Solitaire is any tabletop game which one can play by oneself, usually with cards, but also with dominoes. The term "solitaire" is also used for single-player games of concentration and skill using a set layout tiles, pegs or stones. These games include peg solitaire and mahjong solitaire. The game is most often played by one person, but can incorporate others.

A software version of Klondike, a widely known form of card solitaire.


The origins of Card Solitaire or Patience are unclear, but the earliest records appear in the late 1700s across northern Europe and Scandinavia.[1] The term Patiencespiel appears in Das neue Königliche L’Hombre-Spiel, a German book published in 1798. Books were also reported to appear in Sweden and Russia in the early 1800s. There are additional references to Patience in French literature.[2] In the United States, the first card solitaire book, Patience: A series of thirty games with cards, was published by Ednah Cheney in 1870.[3]

The card game that many people identify with Solitaire is Klondike Solitaire, which is the most played solitaire game.[4] Although it was originally played with a physical deck of cards, it was especially popularized by Microsoft Solitaire, a digital implementation that was included with the Windows operating system from 1990 onwards.

Forks of PySol are platform-independent, open-source implementations of hundreds of solitaire games.[5] Many other software implementations of solitaire exist, and it is still frequently played on computers, mobile devices, and online as a recreational game.

Types of solitaire gamesEdit

  • Patience or card solitaire, also known as "solitaire with cards", generally involves placing cards in a layout, and sorting them according to specific rules.[6] The most common solitaire card game is Klondike. Other popular variations include Spider, Yukon, and FreeCell.
  • Mahjong solitaire is a single-player matching game that uses a set of mahjong tiles rather than playing cards. It is more commonly played on a computer, than as a physical tabletop game.
  • Peg solitaire is a board game where the goal is to empty the board of pegs through movement and capturing. It is more of a puzzle than a game, since it is repeatable once it is solved.
  • Concentration also known as Memory, Pelmanism, Shinkei-suijaku, Pexeso or simply Pairs, is a card game in which all of the cards are laid face down on a surface and two cards are flipped face up over each turn. The object of the game is to turn over pairs of matching cards.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit


  1. ^ Parlett, David (1979). The Penguin Book of Patience, Penguin, London, p. 15. ISBN 0-7139-1193-X
  2. ^ Morehead, Albert (May 6, 2015). The Complete Book of Solitaire and Patience Games. Read Books Ltd. ISBN 9781473395381. Retrieved August 6, 2020.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. ^ "History of Solitaire". Solitaired.
  4. ^ "The Three Most Played Solitaire Card Games in the World". 23 June 2020.
  5. ^ Harac, Ian (2009-03-27). "PySol FC Gives You All the Free Solitaire Imaginable". PCWorld. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  6. ^ Yan, X., Diaconis, P., Rusmevichientong, P., & Roy, B. V. (2005). Solitaire: Man versus machine. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (pp. 1553-1560).