Spanish grammar is the grammar of the Spanish language (español, castellano), which is a Romance language that originated in north central Spain and is spoken today throughout Spain, some twenty countries in the Americas, and Equatorial Guinea.
Spanish is a highly inflected language. The verbs are potentially marked for tense, aspect, mood, person, and number (resulting in some fifty conjugated forms per verb). The nouns form a two-gender system and are marked for number. Pronouns can be inflected for person, number, gender (including a residual neuter), and case, although the Spanish pronominal system represents a simplification of the ancestral Latin system.
Spanish was the first of the European vernaculars to have a grammar treatise, Gramática de la lengua castellana, written in 1492 by the Andalusian linguist Antonio de Nebrija and presented to Isabella of Castile at Salamanca.
Formal differences between Peninsular and American Spanish are remarkably few, and someone who has learned the dialect of one area will generally have no difficulties using formal speech in the other; however, pronunciation does vary, as well as grammar and vocabulary.
Every Spanish verb belongs to one of three form classes, characterized by the infinitive ending: -ar, -er, or -ir—sometimes called the first, second, and third conjugations, respectively.
A Spanish verb has nine indicative tenses with more-or-less direct English equivalents: the present tense ('I walk'), the preterite ('I walked'), the imperfect ('I was walking' or 'I used to walk'), the present perfect ('I have walked'), the past perfect — also called the pluperfect ('I had walked'), the future ('I will walk'), the future perfect ('I will have walked'), the conditional simple ('I would walk') and the conditional perfect ('I would have walked').
In most dialects, each tense has six potential forms, varying for first, second, or third person and for singular or plural number. In the second person, Spanish maintains the so-called "T–V distinction" between familiar and formal modes of address. The formal second-person pronouns (usted, ustedes) take third-person verb forms.
The second-person familiar plural is expressed in most of Spain with the pronoun vosotros and its characteristic verb forms (e.g. coméis 'you [pl.] eat'), while in Latin American Spanish it merges with the formal second-person plural (e.g. ustedes comen). Thus ustedes is used as both the formal and familiar second-person pronoun in Latin America.
In many areas of Latin America (especially Central America and southern South America), the second-person familiar singular pronoun tú is replaced by vos, which frequently requires its own characteristic verb forms, especially in the present indicative, where the endings are -ás, -és, and -ís for -ar, -er, -ir verbs, respectively. See "voseo".
In the tables of paradigms below, the (optional) subject pronouns appear in parentheses.
The present indicative is used to express actions or states of being in a present time frame. For example:
- Yo soy alto (I am tall).
- Ella canta en el club (She sings in the club).
- Todos nosotros vivimos en un submarino amarillo (We all live in a yellow submarine).
- Son las diez y media ([It] is ten thirty).
|First person||(yo) hablo||(nosotros/-as) hablamos|
|Second person familiar||(tú) hablas
|Second person formal||(usted) habla||(ustedes) hablan|
|Third person||(él, ella) habla||(ellos, ellas) hablan|
|First person||(yo) como||(nosotros/-as) comemos|
|Second person familiar||(tú) comes
|Second person formal||(usted) come||(ustedes) comen|
|Third person||(él, ella) come||(ellos, ellas) comen|
|First person||(yo) vivo||(nosotros/-as) vivimos|
|Second person familiar||(tú) vives
|Second person formal||(usted) vive||(ustedes) viven|
|Third person||(él, ella) vive||(ellos, ellas) viven|
Spanish has a number of verb tenses used to express actions or states of being in a past time frame. The two that are "simple" in form (formed with a single word, rather than being compound verbs) are the preterite and the imperfect.
