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A sołtys (Polish pronunciation: [sɔwˈtɨs]) is a head of a sołectwo elected by its permanent citizens in a village meeting (zebranie wiejskie). According to data from 2010, Poland had 40 thousand sołtys, 30.7% of which were women.
Role and powersEdit
Since 1990, a sołtys is an executive of a sołectwo that is supported by a sołectwo council. The detailed powers, duties and responsibilities of the sołtys are decided in the statute made by the gmina council. The sołtys can use the legal protection of a civil servant in his favour.
A sołtys has the duty to:
- Represent the sołectwo
- Organise village meetings
- Introduce laws made by the gmina to the sołectwo
- Collect taxes
- Participate in gmina council meetings
The office of the sołtys was introduced during the Partitions of Poland. It varied among countries. In Congress Poland, a sołtys was an executive branch of a gromada. He was supposed to guard order in the city. In Congress Poland, a gmina was made up of a few gromadas. In the Grand Duchy of Posen a sołtys usually served the role of a village owner.
In 1934, sołectwos were introduced once again to Poland, which mainly held control over business relating to the people.
In the Polish People's Republic, the role of a sołtys was replaced from 1954 to 1958 with a different position, though it was quickly changed to sołtys. A sołtys was the executive of a village government which, until 1973, ruled a gromada. From 1973 a sołtys governed a sołectwo.
- "Rocznik Statystyczny Województw 2011 (wybrane tablice)" (PDF). stat.gov.pl. Statistics Poland. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- Ustawa z dnia 8 marca 1990 r. o samorządzie gminnym
- "Sołectwo - Studium Prawnoustrojowe" (PDF). Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- Ustawa z dnia 25 stycznia 1958 r. o radach narodowych