Skyscraper fire

A skyscraper fire or high-rise fire is a class of structural fire specific to tall buildings. Skyscraper fires are technically challenging for fire departments: they require unusually high degrees of organization and cooperation between participating firefighting units to contain and extinguish. Skyscraper fires are often multiple-alarm fires.

Notable fires in historyEdit

Building Height (m) City Country Date Death(s) Notes
Central Tower 91m[1] San Francisco   United States 1906-04-18 April 18, 1906 ? Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
Merchants Exchange Building 69m[2] San Francisco 1906-04-18 April 18, 1906 ? Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
Old Chronicle Building 95m[3] San Francisco 1906-04-18 April 18, 1906 ? Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
Mutual Bank Building San Francisco 1906-04-18 April 18, 1906 ? Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
Asch Building 48m[4] New York City 1911-03-25 March 25, 1911 146 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
The Sherry-Netherland 171m[5] New York City 1927-04-12 April 12, 1927 0 Occurred during construction
Empire State Building 381m[6] New York City 1945-07-28 July 28, 1945 14 Plane crash
40 Wall Street 283m[7] New York City 1946-05-20 May 20, 1946 5 Plane crash
La Salle Hotel Chicago June 5, 1946 61 Electrical fire likely
Winecoff Hotel 59m[8] Atlanta 1946-12-07 December 7, 1946 119 Deadliest hotel fire in U.S. history
Ronan Point 64m[9] London   United Kingdom 1968-05-16 May 16, 1968 4 Gas explosion caused partial collapse of the highrise.
1 New York Plaza 192m[10] New York City   United States 1970-08-05 August 5, 1970 2
Taeyongak Hotel 72.6m Seoul   South Korea 1971-12-25 December 25, 1971 163 Daeyeonggak Hotel fire, deadliest hotel fire in history
Andraus Building 115m[11] São Paulo   Brazil 1972-02-24 February 24, 1972 16
Rault Tower New Orleans   United States 1972-11-29 November 29, 1972 6
Avianca Building Bogotá   Colombia 1974-07-23 July 23, 1973 4
City-Haus 142m Frankfurt   Germany 1974-02-01 August 23, 1973 0 Occurred during construction
Joelma Building 82.5m São Paulo   Brazil 1974-02-01 February 1, 1974 179–189 Joelma fire
One World Trade Center 417m New York City   United States 1975-02-13 February 13, 1975 0
Campbell Shopping Complex 66m Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 1976-04-08 April 8, 1976 1 Campbell Shopping Complex fire
Bank Bumiputra Kuala Lumpur 1980-11-80 November 4, 1980
MGM Grand Hotel 85.8m Las Vegas   United States 1980-11-21 November 21, 1980 84 MGM Grand fire
Las Vegas Hilton 114m Las Vegas 1981-2-10 February 10, 1981 8 Arson
Torre Santa María Santiago   Chile 1981-3-21 March 21, 1981 11 Occurred when carpet glue ignited during carpet installation.[12]
Al Rasheed Hotel 59.4m Baghdad   Iraq 1982-7-21 July 21, 1982 1 Plane crash-Suicide by F-4 Phantom during Iran-Iraq War
Northwestern National Bank 52.8m Minneapolis   United States 1980-11-21 November 25–26, 1982 0 Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day fire
KOMTAR 248.7m Penang   Malaysia 1983-1-23 January 23, 1983 0
Prudential Tower 276m Boston   United States 1983-1-23 January 2, 1986 0 A nine-alarm fire in the building spread because of the lack of a sprinkler system.[13][14]
Dupont Plaza Hotel Condado, Puerto Rico   United States 1986-12-31 December 31, 1986 97 Dupont Plaza Hotel arson
Schomburg Plaza New York City   United States 1987-03-22 March 22, 1987 7
Hotel International 85m Zurich    Switzerland 1988-02-14 February 14, 1988 6 Deadliest high-rise fire in Swiss history
First Interstate Tower 261.52m Los Angeles   United States 1988-05-04 May 4, 1988 1 First Interstate Tower fire
Peachtree 25th Building 33m Atlanta 1989-06-30 June 30, 1989 1
One Meridian Plaza 150m Philadelphia 1991-02-23 February 23–24, 1991 3 Occurred when rags ignited, fire spread uncontrollably after all fire protection systems failed.[15] Later torn down.
UNITIC Twin Towers 105.5m Sarajevo   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-05-28 May 28, 1992 Burned after being repeatedly hit by Serbian incendiary tank shells.
Executive Council Building 69.3m Sarajevo 1992-05-28 May 28, 1992 Burned after being repeatedly hit by Serbian incendiary tank shells.
Groeneveen and Kruitberg 33m Amsterdam   Netherlands 1992-10-04 October 4, 1992 43 El Al Flight 1862 plane crash, Partial collapse
One World Trade Center 417m New York City   United States 1993-02-26 February 26, 1993 6 Bombing which also resulted in 1,042 smoke related injuries
Stratosphere Tower 350.2m Las Vegas 1993-08-30 August 30, 1993 0 Occurred during construction
White House (Moscow) Moscow   Russia 1993-10-08 October 8, 1993 187 Caught fire from tank shelling during the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis
Hotel Olympik 73m Prague   Czech Republic 1995-05-26 May 25, 1995 8
Tower 42 183m London   United Kingdom 1996-1-17 January 17, 1996 0 Occurred during refurbishment
Garley building 52.8m Hong Kong   Hong Kong 1996-11-20 November 20, 1996 41 1996 Garley Building fire
Ušće Tower 115m Belgrade   Serbia and Montenegro 1999-04-21 April 21, 1999 0 Struck by NATO air strikes during the Kosovo War setting the upper floors on fire.
Immigration Tower 181m Hong Kong   Hong Kong 2000-08-02 August 2, 2000 2 Arson
Ostankino Tower 540.1m Moscow   Russia 2000-08-27 August 27, 2000 3 Tallest structure in Europe
1 and 2 World Trade Center 417m / 415.1m New York City   United States 2001-09-11 September 11, 2001 2312 Plane crashes in the September 11 attacks, causing full structural collapse.
7 World Trade Center 190m New York City 2001-09-11 September 11, 2001 0 Full structural collapse caused by debris from the collapse of Building 1 (North tower) of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks.
90 West Street 98.76m New York City 2001-09-11 September 11, 2001 2 Caused by debris from the collapse of Building 2 (South Tower) of the World Trade Center: September 11 attacks
130 Cedar Street 50m New York City 2001-09-11 September 11, 2001 0 Caused by debris from the collapse of Building 2 (South Tower) of the World Trade Center: September 11 attacks
Pirelli Tower 127m Milan   Italy 2002-04-18 April 18, 2002 3 Plane crash
Cook County Administration Building Chicago   United States 2003-10-17 October 17, 2003 6 Seven other seriously injured, fire thought to have been arson[16][17]
Al Rasheed Hotel 59.4m Baghdad   Iraq 2003-12-26 December 26, 2003 1 Twenty-eight 68 mm and 85 mm Katyusha rockets were fired at and struck the hotel
Parque Central Complex east tower 255m Caracas   Venezuela 2004-10-17 October 17, 2004 0 Damage to 34th-44th floors
LaSalle National Bank Building 163.1m Chicago   United States 2004-12-07 December 7, 2004 0 25 injured[18]
Harrow Court 56.1m Hertfordshire   United Kingdom 2005-02-02 February 2, 2005 3 Harrow Court fire
Windsor Tower 106m Madrid   Spain 2005-02-12 February 12, 2005 0 Partially collapsed; subsequently demolished
Tohid Town Residential 33m Tehran   Iran 2005-12-06 December 6, 2005 106 Plane crash: 2005 Iranian Air Force C-130 crash
Transport Tower 112.2m Astana   Kazakhstan 2006-05-30 May 30, 2006 0 Fire destroyed upper floors of 34-story government building
Belaire Apartments 156m New York City   United States 2006-10-11 October 11, 2006 2 Plane crash