The preterite is used to express actions or events that took place in the past, and which were instantaneous or are viewed as completed. For example:
- Ella se murió ayer (She died yesterday)
- Pablo apagó las luces (Pablo turned the lights off)
- Yo me comí el arroz (I ate the rice)
- Te cortaste el pelo (You had your hair cut)
|Preterite of hablar||Singular||Plural|
|First person||(yo) hablé||(nosotros/-as) hablamos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) hablaste||(vosotros/-as) hablasteis|
|Second person formal||(usted) habló||(ustedes) hablaron|
|Third person||(él, ella) habló||(ellos, ellas) hablaron|
|First person||(yo) comí||(nosotros/-as) comimos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) comiste||(vosotros/-as) comisteis|
|Second person formal||(usted) comió||(ustedes) comieron|
|Third person||(él, ella) comió||(ellos, ellas) comieron|
|First person||(yo) viví||(nosotros/-as) vivimos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) viviste||(vosotros/-as) vivisteis|
|Second person formal||(usted) vivió||(ustedes) vivieron|
|Third person||(él, ella) vivió||(ellos, ellas) vivieron|
Note that (1) for -ar and -ir verbs (but not -er), the first-person plural form is the same as that of the present indicative; and (2) -er and -ir verbs share the same set of endings.
Imperfect or "copretérito"Edit
The imperfect expresses actions or states that are viewed as ongoing in the past. For example:
- Yo era cómico en el pasado (I was comical in the past)
- Usted comía mucho (You ate a lot – literally, this sentence is saying "You used to eat a lot", saying that in the past, the person being referred had a characteristic of "eating a lot")
- Ellos escuchaban la radio (They were listening to the radio)
All three of the sentences above describe "non-instantaneous" actions that are viewed as continuing in the past. The characteristic in the first sentence and the action in the second were continuous, not instantaneous occurrences. In the third sentence, the speaker focuses on the action in progress, not on its beginning or end.
|First person||(yo) hablaba||(nosotros/-as) hablábamos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) hablabas||(vosotros/-as) hablabais|
|Second person formal||(usted) hablaba||(ustedes) hablaban|
|Third person||(él, ella) hablaba||(ellos, ellas) hablaban|
|First person||(yo) comía||(nosotros/-as) comíamos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) comías||(vosotros/-as) comíais|
|Second person formal||(usted) comía||(ustedes) comían|
|Third person||(él, ella) comía||(ellos, ellas) comían|
|First person||(yo) vivía||(nosotros/-as) vivíamos|
|Second person familiar||(tú, vos) vivías||(vosotros/-as) vivíais|
|Second person formal||(usted) vivía||(ustedes) vivían|
|Third person||(él, ella) vivía||(ellos, ellas) vivían|
Note that (1) for all verbs in the imperfect, the first- and third-person singular share the same form; and (2) -er and -ir verbs share the same set of endings.
Using preterite and imperfect togetherEdit
The preterite and the imperfect can be combined in the same sentence to express the occurrence of an event in one clause during an action or state expressed in another clause. For example:
- Ellos escuchaban la radio cuando oyeron un ruido afuera. (They were listening to the radio when they heard a noise outside.)
- Yo estaba en mi cuarto cuando usted entró. (I was in my room when you came in.)
- Era un día muy tranquilo cuando eso pasó. (It was a very peaceful day when that happened.)
In all three cases, an event or completed action interrupts an ongoing state or action. For example, in the second sentence, the speaker states that he was in his room (expressed through the imperfect to reflect the ongoing or unfinished state of being there) when the other person "interrupted" that state by entering (expressed through the preterite to suggest a completed action).
Present progressive and imperfect progressiveEdit
The present and imperfect progressive both are used to express ongoing, progressive action in the present and past, respectively. For example:
- Estoy haciendo mi tarea. (I am doing my homework)
- Estamos estudiando. (We are studying)
- Estaba escuchando la radio. (I was listening to the radio)
- Él estaba limpiando su cuarto. (He was cleaning his room)
The present progressive is formed by first conjugating the verb estar or seguir, depending on context, to the subject, and then attaching a gerund of the verb that follows. The past (imperfect) progressive simply requires the estar or seguir to be conjugated, depending on context, in imperfect, with respect to the subject.
To form the gerund of an -ar verb, replace the -ar of the infinitive with -ando; e.g. jugar, hablar, caminar → jugando, hablando, caminando. For -er or -ir verbs, replace the -er or -ir ending with -iendo; e.g. comer, escribir, dormir → comiendo, escribiendo, durmiendo (note that dormir undergoes the stem vowel change that is typical of -ir verbs). In -er verbs whose stem ends with a vowel, the i of the -iendo ending is replaced by y: e.g. leer, traer, creer → leyendo, trayendo, creyendo. In -ir verbs whose stem ends with e—such as reír and sonreír—the stem vowel e is raised to i (as is typical of -ir verbs), and this i merges with the i of the -iendo ending; e.g. reír, freír → riendo, friendo.
