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Smart Battery

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Almost all laptops use smart batteries.
Smart battery components

A smart battery or a smart battery pack is a rechargeable battery pack with a built-in battery management system (BMS), usually designed for use in a portable computer such as a laptop. In addition to the usual positive and negative terminals, a smart battery has two or more terminals to connect to the BMS; typically the negative terminal is also used as BMS "ground". BMS interface examples are: SMBus, PMBus, EIA-232, EIA-485,[1] and Local Interconnect Network.

Internally, a smart battery can measure voltage and current, and deduce charge level and SoH (State of Health) parameters, indicating the state of the cells. Externally, a smart battery can communicate with a smart battery charger and a "smart energy user" via the bus interface. A smart battery can demand that the charging stop, request charging, or demand that the smart energy user stop using power from this battery. There are standard specifications for smart batteries: Smart Battery System[2], MIPI BIF and many ad-hoc specifications.

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