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===Tome of Leo===
Often cited as a proof of Papal Supremacy<ref>Ray, S. K., (1999) Upon this rock: St. Peter and the primacy of Rome in scripture and the early church, (Ignatius Press; San Francisco) p 235</ref><ref>[ The Authority of the Pope: Part II] at Catholic Answers</ref><ref>[ IS THE ORTHODOX CHURCH APOSTOLIC ?] Catholic Apologetics</ref><ref>[ Popes, Councils, and Orthodoxy]</ref> is the [[Tome_of_LeoTome of Leo#The_TomeThe Tome|Tome of Leo]] which is a letter sent by [[Pope Leo I|Pope Leo]] to the Second Ecumenical Council. It in part seems to suggest that Leo speaks with the authority of Peter. It is the position of Orthodox Christianity that the approval of the Tome is simply to state a unity of faith, not only of the pope but other churchmen as well.
{{quote|"After reading of the foregoing epistle (Pope Leo's), the most reverend bishops cried out: "This is the faith of the fathers, this is the faith of the Apostles. So we all believe, thus the orthodox believe. Anathema to him who does not thus believe. Peter has spoken thus through Leo. So taught the Apostles. Piously and truly did Leo teach, so taught Cyril. Everlasting be the memory of Cyril. Leo and Cyril taught the same thing, anathema to him who does not so believe. This is the true faith. Those of us who are orthodox thus believe.”<ref>[ Extracts from the Acts. Session II. (Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. IV., col. 368.)]</ref>}}
===The Council of Jerusalem===
{{main|Council of Jerusalem}}
The New Testament records ({{bibleref2|Acts|15}}) the convening of a council to decide whether'' [[Gentiles#Early_ChristianityEarly Christianity|gentiles]]'' who converted should be required to be [[Circumcision controversy in early Christianity|circumcised]], which according to some interpretations was prescribed by the [[Moses#Mosaic law|Mosaic law]]. ([[Rabbinic Judaism]] only prescribes [[Noahide Laws]] for gentiles.) Catholic historians note that when Peter spoke, all were silent. However Whelton notes that when Paul and James spoke, all were silent as well.<ref>Whelton, M., (1998) Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition, (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.36</ref>
[[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]] said that it was James who stated the decision of the Council, not Peter.<ref>{{cite book |title=The History of the Church – Book II Chapter I |author=Eusebius|quote=This James, whom the early Christians surnamed the Righteous because of his outstanding virtue, was the first, as the records tell us, to be elected to the Episcopal throne of the Jerusalem church. Clement, in Outlines Book VI, puts it thus: "Peter, James, and John, after the Ascension of the Saviour, did not claim pre-eminence because the Saviour had especially honored them, but chose James the Righteous as Bishop of Jerusalem.}} quoted in {{cite book |last=Whelton|first=M |year=1998 |title=Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition |publisher=Regina Orthodox Press |location=Salisbury, MA |pages=38–39}}</ref> John Chrysostom noted James made the decision.<ref>"This (James) was bishop, as they say, and therefore he speaks last...There was no arrogance in the Church. After Peter, Paul speaks, and none silences him: James waits patiently; not starts up (for the next word). No word speaks John here, no word the other Apostles, but held their peace, for James was invested with the chief rule, and think it no hardship. So clean was their soul from love of glory. Peter indeed spoke more strongly, but James here more mildly: for thus it behooves one in high authority, to leave what is unpleasant for others to say, while he himself appears in the milder part." John Chrysostom''Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles'', Homily 33 quoted in Whelton, M., (1998) ''Two Paths: Papal Monarchy -Collegial Tradition'', (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.38.</ref><ref>"But observe how Peter does everything with the common consent; nothing imperiously." John Chrysostom ''Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles'' Homily III on Acts 1:12 quoted in Whelton, M., (1998) ''Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition'', (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.33</ref>
====Cyprian and Augustine====
'''Background''' - [[Donatism]]
:During the persecutions of the early church some Christians, in order to avoid persecution renounced their faith. A question then rose of how to accept these people back into the church. Some argued that they should just be allowed back into the church. Others, “Donatists” argued that re-baptism was required. [[Cyprian]] of [[Early_centers_of_ChristianityEarly centers of Christianity#Carthage|Carthage]] was one who argued that the lapsed needed to be baptised again. [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] would argue against rebaptism. Augustine’s position was one that was accepted as orthodox.
'''The local church decides for itself'''