Southern Kaduna (Tyap: A̱tak Ka̱duna; Jju: Ka̱tak Ka̱duna; Hausa: Kudancin Kaduna; formerly Southern Zaria)[1] is an area of the Nok Culture region inhabited by various related ethnic groups who do not identify as Hausa, living south of Zaria, Kaduna State. It is located in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria. Southern Kaduna consists of 12 Local Government Areas out of a total of 23 in Kaduna State.

Southern Kaduna
Gurara/Nok
Southern Zaria
Cultural region
Nok plastic head on a truck during the SK Fest 2023, Township Stadium, Kafanchan
Nok plastic head on a truck during the SK Fest 2023, Township Stadium, Kafanchan
Nickname: 
Chongai S/K
Part ofKaduna State  Nigeria
- Settlement of Nok culturec. 1500 BC
- Nok culture areac. 1500 BC - c. 500 AD
- Kwararafa confederacyc. 900 - c. 1700
- Northern Region British Nigeria (later Middle Belt, Nigeria)1903-4 (1950s)
- Southern Zariac. 1900
- Nerzit regionc. 1950
- Southern Kadunac. 1990
- Gurara/Nok Stateproposed
Founded by- Proto Nok people
CapitalKafanchan (Economic capital)
Composed of
Government
 • Type Chief
  • Agwam
  • Agwom (Agom)
  • B'gwam
  • Ere
  • Esu (Sa)
  • Etum
  • Kpop
  • Ngbiar
  • Odyong
  • Pukgom
  • Res
  • Tum
  • Uchu
Clan heads
Village heads
Area
 • Land26,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi)
Population
 (2016 estimate)
 • Total4,564,100
Demographics
 • Major indigenous languages
 • Major non-indigenous languages
Time zoneWAT

In September 2020, the SOKAPU national publicity secretary, Luka Binniyat, in a statement he signed said the region makes up 51.2% of the entire state's population as shown in the 2006 census figures, occupying 26,000 sq. km. of the state's 46,000 sq. km. total land mass, with 57 registered ethnic nationalities of the state's 67 identified ones.[2] Angerbradt (2015) views it as being less of a geographical identity and more of an ethnic identity concept.[3]

History edit

 
Nok male figure; 500 BC – 500 AD; terracotta; 49.5 cm × 22.2 cm × 16.8 cm (19.5 in × 8.7 in × 6.6 in); at Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth, Texas, USA)

Antiquity edit

The Nok culture thrived in the area now known as Southern Kaduna as early as 1500 BC and lasted up until circa 500 AD.[4]

Middle ages edit

Achi (2005:378) mentioned that the itinerary settlement of Zangon Kataf, established circa 1650 AD for the itinerant Hausa traders became important.[5]

Geography edit

Administrative divisions edit

The table below contains the 12 Local Government Areas of Southern Kaduna:

LGA Headquarters
Chikun Kujama
Jaba Kwoi
Jema'a Kafanchan
Kachia Kachia Town
Kaduna South Makera
Kagarko Kagarko Town
Kajuru Kajuru Town
Kaura Kaura Town
Kauru Kauru Town
Lere Saminaka
Sanga Gbantu
Zangon Kataf Zonkwa

Demographics edit

Gugwa group at Ayet 2023
Asharuwa fluters at Afan 2024
Agworok archers at Afan 2024
Gbagyi dancers at SK Fest 2023

Ethnic composition edit

Southern Kaduna is composed of closely related ethnic groups and several subgroups united by a common culture and history. James (2000) classified these people based on their ethno-linguistic affinities under the topic "The Middle Belt (Composition of the Nok Culture Area)", and grouping the subgroups into the following groups:[6] the Southern kaduna population is estimated to be over 4.5 million people out of the estimated 8.5 million population in Kaduna state in 2016. Predicted 5.1 million people out of 12 million predicted population of Kaduna State in 2021. The common general language speaking in the area is Hausa Language as medium of communication.[7]