The subjunctive of a verb is used to express certain connotations in sentences such as a wish or desire, a demand, an emotion, uncertainty, or doubt.
Normally, a verb would be conjugated in the present indicative to indicate an event in the present frame of time.
- Yo soy muy ambicioso (I am very ambitious)
- Marta trae la comida (Marta brings the food)
If the sentence expresses a desire, demand, or emotion, or something similar, in the present tense, the subjunctive is used.
- Quiero que seas muy ambicioso (I want you to be very ambitious—literally, I want that you be very ambitious)
- Me alegro de que Marta traiga la comida (I am happy that Marta brings the food)
- Es una lástima que llegues tarde (It is a shame that you arrive late)
The subjunctive is also used to convey doubt, denial, or uncertainty.
- Busco un amigo que sea simpático (I search for a friend who will be likable or I search for a likable friend)
- No hay ningún autor que lo escriba. (There are no authors who write that.)
- Es posible que ella sepa mucho (It is possible that she knows a lot.)
- No parece que tengan mucho dinero (It does not seem that they have much money.)
In the first two examples, the ideally likable friend has not yet been found and remains an uncertainty, and authors "who write that" are not known to exist. In the third, possibility is not certainty, but rather a conjecture, and the last expresses clear doubt. Thus, subjunctive is used. Some of the phrases and verbs that require sentences to have subjunctive formation include:
- Dudar, negar, esperar, alegrarse de, temer, sentir, pedir, aconsejar, exigir, desear, querer, mandar
- Es necesario que, conviene que, no parece que, es dudoso que, es probable que, no creo que, importa que, parece mentira que
Some phrases that require the indicative instead, because they express certainty, include:
- Es verdad que, es obvio que, es seguro que, parece que, es evidente que, creo que
To form the subjunctive, first take the present indicative first-person ('yo') form of a verb. For example, the verbs hablar, comer, and escribir (To talk, to eat, to write) → Yo hablo, yo como, yo escribo Then, replace the ending 'o' with the "opposite ending". The way this works is in the following: If the verb is an -er or -ir verb such as comer, poder, escribir, or compartir, replace the ending o with an 'a' i.e. : Yo como; yo puedo; yo escribo → Yo coma; yo pueda; yo escriba If the verb is an -ar verb such as caminar, or hablar, replace the ending o with an 'e' i.e. : Yo hablo; yo camino → Yo hable, yo camine This forms the first-person conjugation. The others are as follows:
- Yo → Yo hable; yo coma; yo escriba
- Tú → Tú hables; tú comas; tú escribas
- Él/Ella/Usted → Él hable; él coma; él escriba
- Nosotros → Nosotros hablemos; nosotros comamos; nosotros escribamos
- Vosotros → Vosotros habléis; vosotros comáis; vosotros escribáis
- Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes → ellos hablen; ellos coman; ellos escriban
Since the vos forms are derived from vosotros the following would be expected (and used in Central America)
- Vos → Vos hablés; vos comás; vos escribás
Today, the two forms of the imperfect subjunctive are largely interchangeable.* The "-se" form derives (as in most Romance languages) from the Latin pluperfect subjunctive, while the "-ra" form derives from the Latin pluperfect indicative. The use of one or the other is largely a matter of personal taste and dialect. Many only use the -ra forms in speech, but vary between the two in writing. Many may spontaneously use either, or even prefer the rarer -se forms. The imperfect subjunctive is formed for basically the same reasons as the present subjunctive, but is used for other tenses and time frames.
Spanish has nouns of two genders, masculine and feminine.
Spanish generally uses adjectives in a similar way to English and most other Indo-European languages. However, there are three key differences between English and Spanish adjectives.
- In Spanish, adjectives usually go after the noun they modify. The exception is when the writer/speaker is being slightly emphatic, or even poetic, about a particular quality of an object (rather than the mundane use of using the quality to specify which particular object they are referring to).
