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List of monarchs of Brazil

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The '''Monarchs of Brazil''' were the rulers of [[Brazil]], first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the [[United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves]] (1815–1822), and subsequently as a sovereign and independent State, the [[Empire of Brazil]] (1822–1889).
 
Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the [[Kingdom of Portugal]]. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the [[MonarchsList of PortugalPortuguese monarchs|Kings of Portugal]] were Monarchs ''over'' Brazil.
 
During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled ''Prince of Brazil''. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to ''Prince Royal''.
Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.
 
As an independent nation-state, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military ''coup d'état'' that [[Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)|proclaimed Brazil a republic]].
 
During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil under the [[Treaty of Rio de Janeiro (1825)|1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro]], by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole monarch of the empire.
{{Main|House of Braganza}}
 
{| width=95% class="wikitable"
{{Succession table monarch
! width=8% | Portrait
| name1 = '''[[Maria I of Portugal|Mary I]]'''
! width=10% | Coat of Arms
| native1 = {{lang-pt|Maria I}}
! width=20% | Name
| life1 = {{birth date|1734|12|17|df=y}} - {{death date and age|1816|3|20|1734|12|17|df=y}}
! colspan=2 width=14% | Reign
| reignstart1 = 16 December 1815
! width=15% | Relationship with Predecessor(s)
| reignend1 = 20 March 1816
! width=10% | Title
| notes1 =
|-
| family1 = [[House of Braganza|Braganza]]
|align="center"|[[File:Maria I, Queen of Portugal - Giuseppe Troni, atribuído (Turim, 1739-Lisboa, 1810) - Google Cultural Institute.jpg|100px]]
| image1 = Dona Maria I of Portugal held at Queluz.jpg
|align="center"|[[File:Brasao-Brigantina.png|100px]]
 
|align="center"|[[Maria I of Portugal|Mary I]], ''the Mad''<br><small>(Maria I, ''a Louca'')</small>
| name2 = '''[[John VI of Portugal|John VI]]'''
|align="center"|16 December 1815
| native2 = {{lang-pt|João VI}}
|align="center"|20 March 1816
| life2 = 13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)
|{{*}}None; fled from the [[Invasion of Portugal (1807)|occupied Portugal]]
| reignstart2 = 20 March 1816
|align="center"|Queen of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves <br><small>(Rainha de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves)</small>
| reignend2 = 7 September 1822
|-
| notes2 = Son of Mary I
|align="center"|[[File:DomJoãoVI-pintordesconhecido.jpg|100px]]
| family2 = [[House of Braganza|Braganza]]
|align="center"|[[File:Brasao-Brigantina.png|100px]]
| image2 = Joao VI Portugal.jpg
|align="center"|[[John VI of Portugal|John VI]], ''the Clement''<br><small>(João VI, ''o Clemente'')</small>
}}
|align="center"|20 March 1816
|align="center"|7 September 1822
|{{*}}Son of [[Maria I of Portugal|Mary I]]
|align="center"|King of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves <br><small>(Rei de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves)</small>
|}
 
==Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)==
{{Main|Brazilian Imperial Family}}
 
{| width=95% class="wikitable"
{{Succession table monarch
! width=8% | Portrait
| name1 = '''[[Pedro I of Brazil|Peter I]]'''
! width=10% | Coat of Arms
| native1 = {{lang-pt|Pedro I}}
! width=20% | Name
| life1 = 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)
! colspan=2 width=14% | Reign
| reignstart1 = 12 October 1822
! width=15% | Relationship with Predecessor(s)
| reignend1 = 7 April 1831
! width=10% | Title
| notes1 = Son of John VI
|-
| family1 = [[House of Braganza|Braganza]]
|align="center"|[[File:Portrait ofimage1 Dom = Pedro, Duke of Bragança - Google Art ProjectCultural editInstitute.jpg|100px]]
|align="center"|[[File:CoA Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg|100px]]
|align name2 ="center"| '''[[Pedro III of Brazil|Peter III]], ''the Liberator''<br><small>(Pedro I, ''o Libertador'')</small>
|align native2 ="center"|12 October{{lang-pt|Pedro 1822II}}
|align life2 ="center"|7 April2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891 (aged 183166)
|{{*}}Son ofreignstart2 [[John= VI7 ofApril Portugal|John VI]]1831
|align="center"|Emperor ofreignend2 Brazil <br><small>(Imperador do= 15 November Brasil)</small>1889
|- notes2 = Son of Peter I
|align="center"|[[File:João Maximianofamily2 Mafra - Retrato de Dom= Pedro II[[House -of 1851.jpgBraganza|100pxBraganza]]
|align image2 ="center"|[[File:CoA EmpireJoão ofMaximiano BrazilMafra (1870-1889).svg|100px]] Retrato de Dom Pedro II - 1851.jpg
|align="center"|[[Pedro II of Brazil|Peter II]], ''the Magnanimous''<br><small>(Pedro II, ''o Magnânimo'')</small> }}
|align="center"|7 April 1831
|align="center"|15 November 1889
|{{*}}Son of [[Pedro I of Brazil|Peter I]]
|align="center"|Emperor of Brazil <br><small>(Imperador do Brasil)</small>
|}
 
== Claimants to the throne of Brazil (1889–present) ==