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The New Testament records ({{bibleref2|Acts|15}}) the convening of a council to decide whether'' [[Gentiles#Early_Christianity|gentiles]]'' who converted should be required to be [[Circumcision controversy in early Christianity|circumcised]], which according to some interpretations was prescribed by the [[Moses#Mosaic law|Mosaic law]]. ([[Rabbinic Judaism]] only prescribes [[Noahide Laws]] for gentiles.) Catholic historians note that when Peter spoke, all were silent. However Whelton notes that when Paul and James spoke, all were silent as well.<ref>Whelton, M., (1998) Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition, (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.36</ref>
 
[[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]] said that it was James who stated the decision of the Council, not Peter.<ref>{{cite book |title=The History of the Church – Book II Chapter I |author=Eusebius|quote=This James, whom the early Christians surnamed the Righteous because of his outstanding virtue, was the first, as the records tell us, to be elected to the Episcopal throne of the Jerusalem church. Clement, in Outlines Book VI, puts it thus: "Peter, James, and John, after the Ascension of the Saviour, did not claim pre-eminence because the Saviour had especially honored them, but chose James the Righteous as Bishop of Jerusalem.}} quoted in {{cite book |last=Whelton|first=M |year=1998 |title=Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition |publisher=Regina Orthodox Press |location=Salisbury, MA |pages=38–39}}</ref> John Chrysostom noted James made the decision.<ref>"This (James) was bishop, as they say, and therefore he speaks last...There was no arrogance in the Church. After Peter, Paul speaks, and none silences him: James waits patiently; not starts up (for the next word). No word speaks John here, no word the other Apostles, but held their peace, for James was invested with the chief rule, and think it no hardship. So clean was their soul from love of glory. Peter indeed spoke more strongly, but James here more mildly: for thus it behooves one in high authority, to leave what is unpleasant for others to say, while he himself appears in the milder part." John Chrysostom''Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles'', Homily 33 quoted in Whelton, M., (1998) ''Two Paths: Papal Monarchy -Collegial Tradition'', (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.38.</ref><ref>"But observe how Peter does everything with the common consent; nothing imperiously." John Chrysostom ''Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles'' Homily III on Acts 1:12 quoted in Whelton, M., (1998) ''Two Paths: Papal Monarchy - Collegial Tradition'', (Regina Orthodox Press; Salisbury, MA), p.33</ref>
 
The ruling of the Council was expressed as being the decision of all the council, not just Peter. Continuing with this the opening statements of official formulations normally begins with the phrase "Following the Holy Fathers", not "Following the ruling of the Pope."<ref>Chrestou, P. K., (2005) ''Greek Orthodox Patrology - An introduction to the Study of the Church Fathers'', (Orthodox Research Institute), p14.</ref>
== Orthodox arguments from Church Councils ==
{{Unreferenced section|date=October 2011}}
{{SeealsoSee also|Ancient church councils (pre-ecumenical)}}
* Not one [[Ecumenical Council]] was called by a pope; all were called by [[List of Byzantine emperors|Byzantine emperors]]. Had the teaching of primacy formed part of [[Sacred Tradition|Holy Tradition]], then such power would have been exercised to resolve the many disputes in the [[History of early Christianity|early history of the church]].
* A general council may overrule decisions of the Roman Pontiff
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