- Mi casa roja could either mean that there are many red houses in the world but I wish to talk about the one that I happen to own, or that I have many houses but am referring to the red one. Mi casa roja = My house, the red one.
- Mi roja casa means that I am stressing how red my particular house is (probably the only house I have). Mi roja casa = My house, which is obviously red.
- In Spanish, adjectives agree with what they refer to in terms of both number (singular/plural) and gender (masculine/feminine). For example, taza (cup) is feminine, so "the red cup" is la taza roja, but vaso (glass) is masculine, so "the red glass" is el vaso rojo.
- In Spanish, it is perfectly normal to let an adjective stand in for a noun or pronoun—with (where people are involved) no implication of condescension or rudeness. For example, los altos means "the tall ones" or "the tall men". El grande means "the big one" or "the big man".
Spanish uses determiners in a similar way to English. The main difference is that they "agree" with what they refer to in terms of both number (singular/plural) and gender (masculine/feminine).
The definite article is equivalent to "the". The indefinite article is equivalent to "a/an, some".
The "neuter article" lo is used before a masculine singular adjective to form an expression equivalent to an abstract noun, e.g. lo interesante ("the interesting thing, the interesting part"). Lo may also be used adverbially before an adjective that shows agreement with a noun, being equivalent to the relative adverb 'how', as in lo buenas que son ("how good they [f. pl.] are").
When the article el comes after either of the prepositions a or de, the two words form a contraction, al ("to the") or del ("of the, from the"), respectively. Thus: Vamos al parque ("We're going to the park"), Él regresa del cine ("He's returning from the movie theater"), etc. Unless one is using el substantively (e.g. de el de… ("from that of…")), one never says a el or de el in Spanish.
Spanish has three kinds of demonstrative, whose use depends on the distance between the speaker and the indicated thing/person. The demonstrative equates to the English terms "this" and "that", although in Spanish the word used must agree for number and gender.
Note that when standing before the noun they qualify — i.e. when used as adjectives — demonstratives never take an accent: esta casa (this house), esos días (those days).
But demonstratives may also stand on their own, instead of the noun they refer to — i.e. as demonstrative pronouns. In that case, they usually carry a written accent: Quiero éste (I want this one).
Neuter demonstratives have the meaning of "this (or that) thing, concept or idea": Eso está bien (That is okay). In certain cases, neuter demonstratives can convey a pejorative connotation: Quita eso de ahí (Take that out of there).
Neuter demonstratives, because of their use, are never used as adjectives, which makes it unnecessary for them ever to take an accent. Moreover, for their indefinite meaning they do not have plural forms.
Possessive adjectives (equivalent to English "my", "your", "his", etc.) usually come before the noun they modify and inflect for number but not for gender. The possessive adjectives are:
Thing(s) possessed ↓
|1st-person singular||2nd-person singular||3rd-person singular||1st-person plural||2nd-person plural||3rd-person plural|
- Este es mi perro = "This is my dog"
- Esta es tu camisa = "This is your shirt"
- Estos son nuestros amigos = "These are our friends"
- Estas son sus casas = "These are his/her/your/their houses"
Spanish also has possessive pronouns that can be used to describe possession of objects already mentioned (analogous to English "mine", "yours", "his", "hers", etc.) and place emphasis on the fact of possession ("this thing of mine", etc.).
- Indefinite quantity: poco ('little'), mucho ('a lot'), bastante ('enough')...
- Cardinals: un/una ('one'), dos ('two'), tres ('three')...
- Ordinals: primero ('first'), segundo ('second'), tercero ('third')...
Cardinal and ordinal numbers are adjectives of amount (like mucho and poco) and precede nouns (dos animales = 'two animals', primera persona = 'first person'). Primero and tercero drop their final -o before a masculine singular noun, thus el primer libro ('the first book'), el tercer año ('the third year').
- Interrogative: qué ('what'), cuál ('which').
The cardinal numbers greater than un/una and the interrogative qué are indeclinable. The indefinite quantifiers, ordinals, un, and cuál are declined as adjectives.
Spanish has a range of pronouns that in some ways work quite differently from English ones. They include: yo, tú, vos, usted, él, ella, ello, nosotros, vosotros, ustedes, ellos, ellas, esto, eso, aquello etc. Personal pronouns are usually omitted due to context, but it is not rare to see one in written text or in the spoken language, whether it be for emphasis or in cases where there may be some confusion between conjugations.
