Sodium perchlorate

Sodium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO4. It is a white crystalline, hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and in alcohol. It is usually encountered as the monohydrate. The compound is noteworthy as the most water-soluble of the common perchlorate salts.

Sodium perchlorate
Sodium perchlorte
Other names
Sodium chlorate(VII)
Sodium hyperchlorate
Perchloric acid, sodium salt
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.647 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-511-9
RTECS number
  • SC9800000
UN number 1502
NaClO4.H2O (monohydrate)
Molar mass 122.44 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline solid
Density 2.4994 g/cm3
2.02 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
Melting point 468 °C (874 °F; 741 K) (decomposes, anhydrous)
130 °C (monohydrate)
Boiling point 482 °C (900 °F; 755 K) (decomposes, monohydrate)
209.6 g/100 mL (25 °C, anhydrous)
209 g/100 mL (15 °C, monohydrate)
Safety data sheet ICSC 0715
GHS pictograms GHS03: Oxidizing GHS07: Harmful GHS08: Health hazard
GHS Signal word Danger
H271, H302, H319, H373
P102, P220, P305+351+338, P338
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point 400 °C (752 °F; 673 K)
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium chloride
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium chlorite
Sodium chlorate
Other cations
Lithium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Ammonium perchlorate
Caesium perchlorate
Related compounds
Perchloric acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sodium perchlorate is present on the planet Mars.[1]

Selected propertiesEdit

Its heat of formation is −382.75 kJ/mol, i.e. it is favorable for it to decompose into sodium chloride and dioxygen.[2] It crystallizes in the rhombic crystal system.[3]


Sodium perchlorate is the precursor to many other perchlorate salts, often taking advantage of their low solubility relative to NaClO4 (209 g/100 mL at 25 °C). Perchloric acid is made by treating NaClO4 with HCl.

Ammonium and potassium perchlorate, of interest in pyrotechnics, are prepared by double decomposition from a solution of sodium perchlorate and potassium or ammonium chlorides.

Laboratory applicationsEdit

Solutions of NaClO4 are often used as an unreactive electrolyte. It is used in standard DNA extraction and hybridization reactions in molecular biology.

In medicineEdit

Sodium perchlorate can be used to block iodine uptake before administration of iodinated contrast agents in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (suppressed TSH).[4]

In animal trainingEdit

Sodium perchlorate may also be used as a material to train canines to detect bomb materials.[5]


Sodium perchlorate is produced by anodic oxidation of sodium chlorate at an inert electrode, such as platinum.[6]

ClO3 + H2O → ClO4 + 2H+ + 2 e (acidic medium)

ClO3 + 2 OH → ClO4 + H2O + 2 e (alkaline medium)


LD50 is 2 – 4 g/kg (rabbits, oral).[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^
  2. ^ WebBook page for NaClO4
  3. ^ Eagleson, Mary (1994). Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry. revised, illustrated. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1000. ISBN 9783110114515. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  4. ^ Becker C. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice]. Radiologe. 2007 Sep;47(9):768-73.
  5. ^ "Explosives Detection Dogs". (in German). Retrieved 2017-07-24.
  6. ^ a b Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone (2002). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

External linksEdit