Fortune Tower Dubai   United Arab Emirates 2007-01-18 January 18, 2007 4 Occurred during construction, 57 injured
Shanghai World Financial Center 494.3m Shanghai   China 2007-08-14 August 14, 2007 0 Occurred on 40th floor during construction
Deutsche Bank Building 157.6m New York City   United States 2007-08-18 August 18, 2007 2 Occurred during dismantling, demolished due to damage from the September 11 attacks
The Water Club 125.4m Atlantic City 2007-09-23 September 23, 2007 0 Occurred during construction.[19]
Monte Carlo Resort and Casino 110m Las Vegas 2008-01-25 January 25, 2008 0 Fire affecting top six floors
Abraj Al Bait Towers 601m Mecca   Saudi Arabia 2008-10-28 October 28, 2008 0 Occurred during construction; fire consumed nine floors
Beijing Television Cultural Center 159m Beijing   China 2009-02-09 February 9, 2009 1 Beijing Television Cultural Center fire
Bashundhara City Tower 62.7m Dhaka   Bangladesh 2009-03-13 March 13, 2009 4
Abraj Al Bait Towers Mecca   Saudi Arabia 2009-05-01 May 1, 2009 0 Occurred during construction
Lakanal House 46.2m London   United Kingdom 2009-07-03 July 3, 2009 6 Lakanal House fire
Wooshin Golden Suites Busan   South Korea 2010-09-01 September 1, 2010 0 Wooshin Golden Suites fire
Unnamed high-rise apartment block 85m Shanghai   China 2010-11-15 November 15, 2010 58 Occurred during renovation; 2010 Shanghai fire
Dynasty Wanxin building complex Towers A and B (Tower C was unaffected) Shenyang 2011-02-03 February 3, 2011 0 Started from fireworks during Chinese New Year Celebrations.[20]
Unnamed Highrise Hanoi   Vietnam 2011-12-16 December 15, 2011 0 Fire occurred during construction, 11 workers injured.[21]
Uncompleted high rise block Kuala Lumpur   Malaysia 2012-01-18 January 18, 2012 0 [22]
Fico Place Bangkok   Thailand 2012-03-03 March 3, 2012 0 Two firemen injured[23]
Federation Tower (East Tower) 450m Moscow   Russia 2012-04-2 April 2, 2012 0 Occurred while the building was under construction
Al Tayer Tower Sharjah   United Arab Emirates 2012-04-28 April 28, 2012 0 [24]
Polat Tower Residence 138.6m Istanbul   Turkey 2012-07-17 July 17, 2012 0 [25]
Tamweel Tower 160m Dubai   United Arab Emirates 2012-11-18 November 18, 2012 0 [26]
Oko Tower 1 354.1m Moscow   Russia 2013-01-25 January 25, 2013 0 Fire occurred on 24th floor during construction, one worker was injured.[27]
Torre Ejecutiva Pemex Tower 214m Mexico City   Mexico 2013-01-31 January 31, 2013 33 Gas explosion affecting the main building's 14 story annex Torre Ejecutiva Pemex explosion
Grozny-City Towers 150m Grozny   Russia 2013-04-03 April 3, 2013 0 [citation needed]
Jianye Mansion Guangzhou   China 2013-04-03 December 15, 2013 0 [28]
The Strand New York City   United States 2014-01-05 January 5, 2014 1 [29]
One57 410m New York City   United States 2015-03-14 March 15, 2014 0 Fire broke out in the loading dock, then spread to the courtyard and a neighboring property.
Lotus Park building Mumbai   India 2014-07-18 July 18, 2014 1 [30]
Lacrosse Apartments Melbourne   Australia 2014-11-25 November 25, 2014 0 Fire started on an 8th floor balcony and rapidly spread up the facade cladding.[31]
Wedgwood Apartments Castle Hills, Texas   United States 2014-12-28 December 28, 2014 5 [32]
The Marina Torch 336.8m Dubai   United Arab Emirates 2015-02-21 February 21, 2015 0 At least 7 people were injured.