Spanish adverbs work much like their English counterparts, e.g. muy ("very"), poco ("a little"), lejos ("far"), mucho ("much, a lot"), casi ("almost"), etc. To form adverbs from adjectives, the adverbial suffix -mente is generally added to the feminine singular of the adjective, whether or not it differs from the masculine singular. Thus:
- claro ("clear", m. sg.) → clara (f. sg.) → claramente ("clearly")
- rápido ("fast, rapid", m. sg.) → rápida (f. sg.) → rápidamente ("fast, quickly, rapidly")
- natural ("natural", m. &. f. sg.) → naturalmente ("naturally")
- triste ("sad", m. & f. sg.) → tristemente ("sadly")
- audaz ("bold", m. & f. sg.) → audazmente ("boldly")
The adjectives bueno ("good") and malo ("bad") have irregular adverbial forms: bien ("well") and mal ("badly"), respectively.
As in English, some adverbs are identical to their adjectival counterparts. Thus words such as temprano ("early"), despacio ("slow"), and hondo ("deep") can also mean "early" (as in English, as in "He arrived early") "slowly", and "deeply", respectively.
In series of consecutive adverbs that would each end in -mente on their own, the -mente is dropped from all but the last one, and the others are left as if they were adjectives in the feminine singular. Thus:
- rápida y fácilmente = "quickly and easily"
- lenta, cuidosa, y duchamente = "slowly, carefully, and skillfully"
- parcial o completamente = "partially or completely"
There are also a wide variety of adverbial phrases in Spanish, such as a menudo ("often"), en todas partes ("everywhere"), de repente ("suddenly"), por fin ("finally"), and sin embargo ("however, nevertheless").
As with adjectives, the comparative of adverbs is generally formed by placing más ("more") or menos ("less") before the adverb. Thus más temprano ("earlier"), más rápidamente ("faster, quicker, more quickly"), menos interesantemente ("less interestingly"), etc. The superlative is generally formed by placing the neuter article lo before the comparative, although it is usually used with an additional qualifier phrase such as que puedas ("that you can") or de todos ("of all"): lo más rápidamente que puedas ("as quickly as you can", lit. "the most quickly that you can"), lo más interesantemente de todos ("most interestingly of all"), lo menos claramente de ellos ("the least clearly of them"), etc. As with their corresponding adjectival forms, bien ("well") and mal ("badly") have irregular comparative forms (mejor ("better") and peor ("worse"), respectively), and más and menos are the comparatives of mucho ("much, a lot") and poco ("a little"), respectively.
A, ante, bajo, cabe, con, contra, de, desde, en, entre, hacia, hasta, para, por, según, sin, so, sobre, tras.
Recently, two new prepositions have been added: "durante" and "mediante", usually placed at the end to preserve the list (which is usually learnt by heart by Spanish students).
This list includes two archaic prepositions (so and cabe), but leaves out two new Latinisms (vía and pro) as well as a large number of very important compound prepositions.
Prepositions in Spanish do not change a verb's meaning as they do in English. For example, to translate "run out of water" "run up a bill" "run down a pedestrian" "run in a thief" into Spanish requires completely different verbs, and not simply the use of "correr" ("run") plus the corresponding Spanish prepositions. This is more due to the nature of English phrasal verbs rather than an inherent function of Spanish verbs or prepositions.
The Spanish conjunctions y ('and') and o ('or') alter their form in both spoken and written language to e and u respectively when followed by an identical vowel sound. Thus, padre e hijo ('father and son'), Fernando e Isabel ('Ferdinand and Isabella'), sujeto u objeto ('subject or object'), vertical u horizontal ('vertical or horizontal').
The change does not take place before the (h)i of a diphthong, as in acero y hierro ('steel and iron'). Nor does the conjunction y change when initial in a question (where it serves to introduce or reintroduce a name as a topic, rather than to link one element with another), as in ¿Y Inés? ('What about Inés?').
When the conjunction o appears between numerals, it is usually spelled with an accent mark (ó), in order to distinguish it from zero (0); thus, 2 ó 3 ('2 or 3') in contrast to 203 ('two-hundred three').
