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Population centresEdit

From its initial definition of the Maori electorates in 1867 to the 1954 Maori electoral boundary redefinition, the Southern Maori electorate covered the entire South Island plus it included Stewart Island.[1] It did not include the Chatham Islands, which did not belong to any Maori electorate until after a change to the Legislative Act and from the 1922 election, the Chatham Islands belonged to the Western Maori electorate.[2] The 1954 redefinition responded to the fact that the Southern Maori electorate had a much lower voter base than the three other Maori electorates, and this was responded to by adding the south-eastern part of the North Island to the Southern Maori electorate. Population centres that came to the electorate through this measure included Wellington, Masterton, Palmerston North, Napier, and Wairoa. These changes became effective with the 1954 election.[3]

The next redistribution of Maori electoral boundaries was carried out in 1983, just after the responsibility for doing so had been transferred to the Representation Commission. The North Island boundaries of the Southern Maori electorate were adjusted, and Palmerston North transferred to the Western Maori electorate in that process. These boundaries were used in the 1984 election.[4] Further boundary adjustments were undertaken in 1987, which became operative with the 1987 election.[5]

Tribal areasEdit

Ngāi Tahu and Ngati Kahungunu were the dominant tribes within the area covered by the electorate.

HistoryEdit

The Southern Maori electorate included the whole of the South Island to 1954, but its population was less than that of the other Māori electorates. In 1954 the boundaries were extended to include much of the East Coast of the North Island up to Napier and Wairoa in Hawkes Bay.

The first member of parliament for the new Māori electorate of Southern Maori from 1868 was John Patterson; he retired in 1870.

In 1932, Eruera Tirikatene won the electorate in a by-election and became the first Rātana MP; and then a Labour MP following the Labour-Ratana pact. When he died in 1967 his daughter Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan took over the seat in a 1967 by-election.

In 1993 the National Party did not stand a candidate in the electorate as their proposed candidate did not apply in time.

In 1996 with mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation, the Te Tai Tonga electorate covering the South Island took over the major part of the Southern Maori electorate. Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan who had held the Southern Maori electorate for many years narrowly lost the new seat to Tu Wyllie of New Zealand First and retired from politics.

Members of ParliamentEdit

The Southern Maori electorate was represented by ten Members of Parliament:[6]

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Reform    United    Ratana    Labour  

Election Winner
1868 Māori election John Patterson
1871 election Hori Kerei Taiaroa
1876 election
1879 by-election Ihaia Tainui
1879 election
1881 by-election Hori Kerei Taiaroa (2nd period)
1881 election
1884 election
1885 by-election Tame Parata
1887 election
1890 election
1893 election
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Taare Parata
1914 election
1918 by-election Hopere Uru
1919 election
1922 by-election Henare Uru
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election Tuiti Makitanara
1931 election
1932 by-election Eruera Tirikatene
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1967 by-election Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election

Election resultsEdit

Note that the affiliation of many early candidates is not known.

1987 electionEdit

1987 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,130 76.9 -1.4
Mana Motuhake Tikirau Stevens 1,282 9.7 +1.1
National Te A. J. Mei 1,030 7.8 +1.3
Democrats R. R. Aramakuru 344 2.6 +1.1
Independent Dun Mihaka 319 2.4 +1.2
Independent C. R. Dooley 71 0.6 +0.6
Majority 8,848 67.2
Turnout 76.9

1984 electionEdit

1984 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 11,792 78.3 +6.7
Mana Motuhake Amster Reedy 1,297 8.6 -3.1
National Te A. J. Mei 982 6.5 -0.6
NZ Party Willard Amaru 427 2.8 +2.8
Social Credit R. R. Aramakuru 226 1.5 -6.2
Independent Dun Mihaka 177 1.5 -0.7
Independent H. Watene 161 1.1 +1.1
Majority 10,495 69.7
Turnout 84.5

