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Dracula (1931 English-language film)

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Filled in 4 bare reference(s) with reFill ()
Among those uncredited were:
* The film's producer/director [[Tod Browning]] as the off-screen voice of the harbormaster.
* [[Carla Laemmle]] in a cameo at the start of the film as a woman with glasses in the coach carrying Renfield and reading aloud from a travel brochure of the area, “Among the rugged peaks that frown down upon the Borgo Pass are found crumbling castles of a bygone age…”<ref>{{cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130412153031/http://www.laemmle.us|title=Home - Official Laemmle Legacy Family WebsiteLaemmle.US - The Official Laemmle Legacy Family Website|date=April 12, 2013|publisher=}}</ref> Laemmle was one of the last surviving [[Silent Era]] film stars having died in 2014, 4 months before her 105th birthday. She was a cousin of the film's producer [[Carl Laemmle Jr.]] and niece of Universal Studios founder [[Carl Laemmle]].
* [[Geraldine Dvorak]], [[Cornelia Thaw]], [[Dorothy Tree]] as Dracula's brides (although some sources refer to them as "Dracula's wives").
[[File:CarlaLaemmle Dracula.gif|thumb|right|Carla Laemmle in ''Dracula'' (1931), directed by Tod Browning.]]
According to numerous accounts, the production is alleged to have been a mostly disorganized affair,<ref>In an interview with author and horror historian [[David J. Skal]], [[David Manners]] (Jonathan Harker) claims he was so unimpressed with the chaotic production, he never once watched the film in the remaining 67 years of his life. However, in his DVD audio commentary, Skal adds "I'm not sure I really believed him." Source: commentary of film in 2-DVD set ''Dracula: The Legacy Collection'', [[Universal Studios Home Entertainment]] (2004)</ref> with the usually meticulous Tod Browning leaving cinematographer [[Karl Freund]] to take over during much of the shoot, making Freund something of an uncredited director on the film.
 
The peasants at the beginning are praying in [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]], and the signs of the village are also in Hungarian. This was because when Bram Stoker wrote the original novel, the [[Tihuța Pass|Borgo Pass]] was near [[Transylvania]] and modern [[Hungary]]. This part of the world was then part of the [[Kingdom of Hungary]] and within the [[Austria-Hungary|Austro-Hungarian Empire]]. Now that area is part of [[Romania]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://filmschoolrejects.com/41-things-we-learned-from-the-dracula-commentary-a2ad7521e92a#.n2k1wsqlt|title=41 Things We Learned from the ‘Dracula’ Commentary|date=October 9, 2014|publisher=}}</ref>
 
The scenes of crew members on the ship struggling in the violent storm were lifted from a Universal silent film, ''The Storm Breaker'' (1925). Photographed at [[silent film#Projection speed|silent film projection speed]], this accounts for the jerky, sped-up appearance of the footage when projected at 24 frames per second sound film speed and cobbled together with new footage of Dracula and Renfield.<ref name="DVD" /> [[Jack Foley (sound effects)|Jack Foley]] was the [[foley artist]] who produced the sound effects.<ref>Jackson, Blair (1 September 2005) [http://mixonline.com/mag/audio_foley_recording/ "Foley Recording"] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629141111/http://mixonline.com/mag/audio_foley_recording/ |date=June 29, 2011 }} ''Mix'' (magazine), accessed 1 July 2010</ref>
 
*The most significant deletion was an [[epilogue]] which played only during the film's initial run. In a scene similar to the [[prologue]] from ''Frankenstein'', and also featuring Universal stalwart Edward Van Sloan, he reappeared in a "curtain speech" and informed the audience: "Just a moment, ladies and gentlemen! A word before you go. We hope the memories of Dracula and Renfield won't give you bad dreams, so just a word of reassurance. When you get home tonight and the lights have been turned out and you are afraid to look behind the curtains — and you dread to see a face appear at the window — why, just pull yourself together and remember that after all, there ''are'' such things as vampires!"<ref name="DVD">DVD Documentary ''The Road to Dracula'' (1999) and audio commentary by [[David J. Skal]], ''Dracula: The Legacy Collection'' (2004), Universal Home Entertainment catalog # 24455</ref><ref name="Vieira29">Vieira, ''Hollywood Horror'' p. 29</ref> This epilogue was removed out of fear of offending religious groups by encouraging a belief in the supernatural. This scene is still missing and presumed lost.<ref name="DVD" />
*Audio of Dracula's off-camera "death groans" at the end of the film were shortened by partial muting, as were Renfield's screams as he is killed; these pieces of soundtrack were later restored by [[Universal Home Video|MCA-Universal]] for its [[laser disc]] and subsequent [[DVD]] releases (with the exception of the 2004 multi-film "Legacy Collection" edition<ref>[{{cite web|url=http://dvdcompare.net/comparisons/film.php?fid=2384 |title=Rewind DVD@ comparisons]www.dvdcompare.net - Dracula (1931)|website=dvdcompare.net}}</ref>).
 
==Legacy==
Today, ''Dracula'' is widely regarded as a classic of the era and of its genre. In 2000, it was selected for preservation in the United States [[National Film Registry]] by the [[Library of Congress]] as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". It was ranked 79th on [[Bravo (U.S. TV channel)|Bravo]]'s countdown of ''[[The 100 Scariest Movie Moments]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.listsofbests.com/list/2948-100-scariest-movie-moments?page=2|title=Parhaat Netticasinot ja esittelyt - Tutustu ja lunasta suosituimmat casinobonukset!|website=Parhaat Netticasinot ja esittelyt}}</ref>
 
To many film lovers and critics alike, Lugosi's portrayal is widely regarded as the definitive Dracula. Lugosi had a powerful presence and authority on-screen. The slow, deliberate pacing of his performance ("I bid you… welcome!" and "I never drink… wine!") gave his Dracula the air of a walking, talking [[Dead body|corpse]], which terrified 1931 movie audiences. He was just as compelling with no dialogue, and the many close-ups of Lugosi's face in icy silence jumped off the screen. With this mesmerizing performance, Dracula became Bela Lugosi's signature role, his Dracula a [[cultural icon]], and he himself a legend in the classic [[Universal Horror]] film series.