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List of solar thermal power stations

  (Redirected from Solar thermal power plant)
The PS10 solar thermal power station.

This is a list of the largest facilities generating electricity through the use of solar thermal power, specifically concentrated solar power.

Contents

OperationalEdit

Operational solar thermal power stations (of at least 50 MW capacity)
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology type Notes and references
510 Noor / Ouarzazate Solar Power Station   Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station) Parabolic trough and solar power tower (Phase 3) 160 MW Phase 1 with 3h heat storage.[1][2] 200 MW phase 2 with 7h heat storage is online from January 2018.[3][4] 150 MW (Phase 3) with 7.5h storage is online from November 2018[5][6]
392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility   US San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) Solar power tower Completed on February 13, 2014[7][8][9]
354* Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)   US Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) Parabolic trough Collection of 9 units 1984-1990 [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]
* First two units (44 MW out of total 354 MW) decommissioned after 30yrs and replaced by solar PV.
280 Mojave Solar Project   US Barstow, California 35°00′40″N 117°19′30″W / 35.01111°N 117.32500°W / 35.01111; -117.32500 (Mojave Solar Project) Parabolic trough Completed December 2014. Gross capacity of 280 MW corresponds to net capacity of 250 MW[19][20][21]
280 Solana Generating Station   US Gila Bend, Arizona 32°55′N 112°58′W / 32.917°N 112.967°W / 32.917; -112.967 (Solana Generating Station) Parabolic trough Completed in October 2013, with 6 hours (h) thermal energy storage[22][23]
280 Genesis Solar Energy Project   US Blythe, California 33°38′37.68″N 114°59′16.8″W / 33.6438000°N 114.988000°W / 33.6438000; -114.988000 (Genesis Solar) Parabolic trough Online April 24, 2014[24][25][26]
200 Solaben Solar Power Station[27]   Spain Logrosán 39°13′29″N 5°23′26″W / 39.22472°N 5.39056°W / 39.22472; -5.39056 (Solaben Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solaben 3 completed June 2012[28]
Solaben 2 completed October 2012[28]
Solaben 1 and 6 completed September 2013[29]
150 Solnova Solar Power Station   Spain Sanlúcar la Mayor 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solnova 1 completed May 2010
Solnova 3 completed May 2010
Solnova 4 completed August 2010[30][31][32][33][34]
150 Andasol solar power station   Spain Guadix 37°13′42.70″N 3°4′6.73″W / 37.2285278°N 3.0685361°W / 37.2285278; -3.0685361 (Andasol solar power station) Parabolic trough Completed: Andasol 1 (2008), Andasol 2 (2009), Andasol 3 (2011). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.[35][36]
150 Extresol Solar Power Station   Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero 38°39′N 6°44′W / 38.650°N 6.733°W / 38.650; -6.733 (Extresol Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Completed: Extresol 1 and 2 (2010), Extresol 3 (2012). Each equipped with a 7.5-hour thermal energy storage.[28][37][38]
125 Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project   US Nye County, Nevada 38°14′N 117°22′W / 38.233°N 117.367°W / 38.233; -117.367 (Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project) Solar power tower with 10h heat storage; commercial operation began September 2015[39][40]
125 Dhursar   India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) fresnel reflector Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[41][42][43][44]
121 Ashalim Power Station B (Negev Energy)   Israel Ashalim 30°57′N 34°42′E / 30.950°N 34.700°E / 30.950; 34.700 (Ashalim Power Station) Solar power tower Completed April 2019 and located in Negev desert[45][46][47]
100 Kathu Solar Park   South Africa Northern Cape 27°31′59.67″S 23°8′10.56″E / 27.5332417°S 23.1362667°E / -27.5332417; 23.1362667 (Kathu Solar Park) Parabolic trough completed February 2018, With 4.5h heat storage

[48][49][50][51][52]

