Slavery in contemporary Africa

The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery.[1] Slavery in Africa has a long history, within Africa since before historical records, but intensifying with the Arab slave trade[2][3] and again with the trans-Atlantic slave trade;[4] the demand for slaves created an entire series of kingdoms (such as the Ashanti Empire) which existed in a state of perpetual warfare in order to generate the prisoners of war necessary for the lucrative export of slaves.[5] These patterns have persisted into the colonial period during the late 19th and early 20th century.[6] Although the colonial authorities attempted to suppress slavery from about 1900, this had very limited success, and after decolonization, slavery continues in many parts of Africa despite being technically illegal.[7]

Slavery in the Sahel region (and to a lesser extent the Horn of Africa), exists along the racial and cultural boundary of Arabized Berbers in the north and darker Africans in the south.[8] Slavery in the Sahel states of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan in particular, continues a centuries-old pattern of hereditary servitude.[9] Other forms of traditional slavery exist in parts of Ghana, Benin, Togo and Nigeria.[10] There are other, non-traditional forms of slavery in Africa today, mostly involving human trafficking and the enslavement of child soldiers and child labourers, e.g. human trafficking in Angola, and human trafficking of children from Togo, Benin and Nigeria to Gabon and Cameroon.[11][12]

Modern day slavery in Africa according to the Anti-Slavery Society includes exploitation of subjugate populations even when their condition is not technically called "slavery":[13][14][15]

Although this exploitation is often not called slavery, the conditions are the same. People are sold like objects, forced to work for little or no pay and are at the mercy of their "employers".

— Antislavery Society, What is Modern Slavery

Forced labor in Sub-Saharan Africa[16] is estimated at 660,000.[17] This includes people involved in the illegal diamond mines of Sierra Leone and Liberia, which is also a direct result of the civil war in these regions.[18] In 2017, the International Labour Office estimated that 7∶1,000 people in Africa are victims of slavery.[19]

Types of contemporary slaveryEdit

 
Hereditary slavery and corporate child labour in Africa

Sex tradeEdit

While institutional slavery has been banned worldwide, there are numerous reports of female sex slaves in areas without an effective government control, such as Sudan and Liberia,[20] Sierra Leone,[21] northern Uganda,[22] Congo,[23] Niger[24] and Mauritania.[25] In Ghana, Togo, and Benin, a form of (forced) religious prostitution known as trokosi ("ritual servitude") forcibly keeps thousands of girls and women in traditional shrines as "wives of the gods", where priests perform the sexual function in place of the gods.[26]

Forced labourEdit

Forced labor is defined as any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form of punishment. Forced labor was used to an overwhelming extent in King Leopold's Congo Free State and on Portuguese plantations of Cape Verde and São Tomé. Today in the Democratic Republic of the Congo the indigenous people are usually victims of their Bantu neighbors, who have replaced the positions once held by Europeans.[18][27]

"We must work for the Bantu masters. We cannot refuse to do so because we are likely to be beaten or be victims of insults and threats. Even though we agree to work all day in the fields, we are still asked to work even more, for example, to fetch firewood or go hunting. Most of the time, they pay us in kind, a worn loincloth for 10 workdays. We cannot refuse because we do not have a choice".

— Antislavery Society, Interview with an indigenous man in the Congo

Child slave tradeEdit

The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin.[28] The children are kidnapped or purchased for $20 – $70 each by slavers in poorer states, such as Benin and Togo, and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for $350 each in wealthier oil-rich states, such as Nigeria and Gabon.[29][30][31]

In April 2014, Boko Haram kidnapped 276 female students from Chibok, Borno.[32] More than 50 of them soon escaped, but the remainder have not been released. Instead , the leader of Boko Haram, Abubakar Shekau, who has a reward of $7 million offered by the United States Department of State since June 2013 for information leading to his capture, announced his intention of selling them into slavery.[33]