The Proto-Plateau ethnolinguistic cluster edit

S/N Groups Sub-groups
I. Northern or Adara Group
  • Adara (Kadara)
  • Ada (Kuturmi)
  • Ajure Adara (Kadara of Idon)
  • Anumafa Adara (Kadara Kateri)
  • Semi Ajure (Ankuwa, Gora)
  • Bakulu (Ikulu)
II. Western or Koro Group
III. Ham or Northwestern Group
IV. Nerzit or Kataf (Atyap) Group
  • Atyap (Kataf, Katab)
  • Bajju (Kaje)
  • Agworok (Aegworok, Oegworok, Kagoro)
  • Asholyio (Osholio, Asholio, Moro'a)
  • Fantswam (Kafanchan)
  • Bakulu (Ikulu)
  • Anghan (Angan, Kamantan)
  • Atakad (Atakat, Attakar)
  • Atyecharak (Atyacherak, Attachirak, Kachechere)
  • Terri (Challa, Chara)
  • Atuku (tuku) Kuu""
V. South-western (Aninka) Group
  • Ninzo
  • Northern Mada
  • Gbantu (Gwantu)
  • Nindem
  • Nikyob (Kaninkon)
  • Kanufi
  • Nungu
  • Buh - Ayu
  • Ningeshe
  • Nandu
  • Numana

The above grouping on the Proto-Plateau ethnolinguistic clusters was however modified based on the spoken languages by Blench (2008) as follows:[8]

S/N Groups Sub-groups
I. Northwest or Adara Group
II. Atyap (Nerzit, Nenzit) Group
III. Koro Group
  • Ashe
  • Tinɔr (Waci-Myamya)
  • Idũ, Gwara
  • Nyenkpa-Barde
IV. Ham Group
  • Shamang
  • Cori
  • Ham
  • Zhire
  • Shang
V. Gwong Group
VI. Ninzo Group
  • Ninzo (Ninzam)
  • Bu-Niŋkada
  • Mada
  • Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu
  • Ningye-Ninka
  • Anib
  • Nikyob
  • Nindem
  • Nungu
  • Ayu
VII. Ndun Group
  • Ndun (Nandu)
VIII. Alumu Group
  • Sambe
  • He also said that Nisam is a presumed Plateau language once spoken in Nince Village, Kaduna State, however, its place within the Plateau branch cannot be ascertained due to the lack of linguistic data and that in 2005, there was only one speaker of Nisam.[9]

The Proto-Kainji ethnolinguistic cluster edit

S/N Groups Sub-groups
I. Eastern Kainji Group
  • Atsam (Chawai)
  • Amap (Amo)
  • Abisi (Piti)
  • Kuzamani (Shuwa-Zamani)
  • Ngmgbang (Ribam)
  • Dinani (Dingi)
  • Ribina
II. Eastern Kainji Group
  • Agbiri (Gure)
  • Aniragu (Kahugu)
  • Akurmi (Kurama)
  • Koonu (Kono)
  • Vono (Kiballo)
  • Tumi (Kitimi)
  • Nuno-Kaivi (Kaibi)
  • Mala-Ruma (Rumaya/Ruruma)
  • Abin (Binawa)
  • Kuvori (Surubu)
  • Atumu (Kinuku)
  • Shuwa-Zamani (Kuzamani)
  • Dungi (Dungu)

The Proto-Nupoid ethnolinguistic cluster edit

S/N Groups Sub-groups
I. Gbagyi (Gwari) Group

The Proto-West Chadic languages edit

Outside of James (2000)'s classification lie the groups from the Proto-West Chadic ethnolinguistic cluster:

S/N Groups Sub-groups
I. West Chadic

Languages edit

Southern Kaduna consists of a diverse minority of ethnolinguistic groups, who speak languages belonging to the Niger–Congo and West Chadic language groups.[11] Below are the languages and dialects spoken by the people of Southern Kaduna:

LGA Languages
Chikun Gbagyi
Jaba Ashe; Duya; Hyam
Jema'a Ashe; Berom; Duya; Fantswam; Gyong; Hyam; Jju; Kanufi; Mada; Kyoli Nikyob-Nindem; Ninzo; Nungu; Nyankpa; Shamang; Tyap; Tyuku Zhire; Numana
Kachia Adara; Doka; Gbagyi; Hyam; Iku-Gora-Ankwa; Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; Koro Wachi; Ada; Shamang; Tyap; Zhire
Kaduna South Adara; Gbagyi; Hausa; Idoma; Igbo; Tyap; Yoruba
Kagarko Ashe; Duya; Gbagyi; Koro Wachi
Kajuru Adara; Ajiya; Gbagyi; Kuzamani
Kaura Gworok; Firan; Iten; Takad; Sholyio; Tyap and Tyecarak (Tyecaat)
Kauru Bisi; Bina; Dungu; Ikulu; Kaivi; Kinuku; Koonu; Mala; Mbang; Rigwe; Ruma; Sheni; T'kurmi; Tsam; Tumi; Tyap; Vono; Tivori and Hausa
Lere T'kurmi, Timap; Bina; Lere; Tugbiri-Niragu and Hausa
Sanga Ahwai; Ayu; Bu; Gwandara; Hasha; Ninzo; Numana; Nungu; Sambe; Sha; Toro
Zangon Kataf Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; and Tyap; Tyecarak (Tyecaat)

[12]

Religion edit

Gallery edit

Economy edit

Natural resources edit

Former Nigerian Minister of Solid Minerals, Leslie Obiora, compiled a list of minerals across the country, which amounted to a total of 74 minerals; 34 were declared fit for mining on a commercial scale, with Southern Kaduna having over 30 minerals with over fifty percent (50%) of them minable.[13]

Agriculture edit

 
Ginger warehouse Kafanchan

In the 1990s, ginger farmers enjoyed profit from the sales of their harvested crops due to the availability of ginger processing companies all over the region, but today, most of those companies have shut down without efforts to revive them on the side of the government.[14]

Education edit

 
Classroom block, College of Agriculture, Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Samaru Kataf (Chenkwon) Campus

It was asserted by Kazah-Toure (1999:130) that Southern Kaduna took a lead in education in the defunct Northern Region, during the period around the Nigerian Civil War (between 1966 and 1970s).[15] Bonat (1989:55) claims that a majority of the educated people from this region who are non-Hausa, were in the teaching profession and in the middle cadre of the civil service in contrast to the Hausa who were dominant at the highest bureaucratic levels.[16]

In March 2024, a group, Kaduna Indigenous Publishers Network spoke of the establishment of the Southern Kaduna Educational and Human Capacity Development Commission, to create access for the youths of the region to good education and training opportunities.[17]

Present tertiary institutions edit

Politics edit

The Southern Kaduna People's Union (SOKAPU) had been the umbrella socio-cultural body for the about 67 recognized ethnic groups of Southern Kaduna over the decades.[18] The group is currently under the leadership of Samuel Tabara Kato. He succeeded Awemi Dio Maisamari in December 2023 as National President of SOKAPU.[19]

In September 2022, the Southern Kaduna Leadership Council (SKLC) chaired by Ishaya Dary Akau, listed SOKAPU as its member. Other members of the council announced included the Southern Kaduna Elders Consultative Forum, Southern Kaduna Autochthonous Community Development Associations Forum, Forum of Southern Kaduna Professors, Southern Kaduna Christian Leaders Association, Southern Kaduna Retired Military and Para-Military Officers Association, Southern Kaduna Lawyers Forum, Southern Kaduna Leaders Forum, and the Visionaries for the formation of the Council.[20] The listing of the SOKAPU under the SKLC, however, was not popular with some members of the SOKAPU executive as the group was soon plunged into an internal crisis which climaxed with the resignation of Maisamari.[21]

Notable people edit

Among the notable people from Southern Kaduna are:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kafewo, S. (2009). "Giving Voice: Instigating Debate on Issues of Citizenship, Participation, and Accountability". Development in Practice. 19 (4/5): 678–687. doi:10.1080/09614520902866454. JSTOR 27752105. S2CID 37550776. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  2. ^ Hassan-Wuyo, Ibrahim (1 September 2020). "Southern Kaduna holds 51.2% population of Kaduna state — SOKAPU". Vanguard Nigeria. Retrieved 5 April 2024.
  3. ^ Angerbrandt, Henrik (7 August 2015). "Religion, ethnicity and citizenship: demands for territorial self-determination in southern Kaduna". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 33 (2). doi:10.1080/02589001.2015.1066081. S2CID 154843125. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  4. ^ Chesi, Gert; Merzeder, Gerhad (2006). The Nok Culture: Art in Nigeria 2,500 Years Ago. Germany: Prestel. ISBN 3791336460. Retrieved 9 April 2024.
  5. ^ Achi, B. (2005). Local History in Post-Independent Africa in Writing African history. p. 375. ISBN 9781580462563.
  6. ^ a b James, Ibrahim (2000). The Settler Phenomenon in the Middle Belt and the Problem of National Integration in Nigeria: The Middle Belt (Ethnic Composition of the Nok Culture).
  7. ^ James, Ibrahim (2007). The politics of creation of chiefdoms in Kaduna state. Vanguard Publishers Ltd.
  8. ^ Blench, Roger M. 2018. Nominal affixes and number marking in the Plateau languages of Central Nigeria. In John R. Watters (ed.), East Benue-Congo: Nouns, pronouns, and verbs, 107–172. Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1314325
  9. ^ Blench, Roger M. 2012. Akpondu, Nigbo, Bəbər and Nisam: moribund or extinct languages of central Nigeria Babur.
  10. ^ "Ethnologue entry on Gwandara". Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Languages of Africa". www.fmprc.gov.cn. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  13. ^ Haruna, David Livingstone (20 February 2020). "Nigeria: Southern Kaduna and Tale of Illegal Artisans, Miners". All Africa. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  14. ^ Isuwa, Sunday (16 December 2013). "The Lost Glory of Ginger in Southern Kaduna". Daily Trust (Abuja). Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  15. ^ Kazah-Toure, T. (1999). "The Political Economy of Ethnic Conflicts and Governance in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria: [De]Constructing a Contested Terrain". Africa Development / Afrique et Développement. 24 (1/2): 109–144. JSTOR 24484540. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  16. ^ Bonat, Z. A. (1989). "Aspects of the Economic and Social History of the Atyab c. 1800-1960 A.D.". Savanna. 10 (1). Zaria: ABU Press: 55.
  17. ^ David, Tarkaa (8 March 2024). "Southern Kaduna Group Seeks Stakeholders' Support To Develop Region". Leadership NG. Retrieved 5 April 2024.
  18. ^ "SOKAPU youth wing elects new leaders". Peoples Gazette Nigeria. News Agency of Nigeria. 11 February 2024. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  19. ^ Labaran, Abubakar (13 February 2024). "SOKAPU elects new youth leaders". Blueprint. Retrieved 8 April 2024.
  20. ^ Hassan-Wuyo, Ibrahim (16 September 2022). "Southern Kaduna Leadership Council debuts". Vanguard NG. Retrieved 5 April 2024.
  21. ^ Grace, Ihesiulo (8 June 2023). "Leadership crisis hits SOKAPU as National Exco reject suspension by NEC". Daily Times Nigeria. Retrieved 8 April 2024.

External links edit

  Media related to Southern Kaduna at Wikimedia Commons