Solukhumbu District

Solukhumbu District (Nepali: सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला [solukʰumbu] (About this soundlisten), Sherpa: ཤར་ཁུམ་བུ་རྫོང་ཁ།, Wylie: shar khum bu dzong kha) is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. As the name suggests, it consists of the subregions Solu and Khumbu.

Solukhumbu District
सोलुखुम्बु जिल्ला
High mountains in Solukhumbu.
High mountains in Solukhumbu.
Nickname(s): 
Khumbu
Location of Solukhumbu
Location of Solukhumbu
Divisions of Solukhumbu District
Divisions of Solukhumbu District
Coordinates: 27°20′39″N 86°0′21″E / 27.34417°N 86.00583°E / 27.34417; 86.00583 to 28°6′24″N 87°0′1″E / 28.10667°N 87.00028°E / 28.10667; 87.00028
Country   Nepal
ProvinceProvince No. 1
Established1962
Admin HQ.Salleri
Municipality
Government
 • TypeCoordination committee
 • BodyDCC, Solukhumbu
 • HeadBir Kumar Rai (NCP)
 • Parliamentary constituencies1
 • Provincial constituencies2
Area
 • Total3,312 km2 (1,279 sq mi)
Highest elevation
8,848 m (29,029 ft)
Lowest elevation
600 m (2,000 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total105,886
 • Density32/km2 (83/sq mi)
 • Households
23,758[1]
Demographics
 • Ethnic groupsKirat Rai, Sherpa, Chetri, Tamang, Kulung[1]
 • Female 52%[1]
Human Development Index
 • Income per capita (US dollars)$1,841 per capita
 • Poverty rate25.7
 • Literacy64%[1]
 • Life Expectancy68.8[1]
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (NPT)
Postal Codes
56000..., 56010
Telephone Code38
Websiteddcsolukhumbu.gov.np

The district, with Salleri as its headquarters, covers an area of 3,312 km2 (1,279 sq mi) and had a population 107,686 in 2001 and 105,886 in 2011.[2]

Mount Everest is in the northern part of this district, within Sagarmatha National Park.

Indigenous ethnic Kulung,Gurung, Kirat Rai and hill caste Chettri are the main groups living in the mid-hills, while Sherpas occupy the high mountains.

There is a notable hiking trail known as the Solukhumbu Trail.[citation needed]

Tenzing Norgay, 1953 who was born in Solukhumbu District, Nepal

HistoryEdit

Historically, Solukhumbu was part of Kirata Kingdoms in early and medieval era. It was a part of Majhkirat (central province or region of Kirat Kingdoms).[3]

Before the unification of Nepal by king of Gorkha, what is now Solukhumbu district was part of Chaudandi of Majhkirat. In 1773 AD the King of Gorkha attacked and absorbed it into Nepal.[4]

The Solukhumbu district was established in 1962[5] carving out the old East No. 3 district. Before 1962 present Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga and some parts of Khotang previously were one district "East No. 3".[6] Solu and Rawa thums (counties) were carved out from East No. 3 to create Solukhumbu District.

Geography and climateEdit

Solukhumbu is a Himalayan district of Province No. 1 of Nepal, situated on the north-west corner of province. It is one out of 3 Himalayan districts of Province No. 1. Total area of district is 3,312 square kilometres (1,279 sq mi). It is situated between Lat. 27°20'39" to 28°6'24" North and Long. 86°0'21" to 87°0'1" East. The highest elevation of district is 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) (Mount Everest) and the lowest elevation is 600 metres (2,000 ft) (Tuintar) above sea level. The district is surrounded by Sankhuwasabha in east, Bhojpur in south-east, Khotang and Okhaldhunga in south, Bagmati Province in west and Tibet (China) in north.

Extremely diverse geography of Solukhumbu district can be categorized in three levels:

Khumbu Himal (Highland mountains)Edit

Mahalangur and other Himalayan mountain ranges are located in this section. This section is located on the northern border with Tibet. Mount Everest (8,848m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu (8,485m), Cho Oyu (8,201m), Gyachung Kang (7,952m) etc. are some of the world's highest mountains in this range.

Khumbu region (Highland valley)Edit

Khumbu valley is the highland region which is worldwide famous for trekking and hiking. Kulung and Sherpa are the main inhabitants in this region. Khumbu Pasanglhamu is the administrative division in this region. It includes the town of Namche Bazaar as well as the villages of Thame, Khumjung, Pangboche, Pheriche and Kunde. The famous Buddhist monastery at Tengboche is also located in the Khumbu.[7]

Solu region (Mid-hills)Edit

Lower Solukhumbu (lower parts of Solukhumbu District) is the part of Mid-hills region. It is less famous for trekking, however new trails such as the Mundhum trail are being developed. Sherpas along with Rai's are the main inhabitants in this region.