100 KaXu Solar One   South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (KaXu Solar One) Parabolic trough with 2.5h heat storage[53][54][55]
100 Xina Solar One   South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 28°53′40.56″S 19°35′53.52″E / 28.8946000°S 19.5982000°E / -28.8946000; 19.5982000 (Xina CSP Project) Parabolic trough Commissioned in September 2017 with 5.5h heat storage[56]
100 Manchasol Power Station   Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°11′N 3°18′W / 39.183°N 3.300°W / 39.183; -3.300 (Manchasol Power Station) Parabolic trough Manchasol 1 and 2 completed in 2011, each with 7.5h heat storage[28]
100 Valle Solar Power Station   Spain San José del Valle 36°39′N 5°50′W / 36.650°N 5.833°W / 36.650; -5.833 (Valle Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Completed December 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[28][57]
100 Helioenergy Solar Power Station   Spain Écija 37°34′43″N 5°9′24″W / 37.57861°N 5.15667°W / 37.57861; -5.15667 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011[58][59]
Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012[28][58][59]
100 Aste Solar Power Station   Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°10′22″N 3°15′58″W / 39.17278°N 3.26611°W / 39.17278; -3.26611 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[28]
Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[28]
100 Solacor Solar Power Station   Spain El Carpio 37°54′54″N 4°30′9″W / 37.91500°N 4.50250°W / 37.91500; -4.50250 (Solacor Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Solacor 1 completed February 2012[28]
Solacor 2 completed March 2012[28][60]
100 Helios Solar Power Station   Spain Puerto Lápice 39°14′24″N 3°28′12″W / 39.24000°N 3.47000°W / 39.24000; -3.47000 (Helios Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough Helios 1 completed May 2012[28]
Helios 2 completed August 2012[28]
100 Shams solar power station   UAE Abu Dhabi Madinat Zayed 23°34′N 53°42′E / 23.567°N 53.700°E / 23.567; 53.700 (Shams solar power station) Parabolic trough Shams 1 completed March 2013 [61][62]
100 Termosol Solar Power Station   Spain Navalvillar de Pela Parabolic trough Both Termosol 1 and 2 completed in 2013[28]
100 Palma del Río I & II   Spain Palma del Río 37°38′42.56″N 5°15′29.32″W / 37.6451556°N 5.2581444°W / 37.6451556; -5.2581444 (Palma del Río I & II) Parabolic trough Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010[28]
Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011[28]
100 Ilanga 1   South Africa Northern Cape (Upington) 28°29′25.79″S 21°32′27.13″E / 28.4904972°S 21.5408694°E / -28.4904972; 21.5408694 (Ilanga 1 CSP Project) Parabolic trough With 5h heat storage. Operational since 2018[63]
100 Shouhang Dunhuang   China Dunhuang (Gansu Province) 40°5′33.11″N 94°39′55.56″E / 40.0925306°N 94.6654333°E / 40.0925306; 94.6654333 (Shouhang Dunhuang CSP Project) Solar power tower With 7.5h heat storage. Operational since end of December 2018[64]
75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center   US Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) ISCC with parabolic trough Completed December 2010[65]
75 Nevada Solar One   US Boulder City, Nevada 35°48.0′N 114°58.6′W / 35.8000°N 114.9767°W / 35.8000; -114.9767 (Nevada Solar One) Parabolic trough Operational since 2007
50 Guzmán   Spain Palma del Río 37°38′N 5°15′W / 37.633°N 5.250°W / 37.633; -5.250 (Guzmán) Parabolic trough Completed July 2012[28]