Ritual slaveryEdit

Ritual servitude (Trokosi) is a practice in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines take human beings, usually young virgin girls in payment for services, or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member—almost always a female.[34] In Ghana and in Togo, it is practiced by the Ewe people in the Volta region, and in Benin it is practiced by the Fon.[35]

Slavery by countryEdit

ChadEdit

The practice of slavery in Chad, as in the Sahel states in general, is an entrenched phenomenon with a long history, going back to the Arab slave trade in the Sahelian kingdoms, and it continues today. As elsewhere in West Africa, the situation reflects an ethnic, racial and religious rift.[36] IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks) of the UN Office for the[37][38] Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs[39][40] reports children being sold to Arab herdsmen in Chad by their parents due to poverty.[41]

CongoEdit

Debt bondage-like slavery is rife in parts of Congo.[42] According to the Global Slavery Index,[43] approximately, over one million people are enslaved in the region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.[44]

EthiopiaEdit

Mahider Bitew, Children's Rights and Protection expert at the Ministry of Women's Affairs,[45][46] says that some remote studies conducted in Dire Dawa, Shashemene, Awassa, and three other towns of the country indicate that the problem of child trafficking is very serious. According to a 2003 study, about one thousand children were trafficked via Dire Dawa to countries of the Middle East. The majority of those children were girls, most of whom were forced to be prostitutes after leaving the country. The International Labour Organization has identified prostitution as the worst form of child labor.[47]

In Ethiopia, children are trafficked into prostitution, to provide cheap or unpaid labor, and to work as domestic servants or beggars.[48][49] The ages of these children are usually between 10 and 18, and their trafficking is from the country to urban centers and from cities to the country.[50] Boys are often expected to work in activities such as herding cattle in rural areas and in the weaving industry in Addis Ababa and other major towns. Girls are expected to take responsibilities for domestic chores, childcare, and looking after the sick, and to work as prostitutes.[51][52]

Ghana, Togo, BeninEdit

In parts of Ghana among the Ewe people, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family.[53] In this instance, the woman does not gain the title of "wife".[54][55] In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998.[56] This system of slavery is sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana), or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, or ritual servitude.[57][58] Young virgin girls are given as slaves in traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests, in addition to providing free labor for the shrine.[59][26]

Many Chinese prostitutes are trafficked to Ghana to service expatriate communities in the country, the enslavement protection Alliance west Africa (EPAWA) investigation reveal.[60] Accra-based non-governmental organization told citi news victims are recruited under the guise of working as restaurant assistants.[61] They are then confined and forced to provide sexual services.[62]

MadagascarEdit

Domestic servitude and forced labor are a continuing problem and increasing as a result of exacerbated poverty in Madagascar, according to a 2012 mission by the United Nations Special Rapporteur for contemporary forms of slavery.[63] The UN Special Rapporteur identified children as particularly vulnerable and was particularly concerned about the enslavement of youth in mining and sexual exploitation or servile marriages.[64]

MaliEdit

Slavery continues to exist in Mali in all ethnic groups of the country but particularly among the Tuareg communities.[65] The French formally abolished slavery in 1905, but many slaves remained with their masters until 1946 when large emancipation activism occurred.[66] The first government of independent Mali tried to end slavery, but these efforts were undermined with the military dictatorship from 1968 until 1991.[67] Slavery persists today with thousands of people still held in servitude; however, an active social movement called Temedt (which won the 2012 Anti-Slavery International[68][69] award) has been pressuring the government for ending slavery in the country.[70][71]

Although the Malian government denies that slavery continues, National Geographic writer Kira Salak claimed in 2002 that slavery was quite conspicuous and that she herself bought and then freed two slaves in Timbuktu.[72] In addition, with the 2012 Tuareg Rebellion,[73] there are reports of ex-slaves being recaptured by their former masters.[71]