1981 electionEdit

1981 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,685 71.6 -10.7
Mana Motuhake Amster Reedy 1,740 11.7 +11.7
Social Credit R. R. Aramakuru 1,149 7.7 -0.4
National B. R. Kiwara 1,060 7.1 -1.5
Independent Dun Mihaka 280 1.9 +1.9
Majority 8,945 59.9
Turnout 80.9

1978 electionEdit

1978 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 10,250 82.3 +7.7
National C. P. Maitai 1,070 8.6 -3.5
Social Credit W. A. M. Gregory 1,013 8.1 +2.3
Values M. Burdan 117 1.0 +1.4
Majority 9,180 73.7
Turnout 40.7

1975 electionEdit

1975 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,708 74.6 -13.1
National Willard Amaru 1,256 12.1 +4.1
Social Credit Miss L. K. Kaumau 598 5.8 +1.5
Independent Labour W. W. Mohi 358 3.5 +3.5
Values Y. V. A. W. Currie 246 2.4 +2.4
Independent Southern Maori Mrs T. T. Te Puke Watson 166 1.6 +1.6
Majority 6,452 62.5
Turnout 58.1

1972 electionEdit

1972 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 9,078 87.7 +4.8
National K. Parahi 827 8.0 -4.5
Social Credit Ms G. M. Ngakuru 450 4.3 +1.2
Majority 9,251 79.7
Turnout 72.3

1969 electionEdit

1969 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,802 82.9 +10.6
National Norra Woodbane Pomare 1,172 12.5 -9.2
Social Credit T. W. Makitanare 290 3.1 -2.9
Straight Independent R. Rangi 141 1.5 +1.5
Majority 6,630 70.4
Turnout 72.7

1967 by-electionEdit

1967 Southern Maori by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Whetu Tirikatene 4,968 74.31
National M B P Pere 1,371 20.51
Social Credit J H MacDonald 347 5.18
Majority 3,597 53.80
Turnout 6,686 50.47

1966 electionEdit

1966 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,474 72.3 -5.1
National Mafeking Baden Powell Pere 1,642 21.7 +7.8
Social Credit J. H. MacDonald 457 6.0 +2.2
Majority 3,832 50.6
Turnout 64.6

1963 electionEdit

1963 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 6,065 77.4 +1.8
National Ben Couch 1,087 13.9 -3.5
Young Maori R. Bristow 387 4.9 +4.9
Social Credit M. E. Niania 299 3.8 -3.2
Majority 4,978 63.5
Turnout 71.6

1960 electionEdit

1960 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,132 75.6 -2.9
National Ngarangi Whakaupoko Tutaki 1,185 17.4 +3.4
Social Credit M. E. Niania 474 7.0 +1.2
Majority 3,947 58.2
Turnout 72.7

1957 electionEdit

1957 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 5,335 78.5 +14.4
National Thomas Stratton 952 14.0 -8.9
Social Credit H. I. Ropiha 394 5.8 +1.9
Kauhananui T. W. Makitanare 113 1.7 +1.7
Majority 4,383 64.5
Turnout 83.7

1954 electionEdit

1954 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 4,452 64.1 -10.3
National Turi Carroll 1,588 22.9 -1.7
Independent Labour F. R. Logan 477 6.9 +6.9
Social Credit M. Baker 261 1.7 +1.7
Maori Labour A. T. Huata 168 2.4 +2.4
Majority 2,864 41.2
Turnout 94.7

1951 electionEdit

1951 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 979 75.4 -2.0
National William Beaton 320 24.6 +2.0
Majority 659 50.8
Turnout 90.8

1949 electionEdit

1949 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 970 77.4 +1.9
National Huro Nathanial Bates 28.3 22.6 -1.9
Majority 687 54.8
Turnout 92.5

1946 electionEdit

1946 general election: Southern Maori
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Eruera Tirikatene 861 75.5
National Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas 280 24.5
Majority 581 51.0
Turnout