50 Khi Solar One   South Africa Upington 28°33′0.36″S 21°5′5.28″E / 28.5501000°S 21.0848000°E / -28.5501000; 21.0848000 (Khi Solar One) Solar power tower Completed Feb 2016
With 2h heat storage[53][54]
50 Bokpoort   South Africa Groblershoop 28°43′26.96″S 21°59′34.88″E / 28.7241556°S 21.9930222°E / -28.7241556; 21.9930222 (Bokpoort CSP Project) Parabolic trough with 9h heat storage[66][67]
50 Puertollano Solar Thermal Power Plant   Spain Puertollano, Ciudad Real 38°39′N 3°58′W / 38.650°N 3.967°W / 38.650; -3.967 (Puertollano) Parabolic trough Completed May 2009[68]
50 Alvarado I   Spain Badajoz 38°49′37″N 06°49′34″W / 38.82694°N 6.82611°W / 38.82694; -6.82611 (Alvarado I) Parabolic trough Completed July 2009[69][70][71]
50 La Florida   Spain Alvarado (Badajoz) Parabolic trough Completed July 2010[28][72]
50 Arenales PS   Spain Morón de la Frontera (Seville) Parabolic trough[28][73][74] 2013
50 Casablanca   Spain Talarrubias Parabolic trough[28] 2013
50 Majadas de Tiétar   Spain Caceres 39°58′10″N 5°44′32″W / 39.96944°N 5.74222°W / 39.96944; -5.74222 (Majadas) parabolic trough Completed August 2010[28][75]
50 La Dehesa   Spain La Garrovilla (Badajoz) 38°57′35″N 6°27′50″W / 38.95972°N 6.46389°W / 38.95972; -6.46389 (La Dehesa) Parabolic trough Completed November 2010[28]
50 Lebrija-1   Spain Lebrija Parabolic trough Completed July 2011[28][76]
50 Astexol 2   Spain Badajoz 38°48′42″N 7°3′36″W / 38.81167°N 7.06000°W / 38.81167; -7.06000 (Astexol) Parabolic trough Completed November 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[28][73]
50 Morón   Spain Morón de la Frontera 37°7′11.24″N 5°33′50.45″W / 37.1197889°N 5.5640139°W / 37.1197889; -5.5640139 (Morón) Parabolic trough Completed May 2012[28]
50 La Africana   Spain Posada Parabolic trough Completed July 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[28]
50 Olivenza 1   Spain Olivenza 38°45′18.73″N 7°8′40.42″W / 38.7552028°N 7.1445611°W / 38.7552028; -7.1445611 (Olivenza1) Parabolic trough Completed July 2012[28]
50 Orellana   Spain Orellana la Vieja 39°1′17.6″N 5°31′57.4″W / 39.021556°N 5.532611°W / 39.021556; -5.532611 (Orellana) Parabolic trough Completed August 2012[28]
50 Godawari Green Energy Limited   India Nokh Village,Rajasthan 27°36′01″N 72°13′25″E / 27.60028°N 72.22361°E / 27.60028; 72.22361 (Godawari) Parabolic trough 2013[77][78][79]
50 Enerstar Villena Power Plant   Spain Villena 38°43′41.51″N 0°55′18.23″W / 38.7281972°N 0.9217306°W / 38.7281972; -0.9217306 (Enerstar Villena) Parabolic trough Completed 2013[28][80]
50 Megha Solar Plant   India Anantapur 14°56′47″N 77°41′15″E / 14.94639°N 77.68750°E / 14.94639; 77.68750 (Megha Solar Plant) Parabolic trough Completed 2014[81][82]
50 Delingha Solar Plant   China Delingha 37°23′N 97°23′E / 37.383°N 97.383°E / 37.383; 97.383 (Delingha) Parabolic trough Completed July 2018 with 9h thermal energy storage[83]
50 Supcon Solar Delingha   China Delingha 37°23′N 97°23′E / 37.383°N 97.383°E / 37.383; 97.383 (Delingha) Solar power tower Completed December 2018 [84]
50 Shagaya CSP   Kuwait Shagaya 29°13′41″N 47°03′45″E / 29.22806°N 47.06250°E / 29.22806; 47.06250 (Shagaya CSP) Parabolic trough Commercial operation started in February 2019, 10 hrs thermal storage [85][86]
50 Waad Al Shamal ISCC Plant   Saudi Arabia Waad Al Shamal 31°39′37″N 38°51′29″E / 31.66028°N 38.85806°E / 31.66028; 38.85806 (Waad Al Shamal ISCC Plant) ISCC with parabolic trough Commercial operation started in 2018, 1,390 MW plant with 50 MW solar[87]