MauritaniaEdit

According to the Global Security Index Mauritania has one the highest rates of vulnerability to slavery, ranking at number 22 in the region.[44] A system exists now by which Arab Muslims—the bidanes—own black slaves, the haratines.[74] An estimated 90,000 Mauritanians remain essentially enslaved.[75] The ruling bidanes (the name means literally white-skinned people) are descendants of the Sanhaja Berbers and Beni Hassan Arab tribes who emigrated to northwest Africa and present-day Western Sahara and Mauritania during the Middle Ages.[76] According to some estimates, up to 600,000 Mauritanians, or 20% of the population, are still enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour.[77] Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007.[78] Malouma Messoud, a former Muslim slave has explained her enslavement to a religious leader

"We didn't learn this history in school; we simply grew up within this social hierarchy and lived it. Slaves believe that if they do not obey their masters, they will not go to paradise.[79] They are raised in a social and religious system that everyday reinforces this idea.[80][81] "

In Mauritania, despite slave ownership having been banned by law in 1981, hereditary slavery continues.[82] Moreover, according to Amnesty International:[83][84]

"Not only has the government denied the existence of slavery and failed to respond to cases brought to its attention, it has hampered the activities of organizations which are working on the issue, including by refusing to grant them official recognition".[85]

Imam El Hassan Ould Benyamin of Tayarat in 1997 expressed his views about earlier proclamations ending slavery in his country as follows:

"[it] is contrary to the teachings of the fundamental text of Islamic law, the Quran ... [and] amounts to the expropriation from Muslims of their goods; goods that were acquired legally. The state, if it is Islamic, does not have the right to seize my house, my wife or my slave."[86][87]

Biram Dah Abeid often called the Mauritanian Nelson Mandela, "Le Spartacus Mauritanien",[88] an anti-slavery activists and member of the Haratin ethnic group in Mauritania argues that

there is a kind of informal coalition – Beydanes [the slave owning caste], the state, police, judges, and imams – that prevents slaves from leaving their masters. "Whenever a slave breaks free while IRA [his antislavery group] is not aware and not present, police officers and judges help Arab-Berbers to intimidate the slave until he returns in submission".[89]

Biram, along with 16 other activists, since 11 November 2014, is awaiting trial in Mauritania on multiple charges which include "violating public order" and "offending the authorities".[88]

The story of Biram Dah Abeid, a prominent anti-slavery activist on trial, illustrates the troubled history and continued prevalence of slavery in Mauritania. Yet, Mauritanian human rights campaigners remain hopeful and believe that the trial will ultimately lead to positive long-term changes.[88]

NigerEdit

Niger continues to have significant problems with three forms of contemporary slavery: hereditary slavery, what Anti-Slavery International terms "passive slavery", and servile marriages called wahaya.[90] Because of the continued problem of slavery and pressure from the Timidria organization, Niger became the first country in Western Africa to pass a law specifically criminalizing slavery.[91] Despite the law, slavery persists throughout the different ethnic groups of the country, women are particularly vulnerable, and a 2002 census confirmed the existence of 43,000 slaves and estimated that the total population could be over 870,000 people.[90] In a landmark case in 2008, the Economic Community of West African States[92][93] (ECOWAS) Community Court of Justice found the government of Niger responsible for continuing a woman's slave status as part of a wahaya marriage and awarded her US$21,500.[94]

SudanEdit

Sudan has seen a resurgence of slavery since 1983, associated with the Second Sudanese Civil War.[95] Estimates of abductions range from 14,000 to 200,000 people.[96]

In the Sudan, Christian and animist captives in the civil war are often enslaved, and female prisoners are often used sexually, with their Muslim captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission.[97] According to CBS News, slaves have been sold for $50 per person.[98] In 2001, CNN reported that the Bush administration was under pressure from Congress, including conservative Christians concerned about religious oppression and slavery, to address issues involved in the Sudanese conflict.[99] CNN has also quoted the U.S. State Department's allegations:[100] "The [Sudanese] government's support of slavery and its continued military action which has resulted in numerous deaths are due in part to the victims' religious beliefs."[101]

