South African Students' Organisation
The South African Students' Organisation (SASO) was a body of South African students who resisted apartheid through political action. The organisation was formed in 1968, spearheaded by Steve Biko, and played a major role in the Black Consciousness Movement.
Up until SASO's formation, the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) considered multi-racialism to be the solution to racism and apartheid. The SASO differed from this viewpoint, advocating a black identity separate from any white or multi-racial identity, and succeeded in attracting large numbers of black, coloured, and Indian youths.
In 1974, nine leaders from SASO were arrested and tried for conspiring to overthrow the state by unconstitutional means. The so-called "SASO Nine" were Saths Cooper, Strini Moodley, Aubrey Mokoape, Mosiuoa Lekota, Nkwenkwe Nkomo, Zithulele Cindi, Muntu Myeza, Pandelani Nefolovhodwe and Kaborone Sedibe. After a 17-month trial, the nine were convicted and sentenced to between five and 10 years on Robben Island.
On 19 October 1977, the organisation was banned, and any association with it became illegal. No efforts were made for this group to be turned into an underground movement, however it did inspire future groups such as AZAPO and SANSCO.
- Veli Mbele, "Remembering Ingelosi Yomhlaba", Pambazuka News, 25 July 2012.
- Mbulelo Vizikhungo Mzamane, Bavusile Maaba and Nkosinathi Biko. "The Black Consciousness Movement" (PDF). The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 2.
- Anonymous (30 March 2011). "South African Student Organisation (SASO)". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
- "South African Student Organisation (SASO)", SAHO (South African History Online).