Under constructionEdit

Solar thermal power stations under construction (of at least 50 MW capacity)
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Co-
ordinates
Expected
completion
Technology Notes
700 Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park Phase IV   United Arab Emirates Dubai 24°45′17″N 55°21′54″E / 24.7547°N 55.365°E / 24.7547; 55.365 (DEWA solar power park) 2020 Parabolic trough
solar tower
600 MW parabolic trough and 100 solar tower, with 15h heat storage[88][89][90]
200 Golmud CSP   China Golmud, Qinghai province Power tower [91]
110 Cerro Dominador Solar Thermal Plant (Atacama 1)   Chile María Elena, Antofagasta   2019 Solar power tower [92]
100 Urat Middle Banner CSP   China Urat Middle Banner, Inner Mongolia Parabolic trough [91][93]
50 Erdos Solar Power Plant   China Hanggin Banner Parabolic trough [94]
50 Dacheng Dunhuang CSP   China Dunhuang, Gansu Province Fresnel reflector [91]
50 Gansu Akesai CSP   China Akesai, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [91]
50 Hami CSP   China Hami, Xinjiang Autonomous Region Power tower [91]
50 Luneng Haixi CSP   China Haixi Zhou, Qinghai Sheng Power tower [91]
50 Qinghai Gonghe CSP   China Gonghe, Qinghai Province Power tower [91]
50 Rayspower Yumen CSP   China Yumen, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [91]
50 Yumen CSP   China Yumen, Gansu Province Power tower [91]

AnnouncedEdit

Solar thermal power stations announced
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
230 Noor Midelt II   Morocco Morocco 32°40′51″N 04°43′59″W / 32.68083°N 4.73306°W / 32.68083; -4.73306 (Noor Midelt Power Station) [95]
200 Noor Midelt I   Morocco Morocco 32°40′51″N 04°43′59″W / 32.68083°N 4.73306°W / 32.68083; -4.73306 (Noor Midelt Power Station) Hybrid solar power with combination of 600 MW solar PV and 200 MW solar thermal with 5h heat storage [96][97]
450 Tamarugal Solar Project   Chile Atacama Desert, Chile Three solar power towers with 13h heat storage [98]
390 Likana Solar Project   Chile Antofagasta   Three solar power towers with 13h heat storage[99]
260 Copiapó Solar Project   Chile Atacama Desert, Chile Solar power tower PV integrated. With 14h heat storage [100]
100 Redstone Solar Thermal Power   South Africa Northern Cape 28°17′53″S 23°21′56″E / 28.29806°S 23.36556°E / -28.29806; 23.36556 (Redstone Solar Thermal Power) Solar power tower with 12h heat storage [101][102][103]
100 Solnova 2, 4–5   Spain Sevilla 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) Parabolic trough with heat storage [104]
100 CAP SunEdison   Chile Atacama Desert, Chile [105]
100 Gulang CSP   China Wuwei, Gansu Province Parabolic trough [91][93]
100 Golden Tower CSP   China Jinta, Gansu Province Power tower [91]
72 Mashhad solar-thermal power station   Iran Mashhad, Iran Parabolic dish with tracer system [106]
64 Chabei CSP   China Chabei, Hebei Province Parabolic trough [91]
60 Al-Abdaliya   Kuwait ?? Parabolic trough [107]
50 AZ 20   Spain Sevilla Solar power tower [104][91]
50 Shangyi CSP   China Shangyi, Hebei Province Power tower [91]
50 Zhangjiakou CSP   China Zhangbei, Hebei Province Fresnel reflector [91]

CancelledEdit

Solar thermal power stations cancelled
Electrical capacity (MW) Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
1,600 Sandstone Solar Energy Project   US Nye County, Nevada 37°54′00″N 116°42′00″W / 37.90000°N 116.70000°W / 37.90000; -116.70000 (Sandstone Solar Energy Project) solar power tower 8 units with 10h heat storage[108]
1,000 Blythe Solar Power Project   US Blythe, California Parabolic trough 4 units, converted to 485 MW PV[109]
850 Stirling Energy Systems Solar One Project   US San Bernardino County, California Dish Stirling converted to 618 MW PV, license terminated 27 August 2013[110]
750 Stirling Energy Systems Solar Two Project   US Imperial County, California Dish Stirling converted to 594 MW PV[111]
500 Palen Solar Power Project   US Riverside County, California Parabolic trough 2 units, certification expired 15 December 2015[112]
250 Ridgecrest Solar Power Project   US Kern County, California Parabolic trough 2 units, license terminated 22 April 2014[113]
160 Luz SEGS XI-XII Project   US San Bernardino County, California Parabolic trough license expired 22 September 1989[114]
150 Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project   Australia Port Augusta, South Australia 32°12′S 137°36′E / 32.2°S 137.6°E / -32.2; 137.6 (Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project) solar power tower [115]
100 El Reboso 2+3   Spain La Puebla del Rio (Seville) Parabolic trough[116][117]
100 SCE Solar 100   US Johnson Valley, California Solar power tower license expired 1983[118]
100 Diwakar   India Askandra Parabolic trough 2014, Parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[119]
100 KVK Energy Solar Project   India Askandra Parabolic trough 2014, Parabolic trough with 4h heat storage[120]