Jok Madut Jok, professor of History at Loyola Marymount University,[102] states that the abduction of women and children of the south by north is slavery by any definition. The government of Sudan insists that the whole matter is no more than the traditional tribal feuding over resources.[103]

South AfricaEdit

Despite significant efforts made by the South African Government to combat trafficking in persons, the country has been placed on the "Tier 2 Watch List"[104][105] by the US Department of Trafficking in Persons for the past four years.[106] South Africa shares borders with Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland. It has 72 official ports of entry "and a number of unofficial ports of entry where people come in and out without being detected"[107] along its 5 000 km-long land borderline.[108] The problem of porous borders is compounded by the lack of adequately trained employees, resulting in few police officials controlling large portions of the country's coastline.[109]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ KUSI, David K. Africa, One Continent and Many Religions: Towards Interreligious Dialogue in Africa (Thesis). Theological Research Exchange Network (TREN). doi:10.2986/tren.033-0550.
  2. ^ "Brazil and the slave trade, 1827–1839", The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade, Cambridge University Press, pp. 62–87, 1 March 1970, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511759734.005, ISBN 978-0-521-07583-1
  3. ^ Zink, Robert James. (1969). "Uhuru wa Watumwa" as a documentary of the Arab slave trade in East Africa. OCLC 792751768.
  4. ^ Green, Toby (2011), "Rethinking the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade from a Cultural Perspective", The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300–1589, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–28, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139016407.003, ISBN 978-1-139-01640-7
  5. ^ "The Origins of Slaves Leaving West Central Africa", The Atlantic Slave Trade from West Central Africa, 1780–1867, Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–99, 26 June 2017, doi:10.1017/9781316771501.005, ISBN 978-1-316-77150-1
  6. ^ Allen, Richard B. (29 March 2017), "Asian Indentured Labor in the 19th and Early 20th Century Colonial Plantation World", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.33, ISBN 978-0-19-027772-7
  7. ^ "Which Way Africa-Towards Africa-Exit from Colonial Empire?", Africa in the Colonial Ages of Empire, Langaa RPCIG, pp. 443–495, 17 December 2017, doi:10.2307/j.ctvh9vtjn.13, ISBN 978-9956-764-22-8
  8. ^ "The mobilization of local ideas about racial difference has been important in generating, and intensifying, civil wars that have occurred since the end of colonial rule in all of the countries that straddle the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. [...] contemporary conflicts often hearken back to an older history in which blackness could be equated with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and uncivilized banditry." (cover text), Hall, Bruce S., A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  9. ^ "Chad-Mali-Mauritania-Niger-Senegal-Upper Volta: Convention Establishing a Permanent Inter-State Drought Control Committee for the Sahel". International Legal Materials. 13 (3): 537–539. 1974. doi:10.1017/s002078290004568x. ISSN 0020-7829.
  10. ^ de Ste Croix, G E M (1988), "Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour", Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, pp. 19–32, doi:10.4324/9780203401514_chapter_one, ISBN 978-0-203-33181-1 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ "news-from-human-rights-watch-vol-l5-no8a-borderline-slavery-child-trafficking-in-togo-april-2003-84-pp". Human Rights Documents Online. doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-2156-0326.
  12. ^ Traditional Slavery in Niger, Anti-Slavery International, Society's Secretary-General broadcast on the ABC on 9 March 2005 at 9.30 pm.
  13. ^ Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915, author. Up from slavery. ISBN 978-1-77335-133-9. OCLC 1141252700.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Brace, Laura (1 March 2018), "Glimpses of Slavery", The Politics of Slavery, Edinburgh University Press, doi:10.3366/edinburgh/9781474401142.003.0010, ISBN 978-1-4744-0114-2