Climate Zone[8] Elevation Range % of Area
Upper Tropical 300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
 0.7%
Subtropical 1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.
 9.3%
Temperate 2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.
20.6%
Subalpine 3,000 to 4,000 meters
9,800 to 13,100 ft.
16.6%
Alpine 4,000 to 5,000 meters
13,100 to 16,400 ft.
28.3%
Nival above 5,000 meters 24.4%
Climate data for Salleri
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
25.8
(78.4)
31.0
(87.8)
35.1
(95.2)
35.0
(95.0)
34.9
(94.8)
32.5
(90.5)
32.8
(91.0)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
29.0
(84.2)
24.8
(76.6)
30.7
(87.2)
Average low °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
11.0
(51.8)
15.1
(59.2)
19.4
(66.9)
21.2
(70.2)
22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
21.2
(70.2)
15.8
(60.4)
10.6
(51.1)
18.2
(64.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
7
(0.3)
16
(0.6)
12
(0.5)
10
(0.4)
3
(0.1)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
58
(2.2)
Source: www.yr.no[9]
Climate data for Syangboche
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
4.3
(39.7)
8
(46)
11.7
(53.1)
13.3
(55.9)
14.4
(57.9)
14.2
(57.6)
14.2
(57.6)
13.1
(55.6)
11.6
(52.9)
7.9
(46.2)
5.7
(42.3)
10.2
(50.3)
Average low °C (°F) −8.9
(16.0)
−8
(18)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.2
(32.4)
4.1
(39.4)
5.3
(41.5)
4.7
(40.5)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
−5.5
(22.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
25
(1.0)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
131
(5.2)
221
(8.7)
206
(8.1)
128
(5.0)
54
(2.1)
5
(0.2)
6
(0.2)
872
(34.3)
Source: www.climate-data.org[10]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Solukhumbu is divided into 8 local level units, 1 unit is urban and 7 are rural. They are further divided into wards. Solukhumbu is single-seat constituency for parliamentary constituency and double seat for provincial constituency. Solukhumbu district coordination committee coordinates between local and provincial governments. Solukhumbu district administration office co-operates with Solukhumbu DCC to maintain peace, order and security in the district. The officer of District Administration office called CDO.

Local units Nepali Type Population (2011) Area KM2 Website
Solududhkunda सोलुदूधकुण्ड urban 20,399 538.09 solududhkundamun.gov.np
Dudhakaushika दूधकौशिका rural 19,672 144.6 dudhkaushikamun.gov.np
Necha Salyan नेचा सल्यान rural 16,129 94.49 nechasalyanmun.gov.np
Dudhkoshi दुधकोसी rural 13,414 167.67 dudhkoshimun.gov.np
Maha Kulung महाकुलूङ्ग rural 11,452 648.05 mahakulungmun.gov.np
Sotang सोतांग rural 9,530 103 sotangmun.gov.np
Likhu Pike लिखु पीके rural 5,534 124.38 likhupikemun.gov.np
Khumbu Pasanglhamu खुम्बु पासाङल्हामु rural 8,989 1539.11 khumbupasanglhamumun.gov.np

[11]

Constituency Type MP/MLA Party
Solukhumbu 1 Parliamentary Hem Kumar Rai Nepal Communist Party
Solukhumbu 1(A) Provincial Uttam Kumar Basnet Nepal Communist Party
Solukhumbu 1(B) Provincial Buddhi Kumar Rajbhandari Nepal Communist Party

Former divisions (1990–2016)Edit

Formerly, Solukhumbu district was divided into many Village development committees. In 2014 Dudhkunda municipality was established merging some Village development committees. In 2016 all other Village development committee nullified and introduced rural municipality thus all former Village development committees grouped into 7 units and announced 7 rural municipality.

 
Map of the VDCs in Solukhumbu District

There were 35 Village Development Committees in Solukhumbu District:[12]

TourismEdit

 
Salyan Fedi ricefield, Solukhumbu

Solukhumbu District is a familiar name in mountain tourism. The main attraction is Mount Everest (8,848m). UNESCO has listed the Sagarmatha National Park as a World Heritage site. Sherpa culture and Tengboche Monastery are unique to this district. The Khumjung village is famous for Sherpa culture. Gokyo valley and Khumbu valley are the major Himalayan valleys famous among the adventure and nature seekers. Gokyo Lake trek, Island peak climbing, solukhumbu, Mera Peak climbing, Mount Everest Expedition, Amadablam expedition, and Lobuche peak climbing are the popular adventure trips in Solukhumbu district. This district is well known for adventure holidays.

Interesting placesEdit

 
Namche Bazaar

Some Interesting places for tourism, trekking and hiking.