Wisma Kosgoro Jakarta   Indonesia 2015-03-10 March 10, 2015 0 Fire destroyed floors 16–20.[33]
Unnamed Highrise Baku   Azerbaijan 2015-05-19 May 19, 2015 16 See 2015 Baku residence building fire
Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas 184m Las Vegas   United States 2015-07-25 July 25, 2015 0 Fire occurred on the pool deck fueled by cabanas and artificial trees; two people were treated for smoke inhalation.[34]
Unnamed Residential Tower Sharjah   United Arab Emirates 2015-10-01 October 1, 2015 0 Fire burned building facade, 19 treated for smoke inhalation.[35]
John Hancock Center 457m Chicago   United States 2015-11-21 November 21, 2015 0 A two-alarm fire broke out on the 50th floor. Five injured.[36]
The Address Downtown Dubai 306.2m Dubai   United Arab Emirates 2015-12-31 December 31, 2015 1 Occurred on New Year's Eve, 14 injured.[37]
Plasco Building 42m Tehran   Iran 2017-01-19 January 19, 2017 21 The 17-story building collapsed after a fire started on the ninth floor. Seventy injured.[38]
Grenfell Tower 79.2m London   United Kingdom 2017-06-14 June 14, 2017 72 The 24-storey tower block fire spread from the second floor to the top of the building.[39] See Grenfell Tower fire
Pamchal Chitgar Building 66m Tehran   Iran 2017-06-14 June 14, 2017 0 The residential 20-storey tower - four injured
Marco Polo Apartments 118.8m Honolulu   United States 2017-07-14 July 14, 2017 3 Blaze started on the 26th floor of the 36-story apartments. Fire quickly spread to three more floors, making it a 5-alarm fire. This is the deadliest high-rise fire in Hawaii's history.
Rotana Hotel Building 66m Mashhad   Iran 2017-07-22 July 22, 2017 0 Under construction 20-storey hotel
The Marina Torch 336.8m Dubai   United Arab Emirates 2017-08-04 August 4, 2017 0
Trump Tower 202m New York City   United States 2018-04-30 April 7, 2018 1 6 firefighters injured
Trump International Hotel and Tower (Baku) 108.9m Baku   Azerbaijan 2018-04-30 April 28, 2018 0 Involved two separate fires the same day
Wilton Paes de Almeida Building 79.2m São Paulo   Brazil 2018-04-30 April 30, 2018 1 Building collapsed shortly after blaze
Paramis Building 69.3m Tehran   Iran 2018-07-22 July 22, 2018 0 21-storey residential building
Bank of Lisbon building 108m Johannesburg   South Africa 2018-09-06 September 6, 2018 3 Building demolished/Imploded in 24 Nov 2019
FR Tower Dhaka   Bangladesh 2019-03-28 March 28, 2019 25
AXA Equitable Center 229.3m New York City   United States 2019-06-10 June 10, 2019 1 2019 New York City helicopter crash
Unnamed Highrise 47.9m Prešov   Slovakia 2019-12-06 December 6, 2019 8 40 injuries[40]
Abbco Tower United Arab Emirates   United Arab Emirates 2020-05-05 May 5, 2020 1 25 injuries, likely started by a discarded cigarette or shisha coals[41]
Unnamed Highrise 42.9m Czech Republic   Czech Republic 2020-08-08 August 9, 2020 11 Bohumín arson attack
Ulsan Samhwan Art Nouveau apartment building 108.9m South Korea   South Korea 2020-10-09 October 8, 2020 0 92 residents and 1 firefighter injured. Ulsan Samhwan Art Nouveau Fire [ko][42]
Torre dei Moro 60m Milan   Italy 2021-08-29 August 29, 2021 0 Fire event similar to the Grenfell Tower disaster[43]
Cheng Chung Cheng Building Kaohsiung   Taiwan 2021-10-14 October 14, 2021 46 2021 Kaohsiung tower fire

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Central Tower, San Francisco". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  2. ^ "The Merchants Exchange, San Francisco". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  3. ^ "Ritz-Carlton Club and Residences, San Francisco". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  4. ^ "Brown Building, NYU, New York City". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  5. ^ "Hotel Sherry-Netherland, New York City". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  6. ^ "Empire State Building". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  7. ^ "The Trump Building". The Skyscraper Center. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  8. ^ "Ellis Hotel, Atlanta". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  9. ^ Griffiths, Hugh; Pugsley, Alfred; Saunders, Owen (14 October 1968). Report of the inquiry into the collapse of flats at Ronan Point, Canning Town. London: HMSO. pp. 10.
