Smolensky District, Smolensk Oblast

Smolensky District (Russian: Смоле́нский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[5] district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the west of the oblast and borders with Demidovsky District in the north, Dukhovshchinsky District in the northeast, Kardymovsky District in the east, Pochinkovsky District in the south, Monastyrshchinsky District in the southwest, Krasninsky District in the west, and with Rudnyansky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 2,494.98 square kilometers (963.32 sq mi).[1] Its administrative center is the city of Smolensk (which is not administratively a part of the district).[1] Population: 44,964 (2010 Census);[3] 47,281 (2002 Census);[7] 50,620 (1989 Census).[8]

Smolensky District

Смоленский район
Landscape in Smolensky District
Landscape in Smolensky District
Flag of Smolensky District
Flag
Coat of arms of Smolensky District
Coat of arms
Location of Smolensky District in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°47′N 32°03′E / 54.783°N 32.050°E / 54.783; 32.050Coordinates: 54°47′N 32°03′E / 54.783°N 32.050°E / 54.783; 32.050
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSmolensk Oblast[1]
Established1930[2]
Administrative centerSmolensk[1]
Area
 • Total2,494.98 km2 (963.32 sq mi)
Population
 • Total44,964
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
59,450 (+32.2%)
 • Density18/km2 (47/sq mi)
 • Urban
0%
 • Rural
100%
Administrative structure
 • Administrative divisions19 Rural settlements
 • Inhabited localities[1]420 Rural localities
Municipal structure
 • Municipally incorporated asSmolensky Municipal District[5]
 • Municipal divisions[5]0 Urban settlements, 19 Rural settlements
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
OKTMO ID66644000
Websitehttp://www.smol-ray.ru/

GeographyEdit

 
A lake by the village of Nagat.

The district is split between the drainage basins of the Dnieper and the Daugava. The rivers in the northern part of the district flow into the Kasplya River, a left tributary of the Daugava. The Kasplya has its source in the district. The Dnieper crosses the district from east to west. The southern part of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Sozh River, a major left tributary of the Dnieper.

HistoryEdit

The area was continuously populated since prehistory due to the trading route along the Dnieper. Since the 9th century, it was always attached to the city of Smolensk. The first settlement in the area, the selo of Dresna, was mentioned in chronicles under 1136; the selo of Kasplya was mentioned under 1150.[9] In 1580, after the Livonian War, the area was transferred to Poland. In 1667, according to the Truce of Andrusovo, it was transferred back to Russia.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Smolensk Governorate and remained there until 1929, with the exception of the brief period between 1775 and 1796, when Smolensk Governorate was transformed into Smolensk Viceroyalty. The area was split between Dukhovshchinsky, Krasninsky, Porechsky, and Smolensky Uyezds.[2]

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and three districts were established in the area: Grinyovsky, Kardymovsky, and Katynsky Districts. All three district had their administrative center in the city of Smolensk and belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast.[10] On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. In 1930 these three districts were merged into newly established Smolensky District with the administrative center in Smolensk.[2] On 27 September 1937 Western Oblast was abolished and split between Oryol and Smolensk Oblasts. Smolensky District was transferred to Smolensk Oblast. Between 1941 and 1943, during WWII, the district was occupied by German troops.

Kardymovsky District was restored in 1935 and abolished again in 1963, during the abortive Khrushchyov administrative reform, and split between Smolensky and Yartsevsky Districts. In 1977, it was re-established. Similarly, in 1963 Krasninsky District was abolished and merged into Smolensky District. It was re-established in 1965.[2]

On 12 July 1929, Kasplyansky District with the administrative center in the selo of Kasplya was established. It belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. In 1932 it was abolished and split between Demidovsky, Dukhovshchinsky, Rudnyandky, and Smolensky Districts. In 1938, Kasplyansky District was re-established, and in 1961, it was abolished again and merged into Smolensky District.[2]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Smolensky District is one of the twenty-five in the oblast.[1] The city of Smolensk serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as an urban okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1]

As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Smolensky Municipal District.[5] Smolensk Urban Okrug is incorporated separately from the district[11]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

There are no big industrial enterprises in the district. Small enterprises are involved into food and construction industries.[12]

AgricultureEdit

The main agricultural specializations in the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production; production of pork, poultry, and eggs, and crops growing.[13]

TransportationEdit

The city of Smolensk is fully surrounded by Smolensky District, and all communications to Smolensk run through the district.

