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Socialism is a political philosophy and economic system based on the social ownership and control of the means of production; as well as the political and economic theories, ideologies and movements that aim to establish a socialist system.

Socialism may also refer to:

  • Democratic socialism, a political philosophy that advocates achieving socialist goals within a democratic system as opposed to what it perceives as undemocratic socialist ideologies such as Marxist–Leninist-inspired socialism
  • Scientific socialism, a method of analysis pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and used to analyze capitalism, where socialism is postulated to emerge from capitalist development; in the late 19th century it widely became known as Marxism
  • Social democracy, a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy
  • Socialist mode of production, a more specific concept of socialist organization articulated by Marxist theory of historical materialism
  • Socialist Party, or capital-s "Socialists", the policies and practices of titular Socialist political parties irrespective of whether or not they adhere to the implementation of a socialist system
  • Socialist state, a country governed by a socialist party with the constitutional aim of constructing socialism
  • Real socialism, a phrase sometimes used to refer to the Soviet-type planned economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries