1] It is itself a subgroup of the general linear group, SU(n) ⊂ U(n) ⊂ GL(n, C).

The SU(n) groups find wide application in the Standard Model of particle physics, especially SU(2) in the electroweak interaction and SU(3) in quantum chromodynamics.[1]

The simplest case, SU(1), is the trivial group, having only a single element. The group SU(2) is isomorphic to the group of quaternions of norm 1, and is thus diffeomorphic to the 3-sphere. Since unit quaternions can be used to represent rotations in 3-dimensional space (up to sign), there is a surjective homomorphism from SU(2) to the rotation group SO(3) whose kernel is {+I, −I}.[nb 2] SU(2) is also identical to one of the symmetry groups of spinors, Spin(3), that enables a spinor presentation of rotations.



The special unitary group SU(n) is a real Lie group (though not a complex Lie group). Its dimension as a real manifold is n2 − 1. Topologically, it is compact and simply connected.[2] Algebraically, it is a simple Lie group (meaning its Lie algebra is simple; see below).[3]

The center of SU(n) is isomorphic to the cyclic group Zn, and is composed of the diagonal matrices ζ I for ζ an nth root of unity and I the n×n identity matrix.

Its outer automorphism group, for n ≥ 3, is Z2, while the outer automorphism group of SU(2) is the trivial group.

A maximal torus, of rank n − 1, is given by the set of diagonal matrices with determinant 1. The Weyl group is the symmetric group Sn, which is represented by signed permutation matrices (the signs being necessary to ensure the determinant is 1).

The Lie algebra of SU(n), denoted by  , can be identified with the set of traceless antihermitian n×n complex matrices, with the regular commutator as Lie bracket. Particle physicists often use a different, equivalent representation: the set of traceless hermitian n×n complex matrices with Lie bracket given by i times the commutator.

Infinitesimal generatorsEdit

The Lie algebra u(n) can be generated by n2 operators  , i, j= 1, 2, ..., n, which satisfy the commutator relationships


for i, j, k, = 1, 2, ..., n, where δjk denotes the Kronecker delta. One matrix implementation is given by


which has 1 in the ij-entry and zeros elsewhere. Since the identity operator commutes with every   it may be subtracted from the   to form traceless operators without disturbing the commutation relations,


The number of independent generators of su(n) is then n2 − 1 .[4]

Fundamental representationEdit

In the defining, or fundamental, representation of su(n) the generators Ta are represented by traceless hermitian complex n×n matrices, where:


where the f are the structure constants and are antisymmetric in all indices, while the d-coefficients are symmetric in all indices. As a consequence, the anticommutator and commutator are:


We also take


as a normalization convention.

Adjoint representationEdit

In the (n2 − 1) -dimensional adjoint representation, the generators are represented by (n2 − 1) × (n2 − 1) matrices, whose elements are defined by the structure constants themselves:


n = 2Edit

SU(2) is the following group,[5]


where the overline denotes complex conjugation.

Isomorphism with S3Edit

If we consider   as a pair in  , then rewriting   with the underlying real coordinates becomes the equation


hence we have the equation of the sphere. This can also be seen using an embedding: the map


where M(2, C) denotes the set of 2 by 2 complex matrices, is an injective real linear map (by considering C2 diffeomorphic to R4 and M(2, C) diffeomorphic to R8). Hence, the restriction of φ to the 3-sphere (since modulus is 1), denoted S3, is an embedding of the 3-sphere onto a compact submanifold of M(2, C), namely φ(S3) = SU(2).

Therefore, as a manifold, S3 is diffeomorphic to SU(2) and so S3 is a compact, connected Lie group.

Lie AlgebraEdit

The Lie algebra of SU(2) is


Matrices of this form have trace zero and are antihermitian. The Lie algebra is then generated by the following matrices,


which have the form of the general element specified above.

These satisfy u3u2 = −u2u3 = −u1 and u2u1 = −u1u2 = −u3. The commutator bracket is therefore specified by


The above generators are related to the Pauli matrices by u1 = -i σ1,u2 = −i σ2 and u3 = -i σ3. This representation is routinely used in quantum mechanics to represent the spin of fundamental particles such as electrons. They also serve as unit vectors for the description of our 3 spatial dimensions in loop quantum gravity.

The Lie algebra serves to work out the representations of SU(2).

n = 3Edit


The group SU(3) is a simply connected compact Lie group.[6] Its topological structure can be understood by noting that SU(3) acts transitively on the unit sphere   in  . The stabilizer of an arbitrary point in the sphere is isomorphic to SU(2), which topologically is a 3-sphere. It then follows that SU(3) is a fiber bundle over the base   with fiber  . Since the fibers and the base are simply connected, the simple connectedness of SU(3) then follows by means of a standard topological result (the long exact sequence of homotopy groups for fiber bundles).[7]

Representation theoryEdit

The representation theory of SU(3) is well understood.[8] Descriptions of these representations, from the point of view of its complexified Lie algebra  , may be found here or here.

Lie algebraEdit

The generators, T, of the Lie algebra su(3) of SU(3) in the defining representation, are:


where λ, the Gell-Mann matrices, are the SU(3) analog of the Pauli matrices for SU(2):


= These λa span all traceless Hermitian matrices H of the Lie algebra, as required. Note that λ2, λ5, λ7 are antisymmetric.

They obey the relations

(or, equivalently,  ).

The f are the structure constants of the Lie algebra, given by:


while all other fabc not related to these by permutation are zero. In general, they vanish, unless they contain an odd number of indices from the set {2,5,7}.[nb 3]

The symmetric coefficients d take the values:


They vanish if the number of indices from the set {2,5,7} is odd.

A generic SU(3) group element generated by a traceless 3×3 hermitian matrix H, normalized as tr(H2) = 2 , is given by[9]




Lie algebra structureEdit

The above representation bases generalize to n > 3, using generalized Pauli matrices.

If we choose an (arbitrary) particular basis, then the subspace of traceless diagonal n×n matrices with imaginary entries forms an (n − 1)-dimensional Cartan subalgebra.[10]

Complexify the Lie algebra, so that any traceless n×n matrix is now allowed. The weight eigenvectors are the Cartan subalgebra itself, as well as the matrices with only one nonzero entry which is off diagonal. Even though the Cartan subalgebra h is only (n − 1)-dimensional, to simplify calculations, it is often convenient to introduce an auxiliary element, the unit matrix which commutes with everything else (which is not an element of the Lie algebra!) for the purpose of computing weights—and that only. So, we have a basis where the i-th basis vector is the matrix with 1 on the i-th diagonal entry and zero elsewhere. Weights would then be given by n coordinates and the sum over all n coordinates has to be zero (because the unit matrix is only auxiliary).

So, SU(n) is of rank n − 1 and its Dynkin diagram is given by An−1, a chain of n − 1 nodes:       ...  .[11] Its root system consists of n(n − 1) roots spanning a n − 1 Euclidean space. Here, we use n redundant coordinates instead of n − 1 to emphasize the symmetries of the root system (the n coordinates have to add up to zero).

In other words, we are embedding this n − 1 dimensional vector space in an n-dimensional one. Thus, the roots consists of all the n(n − 1) permutations of (1, −1, 0, ..., 0). The construction given above explains why. A choice of simple roots is


Its Cartan matrix is


Its Weyl group or Coxeter group is the symmetric group Sn, the symmetry group of the (n − 1)-simplex.

Generalized special unitary groupEdit

For a field F, the generalized special unitary group over F, SU(p, q; F), is the group of all linear transformations of determinant 1 of a vector space of rank n = p + q over F which leave invariant a nondegenerate, Hermitian form of signature (p, q). This group is often referred to as the special unitary group of signature p q over F. The field F can be replaced by a commutative ring, in which case the vector space is replaced by a free module.

Specifically, fix a Hermitian matrix A of signature p q in GL(n, R), then all




Often one will see the notation SU(p, q) without reference to a ring or field; in this case, the ring or field being referred to is C and this gives one of the classical Lie groups. The standard choice for A when F = C is


However, there may be better choices for A for certain dimensions which exhibit more behaviour under restriction to subrings of C.


An important example of this type of group is the Picard modular group SU(2, 1; Z[i]) which acts (projectively) on complex hyperbolic space of degree two, in the same way that SL(2,9;Z) acts (projectively) on real hyperbolic space of dimension two. In 2005 Gábor Francsics and Peter Lax computed an explicit fundamental domain for the action of this group on HC2.[12]

A further example is SU(1, 1; C), which is isomorphic to SL(2,R).

Important subgroupsEdit

In physics the special unitary group is used to represent bosonic symmetries. In theories of symmetry breaking it is important to be able to find the subgroups of the special unitary group. Subgroups of SU(n) that are important in GUT physics are, for p > 1, np > 1 ,


where × denotes the direct product and U(1), known as the circle group, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1.

For completeness, there are also the orthogonal and symplectic subgroups,


Since the rank of SU(n) is n − 1 and of U(1) is 1, a useful check is that the sum of the ranks of the subgroups is less than or equal to the rank of the original group. SU(n) is a subgroup of various other Lie groups,


See spin group, and simple Lie groups for E6, E7, and G2.

There are also the accidental isomorphisms: SU(4) = Spin(6) , SU(2) = Spin(3) = Sp(1) ,[nb 4] and U(1) = Spin(2) = SO(2) .

One may finally mention that SU(2) is the double covering group of SO(3), a relation that plays an important role in the theory of rotations of 2-spinors in non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ For a characterization of U(n) and hence SU(n) in terms of preservation of the standard inner product on n, see Classical group.
  2. ^ For an explicit description of the homomorphism SU(2) → SO(3), see Connection between SO(3) and SU(2).
  3. ^ So fewer than 1/6 of all fabcs are non-vanishing.
  4. ^ Sp(n) is the compact real form of Sp(2n, C). It is sometimes denoted USp(2n). The dimension of the Sp(n)-matrices is 2n × 2n.


  1. ^ Halzen, Francis; Martin, Alan (1984). Quarks & Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-88741-2. 
  2. ^ Hall 2015 Proposition 13.11
  3. ^ Wybourne, B G (1974). Classical Groups for Physicists, Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0471965057 .
  4. ^ R.R. Puri, Mathematical Methods of Quantum Optics, Springer, 2001.
  5. ^ Hall 2015 Exercise 1.5
  6. ^ Hall 2015 Proposition 13.11
  7. ^ Hall 2015 Section 13.2
  8. ^ Hall 2015 Chapter 6
  9. ^ Rosen, S P (1971). "Finite Transformations in Various Representations of SU(3)". Journal of Mathematical Physics. 12 (4): 673. Bibcode:1971JMP....12..673R. doi:10.1063/1.1665634. ; Curtright, T L; Zachos, C K (2015). "Elementary results for the fundamental representation of SU(3)". Reports On Mathematical Physics. 76: 401–404. arXiv:1508.00868 . Bibcode:2015RpMP...76..401C. doi:10.1016/S0034-4877(15)30040-9. 
  10. ^ Hall 2015 Section 7.7.1
  11. ^ Hall 2015 Section 8.10.1
  12. ^ Francsics, Gabor; Lax, Peter D. "An Explicit Fundamental Domain For The Picard Modular Group In Two Complex Dimensions". arXiv:math/0509708v1 . 


  • Hall, Brian C. (2015), Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations: An Elementary Introduction, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 222 (2nd ed.), Springer, ISBN 978-3319134666 
  • Iachello, Francesco (2006), Lie Algebras and Applications, Lecture Notes in Physics, 708, Springer, ISBN 3540362363