David Richard Berkowitz (born Richard David Falco, June 1, 1953), also known as the Son of Sam and the .44 Caliber Killer, is an American serial killer who pleaded guilty to eight separate shooting attacks that began in New York City during the summer of 1976. Using a .44 caliber Bulldog revolver, he killed six people and wounded seven others by July 1977. As the number of victims increased, Berkowitz eluded the biggest police manhunt in the history of New York City while leaving letters that mocked the police and promised further crimes, which were highly publicized by the press. The killing spree terrorized New Yorkers and achieved worldwide notoriety.
Berkowitz's mug shots on August 11, 1977
Richard David Falco
June 1, 1953
|Other names||The Son of Sam|
The .44 Caliber Killer
|Conviction(s)||second degree murder|
Attempted second degree murder
|Criminal penalty||Six life sentences|
|Victims||6 killed, 7 wounded|
Span of crimes
|July 29, 1976–July 31, 1977|
|Weapons||.44 caliber Bulldog revolver|
|August 10, 1977|
|Imprisoned at||Shawangunk Correctional Facility|
On the night of August 10, 1977, Berkowitz was taken into custody by New York City police homicide detectives in front of his Yonkers apartment building, and he was subsequently indicted for eight shooting incidents. He confessed to all of them, and initially claimed to have been obeying the orders of a demon manifested in the form of a dog belonging to his neighbor "Sam". Despite his explanation, Berkowitz was found mentally competent to stand trial. He pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was incarcerated in state prison. He subsequently admitted that the dog-and-devil story was a hoax. In the course of further police investigations, Berkowitz was also implicated in many unsolved arsons in the city.
Intense coverage of the case by the media lent a kind of celebrity status to Berkowitz, and some observers noted that he seemed to enjoy it. In response, the New York State Legislature enacted new statutes known popularly as "Son of Sam laws", designed to keep criminals from profiting financially from the publicity created by their crimes. The statutes have remained law in New York in spite of various legal challenges, and similar laws have been enacted in several other states.
Berkowitz has been incarcerated since his arrest and is serving six consecutive life sentences. During the mid-1990s, he amended his confession to claim that he had been a member of a violent Satanic cult that orchestrated the incidents as ritual murder. A few law enforcement authorities have said that his claims might be credible, but he remains the only person ever charged with the shootings. A new investigation of the murders began in 1996 but was suspended indefinitely after inconclusive findings.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Crimes begin
- 3 Crimes continue
- 4 Arrest in Yonkers
- 5 Prison life
- 6 Satanic cult claims
- 7 Legacy
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
David Berkowitz was born Richard David Falco in Brooklyn, New York, on June 1, 1953. His mother, Elizabeth "Betty" Broder, grew up as part of an impoverished Jewish family and married Tony Falco, an Italian-American, in 1936. After a marriage of less than four years, Tony Falco left her for another woman. In 1950, Broder started a relationship with a married man named Joseph Klineman. Three years later she became pregnant with a child to whom she chose to give the surname Falco. Within a few days of Richard's birth, Broder gave the child away. Although her reasons for doing so are unknown, later writers have surmised that Klineman threatened to abandon her if she kept the baby and used his name.
The infant boy was adopted by Pearl and Nathan Berkowitz of the Bronx. The Jewish-American couple were hardware store retailers of modest means, and childless in middle age. They reversed the order of the boy's first and middle names and gave him their own surname, raising young David Richard Berkowitz as their only child.
Journalist John Vincent Sanders wrote that Berkowitz's childhood was "somewhat troubled". Although of above-average intelligence, he lost interest in learning at an early age and became infatuated with petty larceny and starting fires. Neighbors and relatives would recall Berkowitz as difficult, spoiled, and a bully. His adoptive parents consulted at least one psychotherapist due to his misconduct, but his misbehavior never resulted in a legal intervention or serious mention in his school records. Berkowitz's adoptive mother died of breast cancer when he was fourteen years old, and his home life became strained during later years, particularly because he disliked his adoptive father's second wife.
At the age of 17 in 1971 he joined the United States Army and served in the United States and South Korea. After an honorable discharge in 1974, he located his birth mother, Betty. After a few visits, she disclosed the details of his birth. The news greatly disturbed Berkowitz, and he was particularly distraught by the array of reluctant father figures. Forensic anthropologist Elliott Leyton described Berkowitz's discovery of his adoption and birth details as the "primary crisis" of his life, a revelation that shattered his sense of identity. His communication with his birth mother later lapsed, but for a time he remained in communication with his half-sister, Roslyn. He subsequently had several non-professional jobs, and at the time of his arrest he was working as a letter sorter for the United States Postal Service.
During the mid-1970s, Berkowitz started to commit violent crimes. He bungled the first attempt at murder using a knife, then switched to a handgun and began a lengthy crime spree throughout the New York boroughs of the Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn. He sought young female victims. He was purportedly most attracted to women with long dark wavy hair. All but one of the crime sites involved two victims; he infamously committed some of his attacks while the women sat with boyfriends in parked cars. He exhibited an enduring enjoyment of his activities, often returning to the scenes of his crimes.
Michelle Forman stabbingEdit
Berkowitz claimed that he committed his first attack on Christmas Eve, 1975, when he used a hunting knife to stab two women. One alleged victim was never identified by police, but the other was teenager Michelle Forman, whose injuries were serious enough for her to be hospitalized. Berkowitz was not suspected of these crimes, and soon afterward he relocated to an apartment in Yonkers, New York, just north of the New York City border.
Donna Lauria and Jody Valenti shootingEdit
The first shooting attributed to the Son of Sam occurred in the Pelham Bay area of The Bronx. At about 1:10 a.m. on July 29, 1976, Donna Lauria, 18, and her friend Jody Valenti, 19, were sitting in Valenti's Oldsmobile, discussing their evening at Peachtree's, a New Rochelle discotheque. Lauria opened the car door to leave and noticed a man quickly approaching the car. Startled and angered by the man's sudden appearance, she said, "Now what is this..." The man produced a pistol from the paper bag that he carried and crouched. He braced one elbow on his knee, aimed his weapon with both hands, and fired. Lauria was struck by one bullet that killed her instantly. Valenti was shot in her thigh, and a third bullet missed both women. The shooter turned and walked away quickly.
Valenti survived her injuries and said that she did not recognize the killer. She described him as a white male in his thirties with a fair complexion, about 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m) tall and weighing about 160 lb (73 kg). His hair was short, dark, and curly in a "mod style". This description was repeated by Lauria's father, who claimed to have seen a similar man sitting in a yellow compact car parked nearby. Neighbors gave corroborating reports to police that an unfamiliar yellow compact car had been cruising the area for hours before the shooting.