DecommissionedEdit

  • Eurelios pilot plant, a 1 MW, power tower design in Adrano, Sicily, operational 1981–1987[121]
  • Solar One pilot plant, operational 1982–1986; converted into Solar Two, operational 1995–1999; site demolished 2009 – USA California, 10 MW, power tower design
  • SES-5 – USSR, 5 MW, power tower design, water / Steam, service period 1985–1989[122]
  • Maricopa Solar – USA Peoria, Arizona, 1.5 MW dish stirling SES / Tessera Solar's first commercial-scale Dish Stirling power plant. Completed January 2010,[123] decommissioned September 2011 and sold to CondiSys Solar Technology of China on April 2012.[124][125]

Largest plants by technologyEdit

Largest operational Solar Thermal Power Stations by technology
Technology type Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Notes and references
Solar power tower without thermal storage 392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility   US San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) Completed on February 13, 2014[7][8][9] The station uses natural gas as supplementary fuel.
with thermal storage 150 Ouarzazate Solar Power Station   Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station)
Parabolic trough without thermal storage 310 Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS)   US Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) Collection of 9 units[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The station has gas firing facility to run the units during night time.
with thermal storage 360 Ouarzazate Solar Power Station   Morocco Ghassate (Ouarzazate province) 30°59′40″N 6°51′48″W / 30.99444°N 6.86333°W / 30.99444; -6.86333 (Ouarzazate solar power station)
ISCC with parabolic trough 75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center   US Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) Completed December 2010[65] Basically combined cycle power plant running on natural gas. Solar energy is supplemented to reduce the natural gas consumption for the same station output.
Fresnel reflector without thermal storage 100 Dhursar   India Dhursar, Jaisalmer district 26°47′N 72°00′E / 26.783°N 72.000°E / 26.783; 72.000 (Dhursar Concentrated Solar Plant) Completed November 2014, referred as 125 MW is some sources[41][42][43][44]
Dish Stirling No utility scale installastions currently operational, 1.5MW Maricopa Solar was largest

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "King Mohammed VI to Inaugurate 'Noor' Solar Plant in Ouarzazate". moroccoworldnews.com. 26 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Morocco expands solar capacity". Zawya. 2013-09-23.
  4. ^ Morocco’s Noor II Begins Synchronization to Grid, solar paces, January 14, 2018.
  5. ^ "Chinese firm helps build world's largest concentrated solar power complex in Morocco's desert". Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Noor Ouarzazate III central receiver concentrated solar power plant with storage completes its reliability test". Retrieved 11 November 2018.
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  14. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station V - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov.
  15. ^ a b "Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solar Electric Generating Station VI - Concentrating Solar Power - NREL". www.nrel.gov.
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  19. ^ csp-world.com Abengoa's Mojave 250 MW CSP plant enters commercial operation, 2 December 2014
  20. ^ Abengoa: Plants under construction - United States Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
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  22. ^ "Abengoa Solar :: About us :: Press :: News :: 2013". www.abengoasolar.com.
  23. ^ SolarServer: Concentrating solar power: Solana CSP plant begins commercial operation Archived 2013-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ CSP World Archived 2014-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Another Huge Solar Plant Goes Online in California's Desert Archived 2014-05-06 at the Wayback Machine, Chris Clarke, REWIRE, May 5, 2014
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  27. ^ "Abengoa Solar begins construction on Extremadura's second solar concentrating solar power plant". abengoasolar.com.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Mapa de proyectos en España Archived 2014-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "CSP World: Abengoa closes financing and begin operation of Solaben 1 & 6 CSP plants in Spain". csp-world.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
  30. ^ Rubens, Craig (8 August 2008). "Abengoa Rakes in $426M for 4 Solar Power Plants". earth2tech.com.
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  32. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 1 Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 3 Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Abengoa Solar Reaches Total of 193 Megawatts Operating[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ 1527443821, ;. "Solar Millennium AG - Andasol 1 has started test run - Archives - Press - Press Releases - Archive 2008". www.solarmillennium.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit