→History: Added links
Mathematical logic emerged in the mid-19th century as a subfield of mathematics independent of the traditional study of logic ([[#CITEREFFerreirós2001|Ferreirós 2001]], p. 443). Before this emergence, logic was studied with [[rhetoric]], with ''calculationes'',<ref>[[Richard Swineshead]] (1498), ''Calculationes Suiseth Anglici'', Papie: Per Franciscum Gyrardengum.</ref> through the [[syllogism]], and with [[philosophy]]. The first half of the 20th century saw an explosion of fundamental results, accompanied by vigorous debate over the foundations of mathematics.
=== Early history ===