Carl Denaro and Rosemary Keenan shootingEdit
On October 23, 1976, a similar shooting occurred in a secluded residential area of Flushing, Queens, next to Bowne Park. Carl Denaro, 20, and Rosemary Keenan, 18, were sitting in Keenan's parked car when the windows suddenly shattered. "I felt the car exploded [sic]", Denaro said later. Keenan quickly started the car and sped away for help. The panicked couple did not realize that someone had been shooting at them, even though Denaro was bleeding from a bullet wound to his head. Keenan had only superficial injuries from the broken glass, but Denaro eventually needed a metal plate to replace a portion of his skull. Neither victim saw the attacker.
Police determined that the bullets embedded in Keenan's car were .44 caliber, but they were so damaged and deformed that they thought it unlikely that they could ever be linked to a particular weapon.
Denaro had shoulder-length hair, and police later speculated that the shooter had mistaken him for a woman. Keenan's father was a 20-year veteran police detective of the New York City Police Department (NYPD), causing an intense investigation. As with the Lauria–Valenti shooting, however, there seemed not to be any motive for the shooting, and police made little progress with the case. Many details of the Denaro–Keenan shooting were very similar to the Lauria–Valenti case, but police did not initially associate them, partly because the shootings occurred in different boroughs and were investigated by different local police precincts.
Donna DeMasi and Joanne Lomino shootingEdit
Donna DeMasi, 16, and Joanne Lomino, 18, walked home from a movie soon after midnight on November 27, 1976. They were chatting on the porch of Lomino's home in Bellerose, Queens, when a man dressed in military fatigues who also seemed to be in his early 20s approached them and began to ask directions.
In a high-pitched voice he said, "Can you tell me how to get..." but then quickly produced a revolver. He shot each of the victims once and, as they fell to the ground injured, he fired several more times, striking the apartment building before running away. A neighbor heard the gunshots, rushed out of the apartment building, and saw a blond man rush by gripping a pistol in his left hand. DeMasi had been shot in the neck, but the wound was not life-threatening. Lomino was hit in the back and hospitalized in serious condition; she was ultimately rendered paraplegic.
Christine Freund and John Diel shootingEdit
During the early morning of January 30, 1977, Christine Freund, 26, and her fiancé John Diel, 30, were sitting in Diel's car near the Forest Hills LIRR station in Queens, preparing to drive to a dance hall after having seen the movie Rocky. Three gunshots penetrated the car at about 12:40 a.m. In a panic, Diel drove away for help. He suffered minor superficial injuries, but Freund was shot twice and died several hours later at the hospital. Neither victim had seen their attacker.
Police made the first public acknowledgment that the Freund–Diel shooting was similar to earlier incidents, and that the crimes might be associated. All the victims had been struck with .44 caliber bullets, and the shootings seemed to target young women with long dark hair. NYPD sergeant Richard Conlon stated that police were "leaning towards a connection in all these cases". Composite sketches were released of the black-haired Lauria–Valenti shooter and the blond Lomino–DeMasi shooter, and Conlon noted that police were looking for multiple suspects, not just one.
Virginia Voskerichian shootingEdit
At about 7:30 p.m. on March 8, 1977, Columbia University student Virginia Voskerichian, 19, was walking home from school when she was confronted by an armed man. She lived about a block from where Christine Freund was shot. In a desperate move to defend herself, Voskerichian lifted her textbooks between herself and her killer, but the makeshift shield was penetrated, the bullet striking her head and killing her.
Moments after the shooting, a neighborhood resident who had heard the gunshots was rounding the corner onto Voskerichian's street. He nearly collided with a person whom he described as a short, husky boy, 16 to 18 years old and clean-shaven, wearing a sweater and watch cap, who was sprinting away from the crime scene. The neighbor said that the youth pulled the cap over his face and said, "Oh, Jesus!" as he sprinted by. Other neighbors claimed to have seen the "teenager", as well as another person matching Berkowitz's description, loitering separately in the area for about an hour before the shooting. During the following days, the media repeated police claims that this "chubby teenager" was the suspect. There were no direct witnesses to the Voskerichian murder.
Press and publicityEdit
In a March 10, 1977, press conference, NYPD officials and New York City Mayor Abraham Beame declared that the same .44 Bulldog revolver had fired the shots that killed Lauria and Voskerichian. Official documents were later revealed, however, saying that police strongly suspected that the same .44 Bulldog had been used in the shootings, but that the evidence was actually inconclusive.
The crimes were discussed by the local media virtually every day. Circulation increased dramatically for the New York Post and Daily News, newspapers with graphic crime reporting and commentary. Foreign media featured many of the reports as well, including front page articles of newspapers such as the Vatican's L'Osservatore Romano, the Hebrew newspaper Maariv, and the Soviet Izvestia.
Alexander Esau and Valentina Suriani shootingEdit
At about 3:00 a.m. on April 17, 1977, Alexander Esau, 20, and Valentina Suriani, 18, were sitting in Suriani's car near her home in the Bronx, only a few blocks from the scene of the Lauria–Valenti shooting, when each was shot twice. Suriani died at the scene, and Esau died in the hospital several hours later without being able to describe his attacker(s).
Police said that the weapon used for the crime was the same as the one which they had suspected in the earlier shootings. During the days afterwards, they repeated their theory that only one man was responsible for the .44 murders. The chubby teenager in the Voskerichian case was still regarded as a witness, while the dark-haired man who shot Lauria and Valenti was considered the suspect.
Crime scene lettersEdit
Son of Sam letterEdit
Police discovered a handwritten letter near the bodies of Esau and Suriani, written mostly in block capitals with a few lower-case letters, and addressed to NYPD Captain Joseph Borrelli. With this letter, Berkowitz revealed the name "Son of Sam" for the first time. The press had previously dubbed the killer "the .44 Caliber Killer" because of his weapon of choice. The letter was initially withheld from the public, but some of its contents were revealed to the press, and the name "Son of Sam" quickly replaced the old name.
The letter expressed the killer's determination to continue his work, and taunted police for their fruitless efforts to capture him. In full, with misspellings intact, the letter read:
I am deeply hurt by your calling me a wemon hater. I am not. But I am a monster. I am the "Son of Sam." I am a little "brat". When father Sam gets drunk he gets mean. He beats his family. Sometimes he ties me up to the back of the house. Other times he locks me in the garage. Sam loves to drink blood. "Go out and kill" commands father Sam. Behind our house some rest. Mostly young—raped and slaughtered—their blood drained—just bones now. Papa Sam keeps me locked in the attic, too. I can't get out but I look out the attic window and watch the world go by. I feel like an outsider. I am on a different wave length then everybody else—programmed too kill. However, to stop me you must kill me. Attention all police: Shoot me first—shoot to kill or else. Keep out of my way or you will die! Papa Sam is old now. He needs some blood to preserve his youth. He has had too many heart attacks. Too many heart attacks. "Ugh, me hoot it urts sonny boy." I miss my pretty princess most of all. She's resting in our ladies house but I'll see her soon. I am the "Monster"—"Beelzebub"—the "Chubby Behemouth." I love to hunt. Prowling the streets looking for fair game—tasty meat. The wemon of Queens are z prettyist of all. I must be the water they drink. I live for the hunt—my life. Blood for papa. Mr. Borrelli, sir, I dont want to kill anymore no sir, no more but I must, "honour thy father." I want to make love to the world. I love people. I don't belong on Earth. Return me to yahoos. To the people of Queens, I love you. And I wa want to wish all of you a happy Easter. May God bless you in this life and in the next and for now I say goodbye and goodnight. Police—Let me haunt you with these words; I'll be back! I'll be back! To be interrpreted as—bang, bang, bang, bank, bang—ugh!! Yours in murder Mr. Monster
At the time, police speculated that the letter-writer might be familiar with Scottish English. The phrase "me hoot it urts sonny boy" was taken as a Scottish-accented version of "my heart, it hurts, sonny boy"; and the police also hypothesized that the shooter blamed a dark-haired nurse for his father's death, due to the "too many heart attacks" phrase, and the facts that Lauria was a medical technician and Valenti was studying to be a nurse.
The killer's unusual attitude towards the police and the media received widespread scrutiny. Psychologists observed that many serial killers gain gratification by eluding pursuers and observers. The feeling of control of media, law enforcement, and even entire populations provides a source of social power for them. After consulting with several psychiatrists, police released a psychological profile of their suspect on May 26, 1977. He was described as neurotic and probably suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, and believed himself to be a victim of demonic possession.
Letter to Jimmy BreslinEdit
On May 30, 1977, Daily News columnist Jimmy Breslin received a handwritten letter from someone who claimed to be the .44 caliber shooter. The letter was postmarked early that same day in Englewood, New Jersey. On the reverse of the envelope, neatly handprinted in four precisely centered lines, were the words: Blood and Family – Darkness and Death – Absolute Depravity – .44. The letter inside read:
Hello from the gutters of N.Y.C. which are filled with dog manure, vomit, stale wine, urine and blood. Hello from the sewers of N.Y.C. which swallow up these delicacies when they are washed away by the sweeper trucks. Hello from the cracks in the sidewalks of N.Y.C. and from the ants that dwell in these cracks and feed in the dried blood of the dead that has settled into the cracks. J.B., I'm just dropping you a line to let you know that I appreciate your interest in those recent and horrendous .44 killings. I also want to tell you that I read your column daily and I find it quite informative. Tell me Jim, what will you have for July twenty-ninth? You can forget about me if you like because I don't care for publicity. However you must not forget Donna Lauria and you cannot let the people forget her either. She was a very, very sweet girl but Sam's a thirsty lad and he won't let me stop killing until he gets his fill of blood. Mr. Breslin, sir, don't think that because you haven't heard from me for a while that I went to sleep. No, rather, I am still here. Like a spirit roaming the night. Thirsty, hungry, seldom stopping to rest; anxious to please Sam. I love my work. Now, the void has been filled. Perhaps we shall meet face to face someday or perhaps I will be blown away by cops with smoking .38's. Whatever, if I shall be fortunate enough to meet you I will tell you all about Sam if you like and I will introduce you to him. His name is "Sam the terrible." Not knowing what the future holds I shall say farewell and I will see you at the next job. Or should I say you will see my handiwork at the next job? Remember Ms. Lauria. Thank you. In their blood and from the gutter "Sam's creation" .44 Here are some names to help you along. Forward them to the inspector for use by N.C.I.C: "The Duke of Death" "The Wicked King Wicker" "The Twenty Two Disciples of Hell" "John 'Wheaties' – Rapist and Suffocator of Young Girls. PS: Please inform all the detectives working the slaying to remain. P.S: JB, Please inform all the detectives working the case that I wish them the best of luck. "Keep 'em digging, drive on, think positive, get off your butts, knock on coffins, etc." Upon my capture I promise to buy all the guys working the case a new pair of shoes if I can get up the money. Son of Sam
Underneath the "Son of Sam" was a logo or sketch that combined several symbols. The writer's question "What will you have for July 29?" was considered an ominous threat: July 29 would be the anniversary of the first .44 caliber shooting. Breslin notified police, who thought that the letter was probably from someone with knowledge of the shootings. The Breslin letter was sophisticated in its wording and presentation, especially when compared to the crudely written first letter, and police suspected that it might have been created in an art studio or similar professional location by someone with expertise in printing, calligraphy, or graphic design. The unusual writing caused the police to speculate that the killer was a comic letterer, and they asked staff members of DC Comics whether they recognized the lettering. The "Wicked King Wicker" reference caused police to arrange a private screening of The Wicker Man, a 1973 horror movie.
The New York Daily News published the letter a week later (after agreeing with police to withhold portions of the text) and Breslin urged the killer to surrender himself. The dramatic article made that day's paper the highest-selling edition of the Daily News to date—more than 1.1 million copies were sold. Police received thousands of tips based on references in the publicized portions of the letter, all of which proved useless. All the shooting victims to date had long dark hair, and thousands of women in New York acquired short cuts or brightly colored dyes, and beauty supply stores had trouble meeting the demand for wigs.
Sal Lupo and Judy Placido shootingEdit
On June 26, 1977, there was another shooting. Sal Lupo, 20, and Judy Placido, 17, had left the Elephas discotheque in Bayside, Queens, and were sitting in Lupo's parked car at about 3:00 a.m. when three gunshots blasted through the vehicle. Lupo was wounded in the right forearm, while Placido was shot in the right temple, shoulder and back of the neck, but both victims survived their injuries. Lupo told police that the young couple had been discussing the Son of Sam case only moments before the shooting.
Neither Lupo nor Placido had seen their attacker, but two witnesses reported a tall, dark-haired man in a leisure suit fleeing from the area; one claimed to see him leave in a car and even supplied a partial license plate number. Another report described a blond man with a mustache who drove from the scene in a Chevrolet Nova without turning on its headlights. Police speculated that the dark-haired man was the shooter, and that the blond man had observed the crime.
Stacy Moskowitz and Robert Violante shootingEdit
The first anniversary of the initial .44 caliber shootings was approaching, and police established a sizable dragnet that emphasized past hunting grounds in Queens and the Bronx. However, the next and final .44 shooting occurred in Brooklyn.
Early on July 31, 1977, Stacy Moskowitz and Robert Violante, both 20, were in Violante's car, which was parked under a streetlight near a city park in the neighborhood of Bath Beach. They were kissing when a man approached within three feet of the passenger side of Violante's car and fired four rounds into the car, striking both victims in the head before he escaped into the park. Violante lost one of his eyes; Moskowitz died from her injuries.
That night, Detective John Falotico was awakened at home and told to report to the 10th Homicide Division at the 60th Precinct station house in Coney Island. He was given two weeks to work on the Moskowitz and Violante case as a normal murder investigation—if it could not be solved in that time frame, it was to be given to the Son of Sam task force.
Arrest in YonkersEdit
Suspicion and captureEdit
Local resident Cacilia Davis was walking her dog at the scene of the Moskowitz and Violante shooting when she saw patrol officer Michael Cataneo ticketing a car that was parked near a fire hydrant. Moments after the traffic police had left, a young man walked past her from the area of the car, and he seemed to study her with some interest. Davis felt concerned because he was wielding in his hand some kind of "dark object". She ran to her home only to hear shots fired behind her in the street. Davis remained silent about this experience for four days until she finally contacted police, who closely checked every car that had been ticketed in the area that night.
Berkowitz's 1970 four-door yellow Ford Galaxie was among the cars that they investigated. On August 9, 1977, NYPD detective James Justis telephoned Yonkers police to ask them to schedule an interview with Berkowitz. The Yonkers police dispatcher who first took Justis' call was Wheat Carr, the daughter of Sam Carr and sister of Berkowitz's alleged cult confederates John and Michael Carr.
Justis asked the Yonkers police for some help tracking down Berkowitz. According to Mike Novotny—a sergeant at the Yonkers Police Department—the Yonkers police had their own suspicions about Berkowitz in connection with other strange crimes in Yonkers, crimes that they saw referred to in one of the Son of Sam letters. To the shock of the NYPD, they told the New York City detective that Berkowitz might just be the Son of Sam.
The next day, August 10, 1977, police investigated Berkowitz's car that was parked on the street outside his apartment building at 35 Pine Street in Yonkers. They saw a rifle in the back seat, searched the car, and found a duffel bag filled with ammunition, maps of the crime scenes, and a threatening letter addressed to Inspector Timothy Dowd of the Omega Task Force. Police decided to wait for Berkowitz to leave the apartment, rather than risk a violent encounter in the building's narrow hallway; they also waited to obtain a search warrant for the apartment, worried that their search might be challenged in court. The initial search of the vehicle was based on the rifle that was visible in the back seat, although possession of such a rifle was legal in New York State and required no special permit. The warrant still had not arrived when Berkowitz exited the apartment building at about 10:00 p.m. and entered his car. Detective John Falotico approached the driver's side of the car. Falotico pointed his gun close to Berkowitz's temple, while Detective Sgt. William Gardella pointed his gun from the passenger's side.
A paper bag containing a .44-caliber Bulldog revolver of the type that was identified in ballistics tests was found next to Berkowitz in the car. As described in Son of Sam (1981) by Lawrence D. Klausner, Detective Falotico remembered the big, inexplicable smile on the man's face:
"Now that I've got you", Detective Falotico said to the suspect, "who have I got?"
"You know," the man said in what the detective remembered was a soft, almost sweet voice.
"No I don't. You tell me."
The man turned his head and said, "I'm Sam."
"You're Sam? Sam who?"
An alternate version claimed that Berkowitz's first words were reported to be, "Well, you got me. How come it took you such a long time?" Detective John Falotico was officially credited by the New York City Police Department as the arresting officer of the Son of Sam.
Police searched Apartment 7-E and found it in disarray, with Satanic graffiti on the walls. They also found diaries that he had kept since he was 21 years old—three stenographer's notebooks nearly all full wherein Berkowitz meticulously noted hundreds of arsons that he claimed to have set throughout New York City. Some sources allege that this number might be over 1,400. Soon after Berkowitz's arrest, the address of the building was changed from 35 Pine Street to 42 Pine Street in an attempt to end its notoriety. After the arrest, Berkowitz was briefly held in a Yonkers police station before being transported directly to the 60th Precinct in Coney Island, where the detectives' task force was located. At about 1:00 a.m., Mayor Abraham Beame arrived to see the suspect personally. After a brief and wordless encounter, he announced to the media: "The people of the City of New York can rest easy because of the fact that the police have captured a man whom they believe to be the Son of Sam."
Berkowitz was interrogated for about thirty minutes in the early morning of August 11, 1977. He quickly confessed to the shootings and expressed an interest in pleading guilty. The investigation was led by John Keenan, who took the confession. During questioning, Berkowitz claimed that his neighbor's dog was one of the reasons that he killed, stating that the dog demanded the blood of pretty young girls. He said that the "Sam" mentioned in the first letter was his former neighbor Sam Carr. Berkowitz claimed that Harvey, Carr's black Labrador Retriever, was possessed by an ancient demon and that it issued irresistible commands that Berkowitz must kill people.
A few weeks after his arrest and confession, Berkowitz was permitted to communicate with the press. In a letter to the New York Post dated September 19, 1977, Berkowitz alluded to his original story of demonic possession, but closed with a warning that has been interpreted by some investigators as an admission of criminal accomplices: "There are other Sons out there, God help the world."
Three separate mental health examinations determined that Berkowitz was competent to stand trial. Despite this, defense lawyers advised Berkowitz to enter a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity, but Berkowitz refused. He appeared calm in court on May 8, 1978, as he pleaded guilty to all of the shootings.
At his sentencing two weeks later, Berkowitz caused an uproar when he attempted to jump out of a window of the seventh-floor courtroom. After he was restrained, he repeatedly chanted "Stacy was a whore" and shouted "I'd kill her again. I'd kill them all again." The court ordered another psychiatric examination before sentencing could proceed. During the evaluation, Berkowitz drew a sketch of a jailed man surrounded by numerous walls; at the bottom he wrote, "I am not well. Not well at all". Nonetheless, Berkowitz was again found competent to stand trial.
On June 12, 1978, Berkowitz was sentenced to 25-years-to-life in prison for each murder, to be served consecutively. He was ordered to serve time in Attica Correctional Facility, an Upstate New York supermax prison. Despite prosecutors' objections, the terms of Berkowitz's guilty plea made him eligible for parole in 25 years.
Retraction of claims of possessionEdit
At a press conference in February 1979, Berkowitz declared that his previous claims of demonic possession were a hoax. Berkowitz stated in a series of meetings with his special court-appointed psychiatrist David Abrahamsen that he had long contemplated murder to get revenge on a world that he felt had rejected and hurt him.
After his arrest, Berkowitz was initially confined to a psychiatric ward in Kings County Hospital where the staff reported that he seemed remarkably untroubled by his new environment. On the day after his sentencing, he was taken first to Sing Sing prison and then to the upstate Clinton Correctional Facility for psychiatric and physical examinations. Two more months were spent at the Central New York Psychiatric Center in Marcy before his admission to Attica prison. Berkowitz served about a decade in Attica until he was relocated (c. 1990) to Sullivan Correctional Facility in Fallsburg, New York, where he remained for many years until he was transferred to Shawangunk Correctional Facility. Berkowitz described life in Attica as a "nightmare". In 1979, there was an attempt on Berkowitz's life in which the left side of his neck was slashed from front to back, resulting in a wound that required more than fifty stitches to close. Berkowitz refused to identify his assailant, and he only claimed that he was grateful for the attack—it brought a sense of justice or, in Berkowitz's own words, "the punishment I deserve".
Conversion to born-again ChristianityEdit
In 1987, Berkowitz became an evangelical Christian in prison. According to his personal testimony, his moment of conversion occurred after reading Psalm 34:6 from a Bible given to him by a fellow inmate. He says he is no longer to be referred to as the "Son of Sam" but the "Son of Hope".
Berkowitz is entitled to a parole hearing every two years as mandated by state law, though he has consistently refused to ask for his release, sometimes skipping the hearings altogether. Before his first parole hearing in 2002, Berkowitz sent a letter to New York Governor George Pataki demanding that it be canceled. He wrote, "In all honesty, I believe that I deserve to be in prison for the rest of my life. I have, with God's help, long ago come to terms with my situation and I have accepted my punishment." Officials at the Sullivan facility rejected his demand.
In his 2016 hearing at Shawangunk, New York, Berkowitz stated that while parole was "unrealistic," he felt he had improved himself behind bars, adding: "I feel I am no risk, whatsoever." His lawyer, Mark Heller, noted that prison staff considered Berkowitz to be a "model prisoner." Commissioners denied a parole.
In 2018, the board again denied the release of Berkowitz on parole. His next hearing is scheduled for May 2020.
Soon after his imprisonment, Berkowitz invited Malachi Martin, an exorcist, to help him compose an autobiography, but the offer was not accepted. During later years, Berkowitz developed his memoirs with assistance from evangelical Christians. His statements were released as an interview video, Son of Hope, during 1998, with a more extensive work released in book form, entitled Son of Hope: The Prison Journals of David Berkowitz (2006). Berkowitz does not receive any royalties or profit from any sales of his works. He has continued to write essays on faith and repentance for Christian websites. His own official website is maintained on his behalf by a church group, since he is not allowed access to a computer. Berkowitz stays involved with prison ministry, and regularly counsels troubled inmates. While in the Sullivan facility, he pursued education and graduated with honors from Sullivan Community College.
In 2002, during the D.C. sniper attacks, Berkowitz wrote a letter telling the sniper to "stop hurting innocent people." Berkowitz made his comments in a three-page letter to Rita Cosby, senior Chicago correspondent for Fox News Channel, after Cosby wrote him seeking his comment on the sniper attacks.
During June 2005, Berkowitz sued one of his previous lawyers for the misappropriation of a large number of letters, photographs, and other personal possessions. Hugo Harmatz, a New Jersey attorney, had represented Berkowitz in an earlier legal effort to prevent the National Enquirer from buying one of his letters. Harmatz then self-published his own collection of letters and memorabilia—Dear David (2005)—which he had obtained from Berkowitz during their consultations. Berkowitz stated that he would drop the lawsuit only if the attorney signed over all the money he made to the victims' families. In October 2006, Berkowitz and Harmatz settled out of court, with Harmatz agreeing to return the disputed items and to donate part of his book profits to the New York State Crime Victims Board.
Satanic cult claimsEdit
In 1979, Berkowitz mailed a book about witchcraft to police in North Dakota. He had underlined several passages and written a few marginal notes, including the phrase: "Arliss [sic] Perry, Hunted, Stalked and Slain. Followed to Calif. Stanford University." The reference was to Arlis Perry, a 19-year-old North Dakota newlywed who had been murdered at Stanford on October 12, 1974. Her death, and the notorious abuse of her corpse in a Christian chapel on campus, was a widely reported case. Berkowitz mentioned the Perry attack in other letters, suggesting that he knew details of it from the perpetrator himself. Local police investigators interviewed him but they "now  believe he has nothing of value to offer". The Arlis Perry case has since been solved.
After his admission to Sullivan prison, Berkowitz began to claim that he had joined a Satanic cult in the spring of 1975. In 1993, Berkowitz made these claims known when he announced to the press that he had killed only three of the Son of Sam victims: Donna Lauria, Alexander Esau and Valentina Suriani. In his revised version of the events, Berkowitz said that other shooters were involved and that he fired the gun only in the first attack (Lauria and Valenti) and the sixth (Esau and Suriani). He said that he and several other cult members were involved in every incident by planning the events, providing early surveillance of the victims, and acting as lookouts and drivers at the crime scenes. Berkowitz stated that he could not divulge the names of most of his accomplices without putting his family directly at risk.
Among Berkowitz's alleged unnamed associates was a female cult member whom he claims fired the gun at Denaro and Keenan, both of whom survived, Berkowitz said, because the alleged accomplice was unfamiliar with the powerful recoil of a .44 Bulldog. Berkowitz declared that "at least five" cult members were at the scene of the Freund–Diel shooting, but the actual shooter was a prominent cult associate who had been brought in from outside New York with an unspecified motive—a cult member whom he identified only by his nickname, "Manson II". Another unnamed person was the gunman in the Moskowitz–Violante case, a male cult member who had arrived from North Dakota for the occasion, also without explanation.
Berkowitz did name two of the cult members: John and Michael Carr. The two men were sons of the dog-owner Sam Carr and they lived on nearby Warburton Avenue. Both of these other "sons of Sam" were long dead: John Carr had been killed by a shooting judged a suicide in North Dakota during 1978, and Michael Carr had been in a fatal car accident in 1979. Berkowitz claimed that the actual perpetrator of the DeMasi–Lomino shooting was John Carr, and he added that a Yonkers police officer, also a cult member, was involved in this crime. He claimed that Michael Carr fired the shots at Lupo and Placido.
Journalist John Hockenberry asserts that, even aside from the Satanic cult claims, many officials doubted the single-shooter theory, writing, "what most don't know about the Son of Sam case is that from the beginning, not everyone bought the idea that Berkowitz acted alone." John Santucci, Queens District Attorney at the time of the killings, and police investigator Mike Novotny both expressed their convictions that Berkowitz had accomplices. NYPD officer Richard Johnson, involved in the original investigations, has opined that unresolved discrepancies in statements from witnesses and surviving victims indicate Berkowitz did not act alone: "Why are there three [suspect] cars, five different [suspect] descriptions, different heights, different shapes, different sizes of the perpetrator? Somebody else was there."
Other contemporaries have voiced their belief in the Satanic cult theory including Donna Lauria's father, and Carl Denaro who stated his opinion that "more than one person was involved" but admitted he could not prove the cult theory. Denaro's conclusion rests on his criticism of Berkowitz's statement to police as "totally false". John Diel's recollection is that he physically bumped into Berkowitz outside the Wine Gallery restaurant as he and Christine Freund departed and walked to his car where the shooting occurred; Berkowitz, in contrast, told police that he passed within a few feet of Diel and Freund shortly before they entered the car. Diel contends he and Freund passed no one on their way to the car and further that the placement of the car parked at the curb would have made it impossible for Berkowitz to have snuck up on them in the few minutes between their encounter outside the restaurant and the shooting at the car. Diel thus reasons he was shot by someone other than Berkowitz.
Hockenberry's own report was broadcast by network news and given much exposure by Dateline NBC (2004). In it, he discusses another journalist, Maury Terry, who had begun investigating the Son of Sam shootings before Berkowitz was arrested. Terry published a series of investigative articles in the Gannett newspapers in 1979 which challenged the official explanation of a lone gunman.
Vigorously denied by police at the time, Terry's articles were widely read and discussed; they were later assembled in book form as The Ultimate Evil (1987; expanded second edition 1999). Largely impelled by these reports of accomplices and Satanic cult activity, the Son of Sam case was reopened by Yonkers police during 1996, but no new charges were filed. Due to a lack of findings, the investigation was eventually suspended but remains open.
From prison Berkowitz continues to assert and expand upon his claims of demonic possession. He stated in a series of nine videos in 2015 that the "voice" he heard was that of Samhain, a druid devil and the true origin of "Son of Sam". He added that it never was a dog, saying that detail was fabricated by the media.
Berkowitz's later claims are dismissed by many. Breslin rejected his story of Satanic cult accomplices, stating that "when they talked to David Berkowitz that night, he recalled everything step by step by step. The guy has 1,000 percent recall and that's it. He's the guy and there's nothing else to look at."
Skeptics include a former FBI profiler, John E. Douglas, who spent hours interviewing Berkowitz. He states that he was convinced Berkowitz acted alone and was an "introverted loner, not capable of being involved in group activity". NYPD psychologist Dr. Harvey Schlossberg states in Against The Law, a documentary about the Son of Sam case, that he believes that the Satanic cult claims are nothing but a fantasy concocted by Berkowitz to absolve himself of the crimes. In his book Hunting Humans (2001), Elliott Leyton argued that "recent journalistic attempts to abridge—or even deny—Berkowitz's guilt have lacked all credibility."
Decades after his arrest, the name "Son of Sam" remains widely recognized as that of a notorious serial killer. Many manifestations in popular culture have helped perpetuate this notoriety, while Berkowitz himself continues to express remorse on Christian websites.
After rampant speculation about publishers offering Berkowitz large sums of money for his story, the New York State Legislature swiftly passed a new law that prevented convicted criminals (and their relatives) from making any financial profit from books, movies, or other enterprises related to the stories of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the so-called "Son of Sam law" for violating the First Amendment's right of free expression in the 1991 case of Simon & Schuster, Inc. v. Crime Victims Board, but New York produced a constitutionally revised version of the law in the following year. Similar laws have since been enacted in 41 states and at the federal level.
In popular cultureEdit
Jimmy Breslin, in collaboration with writer Dick Schaap, published a novelized account of the murders, .44 (1978), less than a year after Berkowitz's arrest. The highly fictionalized plot recounts the exploits of a Berkowitz-based character dubbed "Bernard Rosenfeld". Outside of North America, the book was renamed Son of Sam. The 2016 young adult novel Burn Baby Burn by Meg Medina is set in New York during 1977, and depicts how fear of being one of the Son of Sam victims affected the daily lives of people.
The Spike Lee drama Summer of Sam was released in 1999 with actor Michael Badalucco in the role of Son of Sam. The film depicts the tensions that develop in a Bronx neighborhood during the shootings, and Berkowitz's part is largely symbolic. A minor character in the script, he functions "mostly as a berserk metaphor for Lee's view of the seventies as a period of amoral excess". Berkowitz was reported to be disturbed by what he called exploitation of "the ugliness of the past". Other movie portrayals of Berkowitz include the Ulli Lommel DVD release Son of Sam (2008) and the CBS television movie Out of the Darkness (1985). The character of Son of Sam played a significant minor role in the miniseries The Bronx Is Burning (2007). Oliver Cooper portrayed him in the TV series Mindhunter (2019).
Son of Sam has been popularly (and mistakenly) associated with the contemporaneous song "Psycho Killer" (1977) by Talking Heads. Likewise, Elliott Smith has stated that his song "Son of Sam" is not literally about Berkowitz. Compositions more directly inspired by the events include "Son of Sam" (1978) by The Dead Boys, "Son of Sam" by Chain Gang, and "Looking Down the Barrel of a Gun" (1989) by the Beastie Boys. Guitarist Scott Putesky used the stage name "Daisy Berkowitz" while playing with Marilyn Manson in the 1990s, and the band's song "Son of Man" conspicuously describes Berkowitz; several other rock musicians established a full ensemble named Son of Sam during 2000. A cartoon composite of Berkowitz and the breakfast cereal icon Toucan Sam was featured in Green Jellÿ's comedy rock video Cereal Killer (1992) by the name of "Toucan Son of Sam", but it was later removed under threat of a copyright lawsuit by the Kellogg Company.