The railway connecting Moscow and Minsk runs through the district passing Smolensk. In Smolensk, another railway to Vitebsk and further with Daugavpils via Rudnya branches off north-west. East of Smolensk, two more railway lines branch off: One runs south to Bryansk via Roslavl, and another onr runs north to Prechistoye. The railway line to Prechistoye does not have passenger traffic, all other lines do.

The M1 highway connecting Moscow with the state border between Russia and Belarus crosses the district from east to west bypassing Smolensk from the north. The R133 highway to Demidov, Velizh, and Nevel branches off north in Olsha. The R120 highway continues north to Rudnya and further across the border to Vitebsk, and south to Roslavl and Bryansk. The R135 highway runs from Smolensk to the southwest to Krasny and continues across the border to Orsha.

The Dnieper is navigable within the district, however, there is no organized navigation.[14]

Culture and recreationEdit

 
The Church of the Holy Spirit in Talashkino

The federally protected monuments in the districts include a park in the selo of Talashkino and an estate in the selo of Syrokorenskiye Lipki

In Katyn, just west of the city of Smolensk, thousands of Polish officers were executed in 1940 by the Soviet regime. The cite currently features a memorial, built around the Katyn war cemetery, and a museum.[15]

In Talashkino, Mariya Tenisheva opened in the end of the 19th century an artisan center, where local people were employed. Most of the buildings of the estate have been lost. Those which survived, including the Church of the Holy Spirit and the fairy-tale reconstruction by Sergey Malyutin, currently host a museum.[16]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #261
  2. ^ a b c d e Борис Парфенов; Ольга Хоренженкова. "К истории формирования Смоленской области" (in Russian). Смоленск. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Law #135-z
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  8. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  9. ^ "Историческая справка" (in Russian). Smolensky District Administration. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  10. ^ "Постановление от 17 июня 1929 года О составе округов и районов Западной области и их центрах" (in Russian). All-Russia Central Executive Committee. June 17, 1929. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
  11. ^ Decision #164
  12. ^ "Промышленность" (in Russian). Smolendky District Administration. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  13. ^ "Итоги работы сельхозпредприятий" (in Russian). Smolensk District Administration. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  14. ^ Н.И. Алексеевский, В.А. Жук. "Днепр" (in Russian). Вода России.
  15. ^ "Мемориальный комплекс "Катынь"" (in Russian). Museum.ru. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
  16. ^ "Историко-архитектурный комплекс Теремок" (in Russian). Смоленский государственный музей-заповедник. Retrieved December 23, 2016.

SourcesEdit

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #464 of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №135-з от 28 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Смоленский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их статусом сельских поселений», в ред. Закона №46-з от 29 апреля 2006 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №14, часть III, стр. 8, 30 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #135-z of December 28, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Smolensky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Whose Territories It Comprises, and on Granting Them the Status of Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #46-z of April 29, 2006 On Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Смоленский городской Совет. Решение №164 от 28 октября 2005 г. «Устав города Смоленска (новая редакция)», в ред. Решения №1419 от 29 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав города Смоленска». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, за исключением положений, для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Смоленские новости", №71, 22 декабря 2005 г. (Smolensk City Council. Decision #164 of October 28, 2005 Charter of the City of Smolensk (New Edition), as amended by the Decision #1419 of May 29, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the City of Smolensk. Effective as of the day of the official publication, with the exception of the clauses for which other dates of taking effect are specified.).