Syntax and syntactic variationEdit
Order of constituentsEdit
Spanish unmarked word order for affirmative declarative sentences is subject-verb-object (SVO); however, as in other Romance languages, in practice, word order is more variable, with topicalization and focus being the primary factors in the selection of a particular order. Verb-subject-object (VSO), verb-object-subject (VOS), and object-verb-subject (OVS) are also relatively common, while other orders are very uncommon outside of poetry.
Thus, to simply say, "My friend wrote the book", one would say (SVO):
- Mi amigo escribió el libro
Although bare VSO and VOS are somewhat rare in declarative independent clauses, they are quite common in sentences in which something other than the subject or direct object functions as the focus. For example:
- Hace pocos años escribió mi amigo un libro or Hace pocos años escribió un libro mi amigo = "A few years ago, my friend wrote a book"
- Ayer vio mi madre a mi amigo y le preguntó por su libro or Ayer vio a mi amigo mi madre y le preguntó por su libro = "Yesterday, my mother saw my friend and asked him about his book"
In many dependent clauses, the subject follows the verb to avoid placing the verb in final position:
- Este es el libro que escribió mi amigo, but rarely Este es el libro que mi amigo escribió = "This is the book that my friend wrote"
A sentence in which the direct object is the topic or "theme" (old information), while the subject is part of the comment, or "rheme" (new information), often assumes OVS order. In this case the direct object noun phrase is supplemented with the appropriate direct object pronoun; for example:
- El libro lo escribió mi amigo
Because subject pronouns are often dropped, one will often see sentences with a verb and direct object but no explicitly stated subject.
In questions, VSO is usual (though not obligatory):
- ¿Escribió mi amigo el libro? = "Did my friend write the book?"
Yes/no questions, regardless of constituent order, are generally distinguished from declarative sentences by context and intonation.
A cleft sentence is one formed with the copular verb (generally with a dummy pronoun like "it" as its subject), plus a word that "cleaves" the sentence, plus a subordinate clause. They are often used to put emphasis on a part of the sentence. Here are some examples of English sentences and their cleft versions:
- "I did it." → "It was I who did it" or colloquially "It was me that did it."
- "You will stop smoking through willpower." → "It is through willpower that you will stop smoking."
Spanish does not usually employ such a structure in simple sentences. The translations of sentences like these can be readily analyzed as being normal sentences containing relative pronouns. Spanish is capable of expressing such concepts without a special cleft structure thanks to its flexible word order.
For example, if we translate a cleft sentence such as "It was Juan who lost the keys", we get Fue Juan el que perdió las llaves. Whereas the English sentence uses a special structure, the Spanish one does not. The verb fue has no dummy subject, and the pronoun el que is not a cleaver but a nominalising relative pronoun meaning "the [male] one that". Provided we respect the parings of "el que" and "las llaves", we can play with the word order of the Spanish sentence without affecting its structure – although each permutation would, to a native speaker, give a subtly different shading of emphasis.
For example, we can say Juan fue el que perdió las llaves ("Juan was the one who lost the keys") or El que perdió las llaves fue Juan ("The one who lost the keys was Juan"). As can be seen from the translations, if this word order is chosen, English stops using the cleft structure (there is no more dummy "it" and a nominalising relative is used instead of the cleaving word) whilst in Spanish no words have changed.
Here are some examples of such sentences:
- Fue Juan el que perdió las llaves = "It was John who lost the keys"
- Son sólo tres días los que te quedan = "It is only three days that you have left"
- Seré yo quien se lo diga = "It will be I who tells him"
- Son pocos los que vienen y se quedan = lit. "There are few who come and stay"
Note that it is ungrammatical to try to use just que to cleave such sentences as in English, but using quien in singular or quienes in plural is grammatical.