- Abrahamsen, p. 73.
- Abrahamsen, pp. 76–79.
- Abrahamsen, p. 76.
- Abrahamsen, p. 76; p. 81.
- Abrahamsen, p. 80.
- Abrahamsen, p. 81.
- Leyton, p. 206.
- Abrahamsen, p. 16.
- Fishman, Steve (2006). "The Devil in David Berkowitz". New York. New York Media, LLC. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- "Crime File: David Berkowitz (Son of Sam)". Crime & Investigation Network. AETN. 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "Larry King Interview with David Berkowitz". CNN.com Transcripts. CNN. 2002. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Sanders, John Vincent (August 2002). "I am the Son of Sam!". Fortean Times. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Leyton.[page needed]
- Abrahamsen, p. 18.
- Abrahamsen, pp. 60–61.
- Leyton, p. 217.
- Klausner, p. 32; p. 42.
- Leyton, pp. 187ff.
- Leyton, p. 192.
- Rossmo, pp. 164–66.
- Klausner, pp. 17–18.
- Montaldo, Charles. "David Berkowitz – The Son of Sam". About Crime. Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Klausner, pp. 18–19.
- Terry (1999), pp. 23–24.
- Thomas, Robert McG. (July 30, 1976). "Bronx Woman Is Shot To Death As Shooting Outbreak Spreads". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- Hockenberry, John (2004). "Did 'Son of Sam' really act alone?". MSN. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- "Ten Years Later: Son of Sam Victims Still Haunted". The Times-News Eagle. April 12, 1987. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Terry (1999), p. 27.
- Serial Killers p. 166
- "One Of Two Girls Shot Is In Serious Condition". The New York Times. November 28, 1976. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Terry (1999), p. 529.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (January 31, 1977). "Woman Dies in Mystery Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Terry (1999), p. 32.
- New York Daily News, February 1, 1977.
- McQuiston, John T. (March 9, 1977). "Columbia Coed, 19, Is Slain on Street in Forest Hills". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Leyton, p. 193.
- Terry (1999), pp. 36–37.
- Terry (1999), pp. 38–40.
- Klausner, p. 370.
- Abrahamsen, p. 12.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (April 18, 1977). "Fourth Woman Slain by Same Gun". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Terry (1999), p. 43.
- Scott, p. 73.
- Gibson, p. 13.
- Gibson, pp. 13–14.
- Bardsley, Marilyn. "Son of Sam, David Berkowitz, famous serial killer". The Crime Library. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013.
- Harmening, pp. 159–160.
- Terry (1999), pp. 43–44.
- Fox, James; Levin, Jack (1998). "Multiple Homicide: Patterns of Serial Killers and Mass Murder". Crime and Justice. 23: 407–55.
- Terry (1999), p. 47.
- Terry (1999), pp. 48–50.
- Terry (1999), p. 51.
- Cronin, Brian (January 4, 2013). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #400 (Part 1)". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Walker, p. 111.
- Klausner, p. 166.
- "The Blood on my Hands". Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (June 27, 1977). ".44-Caliber Killer Wounds Two In Car Parked on Queens Street". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Staff writer (June 28, 1977). "2 Witnesses Describe Man Fleeing Scene of Shooting As Police Press Efforts to Find the '.44‐Caliber Killer'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Klausner, p. 185; p. 187.
- Terry (1999), p. 53.
- McFadden, Robert D. (August 1, 1977). ".44 Killer Wounds 12th and l3th Victims; He Strikes in Brooklyn for the First Time". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Martin, Douglas (March 15, 2006). "John Falotico, Detective Who Arrested Berkowitz, Dies at 82". The New York Times.
- Abrahamsen, pp. 5–6.
- Abrahamsen, p. 6.
- Terry (1999), p. 98.
- LaRosa, Paul (August 11, 2017). "Daughter of man terrorized by "Son of "Sam" now visits him in prison". CBS News. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- Klausner, Lawrence D. (1980). Son of Sam: Based on the Authorized Transcription of the Tapes, Official Documents and Diaries of David Berkowitz. McGraw-Hill; ISBN 0-07-035027-2.
- Scott, p. 77.
- Terry (1999), p. 113.
- Gibson, p. 22.
- Abrahamsen, pp. 11–13.
- McFadden, Robert D. (August 11, 1977). "Suspect in 'Son of Sam' Murders Arrested in Yonkers; Police Say .44 Caliber Weapon Is Recovered". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Sisak, Michael R. (September 20, 2019). "NYPD commander who took 'Son of Sam' confession dies at 99". Las Vegas Sun. Associated Press.
- Terry (1999), p. 147.
- Ewing, p. 45.
- Ewing, p. 47.
- "Berkowitz Enters Guilty Pleas". Valley Morning Star. Harlingen, Texas. UPI. May 9, 1978. Archived from the original on February 25, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Siegel, Max H. (June 13, 1978). "Berkowitz Given 25 Years to Life in Each of 6 'Son of Sam' Slayings". The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Abrahamsen, p. 161.
- Quigg, H.D. (June 13, 1978). "Berkowitz Parole Chance Rapped". New Castle News. New Castle, Pennsylvania. UPI. Archived from the original on February 25, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
- Leyton, p. 203.
- Ramsland, p. 289.
- Abrahamsen, David (July 1, 1979). "The Demons of 'Son of Sam'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 101 (168). pp. 2G, 5G – via Newspapers.com.
- "Eats Like A Horse, Sleeps Like A Baby". The Leader-Post. AP. August 15, 1977. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Abrahamsen, pp. 211–215.
- David Berkowitz (2013). "Forgiven for life: Official Home Page of David Berkowitz". Forgivenforlife.org. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
- "Convicted serial killer 'Son of Sam' David Berkowitz denied parole for fifth time". NY Daily News. New York. May 10, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Schram, Jamie (May 9, 2014). "'Son of Sam' skips parole hearing, in prison at least 2 more years". New York Post. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- Willis, Olivia; Malcolm, Lynne (July 22, 2006). "Son of Sam serial killer denied parole". ABC News. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- "'Son of Sam' serial killer denied parole". USA Today. July 9, 2002. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Ewing, p. 50.
- Schram, Jamie; Musumeci, Natalie (June 22, 2016). "Son of Sam: I've found my life's calling". New York Post. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- Sorren, Martha (August 2018). "Is The Son Of Sam Still In Jail In 2019? David Berkowitz's Killing Spree Happened 40 Years Ago". Bustle. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Guiley, p. 168.