  10. ^ "One New York Plaza". Wired New York. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  11. ^ "Andraus, São Paulo". EMPORIS. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  12. ^ "30 años del incendio de la Torre Santa María: testigos recuerdan la tragedia | Santiago | La Tercera Edición Impresa". Diario.latercera.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  13. ^ "A nine-alarm fire broke out in the 52-story Prudential".
  14. ^ "Archives". Los Angeles Times.
  15. ^ "30 years ago: 3 Philadelphia firefighters killed in One Meridian Plaza fire". 6abc Action News. 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-08-12. |first= missing |last= (help)
  16. ^ "6 die in Loop blaze". Chicago Tribune. 2003-10-18. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  17. ^ "Loop fire deaths ruled homicides". Chicago Tribune. 2004-01-22. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  18. ^ "Loop high-rise fire injures 25". Chicago Tribune. 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  19. ^ "Fire damages tower under construction at Borgata casino". New York Daily News. 2007-09-23. Retrieved 2017-06-18.
  20. ^ "Fireworks blaze destroys 5-star hotel in China - World news - Asia-Pacific - China". NBC News. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  21. ^ "Skyscraper on fire, 11 injured in Vietnam capital | Society | Thanh Nien Daily". Thanhniennews.com. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  22. ^ Daniel, Steven (2012-01-19). "Towering Inferno in KL". The Star. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
  23. ^ "Fico blaze prompts Bangkok City Hall sprinkler initiative | Bangkok". Bangkok.coconuts.co. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  24. ^ Jacob, Allen; Abdullah, Afkar (2012-04-29). "Towering Inferno in Sharjah". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
  25. ^ "Large fire sweeps through Istanbul 42-storey building - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  26. ^ "JLT's Tamweel Tower fire: Residents recount waking up to nightmare - Emirates 24|7". Emirates247.com. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  27. ^ Reuters Editorial (2013-01-25). "Blaze hits showcase skyscraper in Moscow". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ "Fire in Luxury High-Rise Kills One and Displaces Dozens in Hell's Kitchen". The New York Times. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  30. ^ "Mumbai fire: Fireman killed in Mumbai high rise blaze | Latest News & Gossip on Popular Trends at India.com". Us.india.com. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  31. ^ Toscano, Nick; Spooner, Rania (2015-04-28). "Docklands apartment tower fire fuelled by material in building's walls, says MFB". The Age. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
  32. ^ "Five killed in blaze at senior apartments in San Antonio". CBS News. 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  33. ^ The Jakarta Post (2015-03-10). "Wisma Kosgoro fire subdued, short circuiting possible cause". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  34. ^ "Pool Fire at Cosmopolitan Hotel of Las Vegas Fueled by Cabanas, Artificial Plants, Fire Dept. Says - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  35. ^ "5 Injured in 2-Alarm Fire at John Hancock Building". NBC Chicago. 2015-11-22. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  36. ^ Fay Abuelgasim (2015-10-01). "High-rise tower catches fire in Emirati city of Sharjah". Yahoo.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  37. ^ "Fire engulfs Dubai hotel ahead of New Year celebrations - BBC News". BBC News. January 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
  38. ^ "Tehran fire: Twenty firemen killed as high-rise collapses". BBC. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  39. ^ "No final Grenfell death toll 'this year'". BBC News. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  40. ^ "ONLINE: VÝBUCH PLYNU V PREŠOVE: Hlásia mŕtvych a ranených". teraz.sk. 2019-12-06. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  41. ^ "Sharjah fire probable cause found, 150 buildings to have cladding changed - Gulf News". gulfnews.com. 2020-05-10. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
  42. ^ "Dozens hospitalized after fire engulfs 33-story apartment building in South Korea - CNN". https://www.cnn.com/. 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2020-10-09. External link in |publisher= (help)
  43. ^ "Milan tower block fire 'reminiscent' of Grenfell disaster, officials say". https://www.euronews.com/. 2021-08-30. Retrieved 2021-10-16. External link in |publisher= (help)

External linksEdit