  15. ^ Allain, Jean (1 January 2015), "When Forced Marriage is Slavery", The Law and Slavery, Brill | Nijhoff, pp. 466–474, doi:10.1163/9789004279896_022, ISBN 978-90-04-27989-6
  16. ^ Bratton, Michael (29 January 2009), "22. Sub-Saharan Africa", Democratization, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/hepl/9780199233021.003.0022, ISBN 978-0-19-923302-1
  17. ^ "Workers' Alliance against Forced Labour and Trafficking - ITUC" (PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  18. ^ a b "Forced Labour". London: Anti-Slavery International. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  19. ^ Ukomadu, Angela; Chile, Nneka (7 August 2019). "West African slavery lives on, 400 years after transatlantic trade began". Rueters. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  20. ^ Africa | Liberia's Taylor appears in court. BBC News (3 July 2007). Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  21. ^ Press | Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  22. ^ News | Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch.org (4 March 2011). Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  23. ^ "Latest North San Diego County headlines". U-T San Diego. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  24. ^ Andersson, Hilary. (11 February 2005) Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Born to be a slave in Niger. BBC News. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  25. ^ Africa | Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law. BBC News (9 August 2007). Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  26. ^ a b Ghana's trapped slaves, By Humphrey Hawksley in eastern Ghana, 8 February 2001. BBC News
  27. ^ Alistair Boddy-Evans African History Expert. "BBC Types of Slavery in Africa". Africanhistory.about.com. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  28. ^ "AFRICA - West Africa's child slave trade". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  29. ^ "9. The Well-Being of Purchased Female Domestic Servants (Mui Tsai) in Hong Kong in the Early Twentieth Century", Children in Slavery through the Ages, Ohio University Press, pp. 152–166, 2009, doi:10.1353/chapter.258114, ISBN 978-0-8214-4339-2
  30. ^ "West is master of slave trade guilt". Theaustralian.news.com.au. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  31. ^ "Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Nigeria". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  32. ^ "NIGERIA: GOVERNMENT STILL FAILING VICTIMS OF BOKO HARAM FOUR YEARS ON FROM CHIBOK". Human Rights Documents Online. doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-9211-20181220.
  33. ^ Nwankpa, Michael; Shekau, Abubakar (1 July 2018), "Boko Haram State (2013–2015)", The Boko Haram Reader, Oxford University Press, pp. 285–288, doi:10.1093/oso/9780190908300.003.0081, ISBN 978-0-19-090830-0
  34. ^ "Female Ritual Servitude | CBE". www.cbeinternational.org. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  35. ^ FAQ About the Form of Slavery Called Trokosi, ECM Publications, 2002, p. 1
  36. ^ Haour, Anne (17 November 2011), "The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations", Slavery in Africa, British Academy, doi:10.5871/bacad/9780197264782.003.0004, ISBN 978-0-19-726478-2
  37. ^ "Figure 4.5. Relatively smaller contributions from non-DAC providers to the UN MPTF Office-administered funds". doi:10.1787/888933247237. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  38. ^ Annan, Kofi A. (Kofi Atta) (2014). We the peoples : a UN for the 21st century. ISBN 978-1-61205-558-9. OCLC 862929007.
  39. ^ Gerhart, Gail M. (2002). "UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs". Foreign Affairs. 81 (5): 197. doi:10.2307/20033282. ISSN 0015-7120. JSTOR 20033282.
  40. ^ United Nations. General Assembly. United Nations. Economic and Social Council. United Nations. Security Council. United Nations. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Policy Development and Studies Branch. (2011). Reference guide : normative developments on the coordination of humanitarian assistance in the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council since the adoption of General Assembly resolution 46/182. United Nations. OCLC 778802331.
