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Zapatista Army of National Liberation

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Postcolonial gaze
 
===Postcolonial gaze===
The Zapatistas' response to the introduction of NAFTA in 1994, it is argued, reflects the shift in perception taking place in societies that have experienced colonialism.<ref>{{cite book|last=Beardsell|first=Peter|title=Europe and Latin America: Returning the Gaze|year=2000|publisher=Manchester University Press|location=Manchester, UK}}</ref> The theory of "[[Gaze#Postcolonial gaze|postcolonial gaze]]" studies what is described as the cultural and political impacts of colonization on formerly colonized societies and how these societies overcome centuries of discrimination and marginalization by colonialists and their descendents.<ref name="Lunga 2008 191–199">{{cite journal|last=Lunga|first=Victoria|title=Postcolonial Theory: A Language for a Critique of Globalization|journal=Perspectives on Global Development and Technology|year=2008|volume=7|issue=3/4|pages=191–199|doi=10.1163/156914908x371349}}</ref> In Mexico, the theory of the postcolonial gaze is being fostered predominantly in areas of large indigenous populations and marginalization, like Chiapas. Over the last 20 years, Chiapas hasis said to have emerged as a formidable force against the Mexican government, fighting against structural violence and social and economic marginalization brought on by globalization.<ref>{{cite book|last=Collier|first=George|title=A Generation of Crisis in the Central Highlands of Chiapas|year=2003|publisher=Rowmand and Littlefield Publishers Inc.|page=33}}</ref> The Zapatista rebellion not only raised many questions about the consequences of globalization and free trade; it also questioned the long-standing ideas created by the Spanish colonial system. Postcolonialism is the antithesis of imperialism because it attempts to explain how the prejudices and restrictions created by colonialism are being overcome.<ref name="Lunga 2008 191–199"/> This is especially obvious in countries that have large social and economic inequalities, where colonial ideas are deeply entrenched in the minds of the colonials' descendents.
 
An early example of the Zapatistas' effective use of the postcolonial gaze was their use of organizations like the [[United Nations Economic and Social Council]] (ECOSOC) to raise of awareness for their rebellion and indigenous rights, what critics described as the Mexican government's lack of respect for the country's impoverished and marginalized populations.<ref>{{cite journal|jstor=40971622|last=Jung|first=Courtney|title=The Politics of Indigenous Identity, Neoliberalism, Cultural Rights, and the Mexican Zapatistas|year=2003}}</ref> Appealing to the ECOSOC and other traditionally Western-influenced non-governmental bodies allowed the Zapatistas, it is argued, to establish a sense of autonomy by using the postcolonial gaze to redefine their identities both as indigenous people and as citizens of Mexico.<ref>{{cite book|last=Hiddleston|first=Jane|title=Understanding Movements in Modern Thought: Understanding Postcolonialism|year=2009|publisher=Acumen|location=Durham, UK}}</ref>
 
== Political expressions ==
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