1932 by-electionEdit

1932 Southern Maori by-election[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Ratana Eruera Tirikatene 425 44.69 +10.34
United/Reform William Teihoka Parata 184 19.35
Independent Peter McDonald 132 13.88
Independent Joseph Beaton (United/Reform Coalition) 113 11.88
Independent Tame Bragg (Reform) 94 9.88
Independent Wiremu Mihaka 3 0.32
Majority 241 25.34 +23.27
Turnout 951

1931 electionEdit

1931 general election: Southern Maori[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
United Tuiti Makitanara 334 36.42
Ratana Eruera Tirikatene 315 34.35
Independent Hari Wi Katene 268 29.23
Majority 19 2.07
Turnout 917

1922 by-electionEdit

1922 Southern Maori by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Henare Uru 364 44.83
Independent Teone Matapura Erihana 250 30.79 +16.69
Independent Wereta Tainui Pitama 108 13.30
Independent William Daniel Barrett 90 11.08
Turnout 812
Majority 114 14.04 -16.05

1918 by-electionEdit

1918 Southern Maori by-election[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Hopere Uru 242 38.78
Independent Henare Parata 223 35.74
Independent Teone Matapura Erihana (Ellison) 159 25.48
Turnout 624
Majority 19 3.04

1899 electionEdit

1899 general election: Southern Maori[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Tame Parata 387 63.86 +24.64
Taituha Hape 219 36.14
Majority 168 27.72 +10.81
Turnout 606

1896 electionEdit

1896 general election: Southern Maori[11][12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Tame Parata 262 39.22 -27.63
Thomas Ellison 149 22.31
Riki Te Mairaki Taiaroa 144 21.56
Teoti Pita Mutu 113 16.92 -16.24
Majority 391 11.93 -16.78
Turnout 668

1893 electionEdit

1893 general election: Southern Maori[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Tame Parata 367 66.85
Teoti Pita Mutu 182 33.15
Majority 185 33.70
Turnout 549

1887 electionEdit

1887 general election: Southern Maori[14][15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Tame Parata 140 33.49 -9.12
Independent Thomas Ellison 103 24.64
Independent Kahu 103 24.64
Independent Hone Taare Tikao 72 17.22 -10.03
Majority 37 8.85 -3.61
Turnout 418

1885 by-electionEdit

1885 Southern Maori by-election[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Tame Parata 147 42.61
Independent Henare Paratini[17] 104 30.14
Independent Hone Taare Tikao[18] 94 27.25
Majority 43 12.46
Turnout 345

1879 by-electionEdit

1879 Southern Maori by-election[19][20][21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Ihaia Tainui 191 49.23
Independent Tari Wi or Toihaka 78 20.10
Independent Hori Paratene 60 15.46
Majority 113 29.12
Turnout 388

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 132–139.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 135.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 138f.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 140f.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 142f.
  6. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 272.
  7. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  8. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 6. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  9. ^ "Southern Maori Election". The Lake District Press. 28 February 1918.
  10. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Untitled". The Evening Post. LIII (1). 2 January 1897. p. 4. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  12. ^ "The Maori Elections". The Press. LIII (9591). 4 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  13. ^ "The General Election, 1893". Government Printer. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  14. ^ "The Maori Members". The Press. XLIV (6861). 20 September 1887. p. 6. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  15. ^ "The Southern Native Member". The Press. XLIV (6856). 14 September 1887. p. 6. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  16. ^ "Election of Maori Representative". Otago Daily Times (7287). 25 June 1885. p. 4. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  17. ^ "The Southern Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald. XXII (7363). 25 June 1885. p. 5. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  18. ^ "Southern Maori Election". The Timaru Herald. XLI (3340). 11 June 1885. p. 3. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  19. ^ "Southern Maori Election". The New Zealand Herald. 17 July 1879.
  20. ^ "Southern Maori Election". Star. 16 July 1879.
  21. ^ "Southern Maori Election". Evening Post. 17 July 1879.

ReferencesEdit

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.