  41. ^ "IRIN Africa - CHAD: Children sold into slavery for the price of a calf - Chad - Children - Economy - Governance - Human Rights". IRIN. 21 December 2004. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  42. ^ "Your Phone Was Made By Slaves: A Primer on the Secret Economy". Longreads Blog. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  43. ^ "Index", Modern Slavery, Columbia University Press, pp. 327–342, 31 December 2017, doi:10.7312/kara15846-016, ISBN 978-0-231-52802-3
  44. ^ a b "Africa". Global Slavery Index.
  45. ^ "FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 2014 Ministry of Women�s Affairs Annual Report". Human Rights Documents Online. doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-4027-2014003.
  46. ^ Western Samoa. Ministry of Women's Affairs. (1994). Women in Western Samoa : policy and programme development through the Ministry of Women's Affairs. Rivers Buchan/Wiser Associates. OCLC 48199046.
  47. ^ "International Labour Standards on Child labour". ilo.org. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  48. ^ Glazer, Nona Y. (1984). "Servants to Capital: Unpaid Domestic Labor and Paid Work". Review of Radical Political Economics. 16 (1): 60–87. doi:10.1177/048661348401600106. ISSN 0486-6134. S2CID 154838886.
  49. ^ Jagger, Mick, composer, performer, interviewee. Richards, Keith, 1943- composer, performer., Beggars banquet, OCLC 1084623111CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  50. ^ "Table 5.A.10 Cross-country correlations between answers to questions on job insecurity from different non-official surveys". doi:10.1787/888933606528. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ "Figure 28. Inactive women who cite family commitments (childcare, looking after incapacitated adults, or other family reasons) as the main reason for not looking for work, 2012-13". doi:10.1787/888933157638. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. ^ Roberts, Richard L., and Benjamin N. Lawrance. Trafficking in Slavery’s Wake : Law and the Experience of Women and Children in Africa. Ohio University Press, 2012. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=818158&site=eds-live.
  53. ^ "Slavery in Ghana". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  54. ^ "Adverse Possession. Who May Gain Title. Wife against Husband". Harvard Law Review. 24 (4): 316–317. 1911. doi:10.2307/1324067. ISSN 0017-811X. JSTOR 1324067.
  55. ^ "CONTENTS", Sex Rewarded, Sex Punished, Academic Studies Press, pp. xi–xiv, 31 December 2020, doi:10.1515/9781644693292-toc, ISBN 978-1-64469-329-2
  56. ^ "Benjamin, Jonathan, (Jon), (born 19 Jan. 1963), HM Diplomatic Service; High Commissioner to Ghana and non-resident Ambassador to Togo, Burkina Faso and Benin, since 2014", Who's Who, Oxford University Press, 1 December 2010, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u250548
  57. ^ Venkatachalam, Meera (2015), "Conclusion: Ritual Servitude, Trans-Atlantic Conversations, and Religious Change", Slavery, Memory, and Religion in Southeastern Ghana,c. 1850–Present, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 187–214, doi:10.1017/cbo9781316257852.009, ISBN 978-1-316-25785-2
  58. ^ Mensah, Wisdom Yaw. (2010). Female ritual servitude : the Trokosis in Ghana. Authorhouse. ISBN 978-1-4389-4949-9. OCLC 610001078.
  59. ^ Charles, Gore (26 October 2007), "Priests and Shrines", Art, Performance and Ritual in Benin City, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 47–73, doi:10.3366/edinburgh/9780748633166.003.0004, ISBN 978-0-7486-3316-6
  60. ^ "Vi. Amah in Paid Domestic Service", Peasants, Proletarians and Prostitutes, Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute Singapore, pp. 77–89, 31 December 1986, doi:10.1355/9789814345989-008, ISBN 978-981-4345-98-9
  61. ^ "Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)", SpringerReference, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2011, doi:10.1007/springerreference_308197
  62. ^ LaChance, Nancy; Adda-Balinia, Terence (2017). "Strengthening school-based sexual and reproductive health education and services in Accra, Ghana". doi:10.31899/rh4.1006. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  63. ^ Fudge, Judy; Strauss, Kendra (2017), Kotiswaran, Prabha (ed.), "Migrants, Unfree Labour, and the Legal Construction of Domestic Servitude: Migrant Domestic Workers in the United Kingdom", Revisiting the Law and Governance of Trafficking, Forced Labor and Modern Slavery, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 524–555, doi:10.1017/9781316675809.019, ISBN 978-1-316-67580-9
  64. ^ "Madagascar: "Poverty and impunity have increased contemporary forms of slavery," warns UN Expert". UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  65. ^ Klute, Georg; Lecocq, Baz (1 January 2016), "Separatistische Bestrebungen der Tuareg in Mali", Mali, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, doi:10.30965/9783657786619_008, ISBN 978-3-657-78661-9
  66. ^ Mauxion, Aurelien (2012). "Moving to Stay: Iklan Spatial Strategies Towards Socioeconomic Emancipation in Northern Mali, 1898-1960". The Journal of African History. 53 (2): 195–213. doi:10.1017/s0021853712000394.
  67. ^ "help-bring-justice-and-reunite-families-who-were-victims-of-argentinas-military-dictatorship". Human Rights Documents Online. doi:10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-2714-0049.
  68. ^ "Anti-Slavery International", SpringerReference, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2011, doi:10.1007/springerreference_75797
  69. ^ Anti-Slavery International (1997). Enslaved peoples in the 1990s : indigenous peoples, debt bondage and human rights ; [a report by Anti-Slavery International in collaboration with IWGIA]. Anti-Slavery International. ISBN 0-900918-40-3. OCLC 832978675.
  70. ^ Hahonou, Eric; Pelckmans, Lotte (2011). "West African Antislavery Movements: Citizenship Struggles and the Legacies of Slavery" (PDF). Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für Kritische Afrikastudien (20): 141–162. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013.
  71. ^ a b Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). "Mali conflict puts freedom of 'slave descendants' in peril". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  72. ^ Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade, More; Handwerk, Brian; 5 December 2002.
  73. ^ Stamm, O.; Latscha, U.; Janecek, P.; Campana, A. (15 January 1976). "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 124 (2): 193–195. doi:10.1016/s0002-9378(16)33297-5. ISSN 0002-9378. PMID 2012.
  74. ^ "Figure 1.9. Greece has one of the highest rates of mortality from air pollution". doi:10.1787/888934155421. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  75. ^ "Essays - The Feminist Sexual Ethics Project - Brandeis University". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  76. ^ "IRIN Africa - MAURITANIA: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance - Mauritania - Governance - Human Rights". IRIN. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  77. ^ "BBC World Service - The Abolition season on BBC World Service". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  78. ^ "Africa - Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  79. ^ "Conclusion: Lost in Paradise", Unbelievable, I.B.Tauris, 2014, doi:10.5040/9780755624058.0006, ISBN 978-1-78076-735-2
  80. ^ Greenhill, Anita; Fletcher, Gordon (2013), "11. Life, Death and Everyday Experience of Social Media", Social Media and Religious Change, Berlin, Boston: DE GRUYTER, doi:10.1515/9783110270488.201, ISBN 978-3-11-027048-8
  81. ^ The Johns Hopkins News-letter 'SMIR talk exposes modern slavery' - Brendan Schreiber and Maria Andrawis, 5 December 2003[permanent dead link]
  82. ^ "The last law, in 1981, banned it but failed to criminalise it. However much it is denied, an ancient system of bondage, with slaves passed on from generation to generation, still plainly exists." Steady progress in Mali and Mauritania, The Economist
  83. ^ "List of Amnesty Sections", Amnesty International, Elsevier, 1981, p. 126, doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-028902-1.50016-1, ISBN 978-0-08-028902-1
  84. ^ Amnesty International (2006). Amnesty International. Amnesty International. OCLC 488996561.
  85. ^ "Africa - Slavery: Mauritania's best kept secret". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  86. ^ Segal, p. 206, in "Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora," quoted by Suzy Hansen of Salon.com on 5 April 2001 - "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 March 2007. Retrieved 5 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  87. ^ The book cite is Ronald Segal (2002)
  88. ^ a b c "UNPO: A Look at Mauritania's Troubled History of Slavery". Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  89. ^ OKEOWO, ALEXIS (8 September 2014). "Freedom Fighter". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  90. ^ a b Abdelkader, Galy kadir (2004). "Slavery in Niger:Historical, Legal, and Contemporary Perspectives" (PDF). Anti-Slavery International. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  91. ^ "Slavery in the Western Sudan", Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–18, 28 July 1998, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511584138.003, ISBN 978-0-521-59678-7
  92. ^ Antje C, Berger; Omar Ould D, Hamady (2017), "Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)", Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-923169-0, retrieved 26 August 2020
  93. ^ Economic Community of West African States. (2011). Defense : agreement between the United States of America and the Economic Community of West African States ; effected by exchange of notes at Abuja, January 24 and February 14, 2003. U.S. Dept. of State. OCLC 732871369.
  94. ^ Duffy, Helen (2008). "HadijatouMani Koroua v Niger: Slavery Unveiled by the ECOWAS Court" (PDF). Human Rights Law Review: 1–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2015.
  95. ^ Middle East Quarterly. December 1999, Vol.6: Number 4. John Eibner, "My career redeeming slaves"
  96. ^ "Slavery, Abduction and Forced Servitude in Sudan". US Department of State. 22 May 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  97. ^ Islam and Slavery, Brandeis University
  98. ^ "Curse of Slavery Haunts Sudan". CBS News. 25 January 1999.
  99. ^ "Danforth to be named U.S. envoy to Sudan". CNN. 4 September 2001. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  100. ^ "Figure 2.13. Norway has also experienced job polarisation". doi:10.1787/888934072144. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  101. ^ Labott, Elise (6 September 2000). "U.S. State Department report says 'religious intolerance remains far too common' around world". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  102. ^ "Loyola Marymount University (LMU), African American Studies". African Studies Companion Online. doi:10.1163/_afco_asc_1708.
  103. ^ Jok Madut Jok (2001), p. 3
  104. ^ "Table 2: Watch list mutations and their effects on stability". doi:10.7717/peerj.1674/table-2. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  105. ^ Franks, Quincy. (2018). Criminal Justice. Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-5361-4197-9. OCLC 1050752152.
  106. ^ "Human trafficking in South Africa: 2010 and beyond". 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  107. ^ Saguy, Abigail C. (20 February 2020), "Come Out, Come Out, Wherever You Are", Come Out, Come Out, Whoever You Are, Oxford University Press, pp. 10–29, doi:10.1093/oso/9780190931650.003.0002, ISBN 978-0-19-093165-0
  108. ^ McIntyre, James Alasdair; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth (2008), "Southern Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe)", Public Health Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Low and Middle Income Countries, New York, NY: Springer New York, pp. 289–330, doi:10.1007/978-0-387-72711-0_14, ISBN 978-0-387-72710-3
  109. ^ "A lack of adequately trained engineers". Production Engineer. 62 (1): 46. 1983. doi:10.1049/tpe.1983.0018. ISSN 0032-9851.
  110. ^ Oldfield, John (2011). "Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery". Slavery & Abolition. 32 (2): 309–310. doi:10.1080/0144039x.2011.568235. ISSN 0144-039X. S2CID 144263660.
  111. ^ Levin, Judith (Judith N.), 1956- author. (2004). A timeline of the abolitionist movement. ISBN 0-8239-4537-5. OCLC 54006948.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  112. ^ Reese, Ty M. (29 June 2011), "Slavery in Africa", Atlantic History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0134, ISBN 978-0-19-973041-4
  113. ^ Everett, Susanne. (2006). History of slavery : an illustrated history of the monstrous evil. Chartwell Books, Inc. ISBN 1-55521-768-0. OCLC 966496979.
  114. ^ "Conclusion: Sexual Slavery and the Crucible of Contemporary Japan". The Japanese Comfort Women and Sexual Slavery During the China and Pacific Wars. 2016. doi:10.5040/9781474218740.ch-008. ISBN 9781474218740.
  115. ^ Orabueze, F. O., author. (2015). Society, women and literature in Africa. M & J Grand Orbit Communications Ltd. ISBN 978-978-54215-8-3. OCLC 952793475.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External linksEdit