The Twa (Batwa, also Cwa IPA /tʃwa/) are a group of African Pygmy (Central African foragers) peoples, tribes, or castes who live interdependently with agricultural Bantu populations, providing the farming population with game in exchange for agricultural products.
Twa populations according to Hewlett & Fancher. From west to east: Ntomba, Kasai, [unidentified], Great Lakes, Nsua [not clear if Nsua is Twa].
Twa populations according to Stokes. Only a few groups are shown, but these include several between the Kasai and Great Lakes Twa.
Twa/pygmoid populations according to Cavalli-Sforza. Several southern groups are added.
Twa populations scattered through shaded area, according to Blench. Several southern Twa areas are shown.
|Bantu languages, French|
It is often supposed that the Pygmies were the aboriginal inhabitants of the forest before the advent of agriculture. Vansina argues that the original meaning of the (Proto-Bantu) word *twa was "hunter-gatherer, bushpeople", alongside yaka used for the western (Mbuti) pygmies (Bayaka). As the Twa developed into full-time hunter-gatherers, the words were conflated,[clarification needed] and the ritual role of the absorbed aboriginal peoples was transferred to the Twa.[clarification needed] Batwa and Abatwa are Bantu plural forms, translating to "Twa people".
Relation to the Bantu populationsEdit
All Pygmy and Twa populations live near or in agricultural villages. Agricultural Bantu peoples have settled a number of ecotones next to an area that has game but will not support agriculture, such as the edges of the rainforest, open swamp, and desert. The Twa spend part of the year in the otherwise uninhabited region hunting game, trading for agricultural products with the farmers while they do so.
Roger Blench has proposed that Twa (Pygmies) originated as a caste like they are today, much like the Numu blacksmith castes of West Africa, economically specialized groups which became endogamous and consequently developed into separate ethnic groups, sometimes, as with the Ligbi, also their own languages. A mismatch in language between patron and client could later occur from population displacements. The short stature of the "forest people" could have developed in the millennia since the Bantu expansion, as happened also with Bantu domestic animals in the rainforest Perhaps there was additional selective pressure from farmers taking the tallest women back to their villages as wives. However, that is incidental to the social identity of the Pygmy/Twa.[clarification needed]
Twa live scattered throughout the Congo. In addition to the Great Lakes Twa of the dense forests under the Ruwenzoris, there are notable populations in the swamp forest around Lake Tumba in the west (about 14,000 Twa, more than the Great Lakes Twa in all countries), in the forest–savanna swamps of Kasai in the south-center, and in the savanna swamps scattered throughout Katanga in the south-east, as in the Upemba Depression with its floating islands, and around Kiambi on the Luvua River.
Among the Mongo, on the rare occasions of caste mixing, the child is raised as Twa. If this is a common pattern with Twa groups, it may explain why the Twa are less physically distinct from their patrons than the Mbenga and Mbuti, where village men take Pygmy women out of the forest as wives. The Congolese variant of the name, at least in Mongo, Kasai, and Katanga, is Cwa.[note 1]
The Batwa of Uganda were forest dwellers who lived by gathering and hunting as the main source of food. They are believed to have lived in the Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga National parks that border Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda living mainly in areas bordering other Bantu Tribes.
In 1992, the lives of the Batwa pygmies changed forever. The Bwindi Impenetrable Forest became a national park and World Heritage Site to protect the 350 endangered mountain gorillas within its boundaries. The Batwa were evicted from the park. Since they had no title to land, they were given no compensation. The Batwa became conservation refugees in an unfamiliar, unforested world. Poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, lack of education facilities, HIV as well as gender-based violence and discrimination are higher among Batwa communities than among the neighboring Bantu communities.
Angola and NamibiaEdit
Zambia and BotswanaEdit
The Twa of these countries live in swampy areas, such as the Twa fishermen of the Bangweulu Swamps, Lukanga Swamp, and Kafue Flats of Zambia; only the Twa fish in Southern Province, where the swampy terrain means that large-scale crops cannot be planted near the best fishing grounds.
Cavalli-Sforza also shows Twa near Lake Mweru on the Zambia–Congo border. There are two obvious possibilities: the Luapula Swamps, and the swamps of Lake Mweru Wantipa. The latter is Taabwa territory, and the Twa are reported to live among the Taabwa. The former is reported to be the territory of Bemba-speaking Twa.
- A local variant of Twa in Congo. Pronounced [tʃwa]
- Vansina, Jan (October 1990). Paths in the rainforests : toward a history of political tradition in equatorial Africa. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-12574-5.
- Blench, Roger (1999), "Are the African Pygmies an Ethnographic Fiction?", in Biesbrouck; Elders; Rossel (eds.), Challenging Elusiveness: Central African Hunter-Gatherers in a Multidisciplinary Perspective (PDF), Universiteit Leiden, pp. 41–60, ISBN 9057890186, archived from the original (PDF) on January 26, 2012, retrieved October 26, 2011
- Hiernaux, Jean (1977), "Adaptation of the African to the rainforest", in Harrison, G. A. (ed.), Population Structure and Human Variation, 1, Cambridge University Press, pp. 187–218, ISBN 9780521213998
- Vice News (July 17, 2015). Forced Out of the Forest: The Lost Tribe of Uganda (video). YouTube.
- Estermann, Carlos (1976). Gibson (ed.). The ethnography of southwestern Angola. I. Africana Publishing Company.
- Lehmann, D (1977), "The Twa: People of the Kafue Flats", in Williams, Geoffrey (ed.), Development and Ecology in the Lower Kafue Basin in the Nineteen Seventies, University of Zambia, pp. 41–46
- Kazadi 2011, pp. 836-847.
- Clark, J. Desmond (1950). The stone age cultures of Northern Rhodesia: with particular reference to the cultural and climatic succession in the Upper Zambezi Valley and its tributaries. South Africa: The South African Archaeological Society.
- Kazadi, Ntole (2011). "Meprises et admires: l'ambivalence des relations entre les Bacwa (Pygmees) et les Bahemba (Bantu)". Africa (in French). 51 (04): 836–847. doi:10.2307/1159357.
- Francis, Michael (25 September 2015). "Silencing the past: historical and archaeological colonisation of the Southern San in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa". Anthropology Southern Africa. 32 (3–4): 106–116. doi:10.1080/23323256.2009.11499985.
- Francis, Michael (2011), "Eland Ceremony, Abatwa People's (Southern Africa)", in Downing, John D.H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Movement Media, SAGE Publications, Inc., p. 172, doi:10.4135/9781412979313.n83, retrieved 31 October 2018
- Francis, Michael (2007), Tomaselli, Keyan (ed.), Explorations in Ethnicity and Social Change among Zulu-speaking San Descendents of the Drakensberg Mountains, KwaZulu-Natal (PhD thesis), retrieved 31 October 2018