TransportationEdit

RoadwaysEdit

Salleri, the headquarter of Solukhumbu is connected by road. One can travel to Solukhumbu by road from national capital Kathmandu. Salleri is situated at distance of 270 km (170 mi) from Kathmandu. B.P. Koirala Highway (H-06) connects Kathmandu to Bhimeshwar at distance of 116 km (72 mi). At Bhimeshwar B.P. Koirala Highway joins Mid-Hills Highway and Mid-hills highway runs 60 km (37 mi) through the hills to the junction of Ghurmi, (Katari Municipality). At Ghurmi the road (F52) moves north and runs 94 km (58 mi) to reach Salleri. At many places roads are not pitched and conditions are not good. There are bus services available from Kathmandu to Salleri. Jeep and cars also can be found.

AirwaysEdit

 
Lukla Airport

There are four regional airports available in Solukhumbu district. There are many flights and air-services are available.

Location served ICAO IATA Airport name Coordinates
Kangeldanda VNKL Kangeldanda Airport 27°24′39″N 086°38′45″E / 27.41083°N 86.64583°E / 27.41083; 86.64583 (Kangeldanda Airport)
Lukla VNLK LUA Tenzing-Hillary Airport 27°41′16″N 086°43′53″E / 27.68778°N 86.73139°E / 27.68778; 86.73139 (Tenzing-Hillary Airport)
Solu Dudhkunda VNPL PPL Phaplu Airport 27°31′05″N 086°35′04″E / 27.51806°N 86.58444°E / 27.51806; 86.58444 (Phaplu Airport)
Syangboche VNSB SYH Syangboche Airport 27°48′39″N 086°42′45″E / 27.81083°N 86.71250°E / 27.81083; 86.71250 (Syangboche Airport)

DemographicsEdit

Ethnic castes in Solukhumbu

  Rai (19.6%)
  Sherpa (16.7%)
  Chhetri (15.1%)
  Tamang (9.9%)
  Kulung (8.9%)
  Kami (5.6%)
  Magar (4.9%)
  Bahun (4.6%)
  Nachhiring (3.5%)
  Newar (2.4%)
  Damai (1.9%)
  Thulung (1.0%)
  Other (5.9%)

Total population of Solukhumbu district according to the (2011 Nepal census) is 105,886 individuals living in 23,758 households, in which 54686 (51.7%) are female.[1]

19.6% of the population was Rai, 16.7% Sherpa, 15.1% Chhetri, 9.9% Tamang, 8.9% Kulung, 5.6% Kami, 4.9% Magar, 4.6% Bahun, 3.5% Nachhiring, 2.4% Newar, 1.9% Damai and 1% Thulung.[1]

36.8% of the population speak Nepali, 16.8% Sherpa, 9.3% Tamang, 9.2% Kulung, 8.7% Thulung, 8.5% Khaling, 3.8% Nachhiring, 2.4% Bahing and 1.5% Magar as their first language.

56.0% of the population in the district speak Nepali and 1.8% Sherpa as their second language.[13]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g https://nepalmap.org/profiles/district-11-solukhumbu/
  2. ^ a b "Districts of Nepal". Statoids.
  3. ^ Driem, George van (1993). A grammar of Dumi. ISBN 9783110123517. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  4. ^ Chemjong, Imanshing (15 April 2014). Kirat history and culture. Retrieved 30 March 2020. The fort of Hatuwa Chaudandi of Majhkirat was occupied by the Gorkha force on the fourth day of Srawan in the year 1830 Bikram Sambat which corresponds to 1773 AD.
  5. ^ "A Guide to Government in Nepal" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2020. In 1961, the country was demarcated into 14 administrative zones with each zone headed by a zone commissioner, a royal appointee whose function, among others, was to assist the palace secretariat in suppressing political opposition. In the districts, now increased in number to 75 from 35, district panchayats were established by amalgamating the former village development blocks, and village and nagar (town) panchayats were also established.
  6. ^ "Brief introduction of Okhaldhunga". DCC Okhaldhunga. Retrieved 30 March 2020. Okhaldhunga along with Khotang and Solukhumbu were combined to form East No.3 area among the 32 districts of administrative division of Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa recently after the unification campaign of His Majesty the King Prithvi Narayan Shah. At that time the headquarter of East No.3 area was Okhaldhunga as of today.
  7. ^ Bonington, Chris; Everest, The Hard Way; (1977); pp 72-75; Arrow Books editions; ISBN 0-09-915940-6.
  8. ^ The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved Nov 22, 2013
  9. ^ "Climatological Data for Selected Trekking Towns". www.yr.no. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  10. ^ "Climatological Data for Selected Trekking Towns". www.en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  11. ^ "हेर्नुस तपाई कुन गाउँपालिका वा नगरपालिकामा पर्नुभयो ?". nepalipatra.com. Retrieved Jun 11, 2017.
  12. ^ "Digital Himalaya: Nepal Census 2001". digitalhimalaya.com. Retrieved Jun 11, 2017.
  13. ^ 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables

Coordinates: 27°30′N 86°35′E / 27.500°N 86.583°E / 27.500; 86.583