- Martin, Malachi. "An Article on Exorcism". Star Harbor Films. Archived from the original on March 12, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Berkowitz, David (2006). Son of Hope: The Prison Journals of David Berkowitz (Vol. 1). New York: Morning Star Communications. ISBN 978-0-9778996-2-3.
- Sifakis, pp. 24–25.
- "`Son of Sam' weighs in on case". chicagotribune.com. David Berkowitz Chicago Tribune.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (January 31, 2006). "Court Hears 'Son of Sam' in Dispute Over Personal Mementos". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Staff writer(s) (October 27, 2006). "'Son of Sam' Settles Property Dispute". AP Online. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 14, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2016. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- Terry (1987), p. 16.
- Snyder, Jessie (October 10, 2004). "Detective searches for 1974 Stanford church killer". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- Staff (June 29, 2018). "Sheriff: Grisly 1974 Stanford murder solved". PaloAltoOnline.com. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- Bonn, Scott (March 18, 2013). "Serial killer David Berkowitz, aka Son of Sam, tells professor "I was once an evil person" in prison conversation". CBS News. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- "'Son of Sam,' on TV, Denies 70's Shootings". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. 1993. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- Terry (1999), p. 528.
- Terry, p. 530.
- Terry (1999), pp. 530–31.
- Terry (1987), p. 177.
- Abrahamsen, p. 217.
- Terry (1999), p. 539.
- Investigative Reports with Bill Kurtis, The Son of Sam Speaks: The Untold Stories (1997); 29:35 — 29:42
- Terry (1999), p. 430
- Terry (1999), p. 429-430
- "Report Says Berkowitz Had Aid, But Police Dismiss the Account" (PDF). The New York Times. July 20, 1979. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Summers, Chris. "Crime Case Closed - David Berkowitz". Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2006.
- Storyteller Ministries (October 12, 2016), David Berkowitz: In His Own Words Part 4 of 9, retrieved November 11, 2018
- Leyton, p. 186.
- Harden, Blaine (June 20, 1999). "New 'Son of Sam' Film Reawakens Painful Memories". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "Journals of David Berkowitz". Ariseandshine.org. 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Peyser, Andrea (September 28, 2006). "A Mom Dies – Forgiving Son of Sam". The New York Post. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Mangino, Matthew T. (May 9, 2016). "Making Sure Crime Doesn't Pay". Daily Record. Rochester, NY. Dolan Media Newswires. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved November 29, 2016. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- "Cuomo signs new 'Son of Sam' law for crime victims". The Buffalo News. Buffalo, NY. AP. August 14, 1992. Retrieved December 8, 2016.[dead link] – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (May 23, 1978). "Books of the Times: .44" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Breslin, Jimmy; Schaap, Dick. "Son of Sam – London: Futura (1978)". Worldcat.org. OCLC Inc. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Schulman, Martha. "Q & A with Meg Medina". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Italie, Hillel (November 26, 2015). "At the Movies: 'Summer of Sam'". AP Online. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2012. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- Pomerance, p. 147.
- "Son of Sam (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes.com. Flixster. 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Wahl, p. 176.
- Mayo, pp. 32–33.
- Mathews, Liam (August 19, 2019). "These Are the Real-Life Murderers of Mindhunter Season 2". TV Guide. Archived from the original on August 19, 2019.
- Stitzel, Kim (April 21, 2000). "Elliot Smith talks "Sam" single, video". MTV. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- Minsker, Evan (February 2, 2014). "R.I.P. Chain Gang's Ricky Luanda". Pitchfork. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Reighley, Kurt (1998). Marilyn Manson. Macmillan. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-312-18133-8. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Strong, Martin Charles (2006). The Essential Rock Discography. Canongate. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84195-860-6. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Jaeger, Barbara (April 23, 1993). "First the Costume, Then the Song". The Record. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- Abrahamsen, David (1985). Confessions of Son of Sam. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05760-1.
- Ewing, Charles Patrick (2008). Insanity: Murder, Madness, and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195326130.
- Foreman, Laura (1992). Serial Killers: True Crime (Hardcover ed.). Virginia: Time-Life Books. ISBN 978-0-7835-0001-0.
- Gibson, Dirk C. (2010). Clues from Killers: Serial Murder and Crime Scene Messages. Westport, CT: Praeger. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-275-98360-4. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2009). The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-3191-7.
- Harmening, William M. (2014). Serial Killers: The Psychosocial Development of Humanity's Worst Offenders. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Publisher Ltd. ISBN 9780398081140.
- Klausner, Lawrence D. (1981). Son of Sam: Based on the Authorized Transcription of the Tapes, Official Documents and Diaries of David Berkowitz. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-035027-2.
- Leyton, Elliot (2001). Hunting Humans: The Rise of the Modern Multiple Murderer. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1228-7.
- Mahler, Jonathan (2006). Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bronx Is Burning: 1977, Baseball, Politics, and the Battle for the Soul of a City. New York: Picador. ISBN 0-312-42430-2.
- Mayo, Mike (2008). American Murder: Criminals, Crimes and the Media. Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 978-1-57859-191-6.
- Pomerance, Murray (2007). City That Never Sleeps: New York and the Filmic Imagination. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4032-0. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Ramsland, Katherine (2005). The Human Predator. The Berkley Group. ISBN 978-0425213780.
- Rossmo, D. Kim (1999). Geographic Profiling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. ISBN 1420048783.
- Scott, Gini Graham (2007). American Murder. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-02476-4.
- Sifakis, Carl (2002). The Encyclopedia of American Prisons. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-2987-7.
- Terry, Maury (1987). The Ultimate Evil: An Investigation into America's Most Dangerous Satanic Cult. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-23452-X.
- Terry, Maury (1999). The Ultimate Evil: The Truth about the Cult Murders: Son of Sam & Beyond. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-1393-8.
- Wahl, Otto F. (1997). Media Madness: Public Images of Mental Illness. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2213-5.
- Walker, Tom (2011). Return to Fort Apache: Memoir of an NYPD Captain. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. ISBN 9781462020508.
- Harmatz, Hugo (2005) Dear David: Letters to Inmate #78-A-1976, Son of Sam. Benra Publ. ISBN 0-9768093-0-3.
- David Berkowitz collection (not yet digitized): Letters received by Berkowitz while incarcerated in prison, written by various correspondents. Housed at Lloyd Sealy Library Special Collections, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York City.