- *Fue Juan que perdió las llaves (incorrect)
- Fue Juan quien perdió las llaves (correct)
When prepositions come into play, things become complicated. Structures unambiguously identifiable as cleft sentences are used. The verb ser introduces the stressed element and then there is a nominaliser. Both of these are preceded by the relevant preposition. For example:
- Fue a mí a quien le dio permiso = "It was me to whom he gave permission", lit. "It was to me to whom he gave permission"
- Es para nosotros para quienes se hizo esto = "It is us for whom this was made", lit. "It is for us for whom this was made"
- Es por eso por lo que lo hice = "That is why I did it", more literally: "It is because of that that I did it", or completely literally: "It is because of that because of which I did it"
- Es así como se debe hacer = "It is this way that it must be done", lit. "It is this way how it must be done" (como replaces longer expressions such as la forma en que)
This structure is quite wordy, and is therefore often avoided by not using a cleft sentence at all. Emphasis is conveyed just by word order and stressing with the voice (indicated here within bolding):
- Me dio permiso a mí = "He gave permission to me"
- Se hizo esto para nosotros = "This was done for us"
- Por eso lo hice = "I did it because of that"
- Se debe hacer así = "It must be done this way"
In casual speech, the complex cleaving pronoun is often reduced to que, just as it is reduced to "that" in English. Foreign learners are advised to avoid this.
- Es para nosotros que se hizo esto
- Es por eso que lo hice
- Fue a mí que le dio permiso (preferred: a quien)
- Es así que se debe hacer (preferred: como)
In the singular, the subordinate clause can agree either with the relative pronoun or with the subject of the main sentence, though the latter is seldom used. However, in the plural, only agreement with the subject of the main sentence is acceptable. Therefore:
- Yo fui el que me lo bebí = "I was the one who drank it" (agreement with subject of main sentence)
- Yo fui el que se lo bebió (preferred form with same meaning, agreement with el que)
- La que lo sé soy yo = "I am the one who knows" (agreement with subject of main sentence)
- La que lo sabe soy yo = (preferred form with same meaning, agreement with la que)
- Somos los únicos que no tenemos ni un centavo para apostar = "We are the only ones who do not have even a cent to bet" (agreement with subject of main sentence) (from dialogue of the Gabriel García Márquez novel El coronel no tiene quien le escriba)
- Vosotras sois las que lo sabéis = "You girls are the ones who know" (agreement with subject of main sentence)
Forms of addressEdit
The use of usted and ustedes as a polite form of address is universal. However, there are variations in informal address. Ustedes replaces vosotros in much of Andalusia, the Canary Islands and Latin America, except in the liturgical or poetic of styles. In some parts of Andalusia, the pronoun ustedes is used with the standard vosotros endings.
Depending on the region, Latin Americans may also replace the singular tú with usted or vos. The choice of pronoun is a tricky issue and can even vary from village to village. Travellers are often advised to play it safe and call everyone usted.
A feature of the speech of the Dominican Republic and other areas where syllable-final /s/ is completely silent is that there is no audible difference between the second and third person singular form of the verb. This leads to redundant pronoun use, for example, the tagging on of ¿tú ves? (pronounced tuvé) to the ends of sentences, where other speakers would say ¿ves?.
Vos was used in medieval Castilian as a polite form, like the French vous and the Italian voi, and it used the same forms as vosotros. This gave three levels of formality:
- Tú quieres
- Vos queréis (originally queredes)
- Vuestra merced quiere (today usted)
Whereas vos was lost in standard Spanish, some dialects lost tú, and began using vos as the informal pronoun. The exact connotations of this practice, called voseo, depend on the dialect. In certain countries there may be socioeconomic implications. El voseo uses the pronoun vos for tú, but maintains te as an object pronoun and tu and tuyo as possessives.
In voseo, verbs corresponding to vos in the present indicative (roughly equivalent to the English simple present), are formed from the second person plural (the form for vosotros). If the second person plural ends in áis or éis, the form for vos drops the i:
- Vosotros habláis – vos hablás
- Vosotros tenéis – vos tenés
Similarly the verb ser (to be) has:
- Vosotros sois – vos sos
If the second person plural ends in -ís (with an accent on the í), then the form for vos is identical:
- Vosotros vivís – vos vivís
- Vosotros oís – vos oís
- Vosotros huís – vos huís
In the imperative, the form for vos is also derived from the second person plural. The latter ends always in -d. So for the form for vos this d is removed, and if the verb has more than one syllable, an accent is added to the last vowel:
- Tened (vosotros) – tené (vos)
- Dad (vosotros) – da (vos)
The only exception to these rules is in the verb ir (to go), which does not have an imperative form for vos and uses the analogous form of the verb andar, which has a similar meaning, and is regular:
- Andad – andá
In the present subjunctive, the same rules as for the present indicative apply, though these forms coexist in Argentina with those for the pronoun tú:
- Que vosotros digáis – que vos digás
- Que tú digas – que vos digas
Other tenses always have the same form for vos as for tú.
Outside Argentina, other combinations are possible. For instance, people in Maracaibo may use standard vosotros endings for vos (vos habláis, que vos habléis).
Vosotros imperative: -ar for -adEdit
In Spain, colloquially, the infinitive is used instead of the normative imperative for vosotros. This is not accepted in the normative language.
- ¡Venir! instead of ¡Venid!
- ¡Callaros! instead of ¡Callaos! (¡Callarse! in some dialects)
- ¡Iros! or ¡Marcharos! instead of ¡Idos!
Non-normative -s on tú formEdit
A form used for centuries but never accepted normatively has an -s ending in the second person singular of the preterite or simple past. For example, lo hicistes instead of the normative lo hiciste; hablastes tú for hablaste tú. That is the only instance in which the tú form does not end in an -s in the normative language.
Ladino has gone further with hablates.
Third-person object pronoun variationEdit
The third-person direct-object and indirect-object pronouns exhibit variation from region to region, from one individual to another, and even within the language of single individuals. The Real Academia Española prefers an "etymological" usage, one in which the indirect object function is carried by le (regardless of gender), and the direct object function is carried by la or lo (according to the gender of the antecedent, and regardless of its animacy).
The Academy also condones the use of le as a direct object form for masculine, animate antecedents (i.e. male humans). Deviations from these approved usages are named leísmo (for the use of le as a direct object), and laísmo and loísmo (for the use of la and lo as indirect objects). The object pronoun variation is studied in detail by García & Otheguy (1977).
Queísmo and dequeísmoEdit
Noun clauses in Spanish are typically introduced by the complementizer que, and such a noun clause may serve as the object of the preposition de, resulting in the sequence de que in the standard language. This sequence, in turn, is often reduced colloquially to just que, and this reduction is called queísmo.
Some speakers, by way of hypercorrection (i.e. in an apparent effort to avoid the "error" of queísmo), insert de before que in contexts where it is not prescribed in standard grammar. This insertion of "extraneous" de before que — called dequeísmo — is generally associated with less-educated speakers.
- Henry Kamen, Empire: how Spain became a world power, 1492–1763, 2002:3.
- Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, hablar
- Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, comer
- Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, escribir
- Butt & Benjamin 2011, § 7.2.1.
- DeBruyne 1996, § 64.
- Butt & Benjamin 2011, § 7.2.2.
- DeBruyne 1996, § 69.
- Alvar, Manuel. 1996. Manual de dialectología hispánica. Ariel. ISBN 978-84-344-8218-0.
- Batchelor, R[onald] E[rnest]; San José, Miguel Ángel (2010), A Reference Grammar of Spanish, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-42961-0
- Butt, John; Benjamin, Carmen (2011), A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish (5th ed.), Hodder Education, ISBN 978-1-4441-3769-9
- DeBruyne, Jacques (1996), A Comprehensive Spanish Grammar, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19087-5
- Diccionario esencial Santillana de la lengua española. Editorial Santillana, 2001. ISBN 978-84-294-3415-6.
- García, Érica; Otheguy, Ricardo (1977), "Dialectal Variation in leísmo: A Semantic Approach", in Fashold, Ralph W.; Shuy, Roger W., Studies in Language Variation: Semantics, Syntax, Phonology, Pragmatics, Social Situations, Ethnographic Approaches, Georgetown University Press, pp. 65–88, ISBN 0-87840-209-8
- Gómez Torrego, Leonardo. 2006. Hablar y escribir correctamente: Gramática normativa del español actual. Arco Libros. ISBN 978-84-7635-653-1.
- Pérez, Ángeles; Rafael Sala; and Manuel Santamarina. 1994. Cassell's Contemporary Spanish. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-02-595915-6.
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