Sixth Seimas of Lithuania

The Sixth Seimas of Lithuania was the first parliament (Seimas) elected in Lithuania after it restored independence on 11 March 1990. Elections took place on 25 October 1992, with the second round on 15 November. In a surprisingly decisive outcome, the elections were won by Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (LDDP), with 73 seats. The result reflected widespread dissatisfaction with the economic situation and the policies of the ruling Sąjūdis political movement in the preceding Supreme Council of Lithuania.

Sixth Seimas of Lithuania
Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania Seventh Seimas of Lithuania
Overview
Legislative bodySeimas
Jurisdiction Lithuania
Term1992—1996

The Sixth Seimas commenced its work on 25 November 1992 and served a four-year term, with the last session on 19 November 1996. Algirdas Brazauskas, the leader of LDDP, became the Speaker of the Seimas, before assuming the role of the President of Lithuania. He was succeeded as the Speaker by his party colleague Česlovas Juršėnas, who served for the rest of the term.

Three LDDP-led governments changed during the term of the Sixth Seimas. The government of Bronislovas Lubys, an independent business manager, served for a short period before the presidential election in 1993. The government of Adolfas Šleževičius was in power for most of the term, but the Prime Minister was forced out after a financial scandal in December 1995. Laurynas Stankevičius led the government for the rest of the term.

The Sixth Seimas adopted a number of laws, mostly related to agricultural reform, implementation of the Constitution of Lithuania and the introduction of Litas as the national currency. Supervision of financial markets was enhanced after a number of early financial institutions collapsed and other financial scandals came to light in 1994. On the other hand, the slow pace of market reforms, failure to restore the ownership of confiscated private property and weak efforts to fight corruption were criticized by the opposition. The chaotic process of privatization of public assets also came under criticism for allowing well-connected individuals and groups to take control of state enterprises.

ElectionsEdit

In the elections in 1992, 70 members of the parliament were elected on proportional party lists and 71 in single member constituencies. Elections took place on 25 October 1992. In those constituencies where no candidate won outright on 25 October, a run-off was held on 15 November.[1]: 336–341 

The main challenger to the ruling Sąjūdis nationalist movement, which had controlled the Supreme Council since February 1990 and spearheaded the move to independence, was the Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (LDDP). In the run-up to the elections, Sąjūdis portrayed the opposing political groups as communist and reactionary, opposed to independence and democracy. The LDDP declared their commitment to maintaining foreign policy goals, including joining Council of Europe and agreements with other international organizations, while also promising friendlier relations and better trade with Russia.[1]: 336–341 

The result was a victory for the LDDP, which won 73 seats. Analysts attributed the surprisingly decisive victory to support from farmers and the Russian and Polish minorities, as well as widespread dissatisfaction with the economic situation and the policies of the ruling Sąjūdis political movement, which only managed to win 30 seats.[1]: 336–341 [2]

Party Abbr. PR votes % Seats
PR Constituency Total
Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania LDDP 817,331 44.0 36 37 73
Sąjūdis LPS 393,500 21.2 17 11 30
Citizens' Charter of the Republic of Lithuania LRPCH 2
Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party LKDP 234,368 12.6 10 8 18
Lithuanian Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees PKTS 2
Lithuanian Democratic Party DP 0
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania LSDP 112,410 6.0 5 3 8
Lithuanian Christian Democratic Union LKDS 66,027 3.6 0 1 1
Young Lithuania 0 0
Lithuanian Centre Movement LCJ 46,908 2.2 0 2 2
Association of Poles in Lithuania LLS 39,772 2.1 2 2 4
Lithuanian Nationalist Union LTS 36,916 2.0 0 3 3
Independence Party NP 1 1
Liberal Union of Lithuania 28,091 1.5 0 0 0
Lithuanian Liberty League 22,034 1.2 0 0 0
National Progress Movement 19,835 1.1 0 0 0
Moderates Movement 13,002 0.7 0 0 0
Socio-Political Movement for Social Justice 9,730 0.5 0 0 0
Lithuanian Liberty Union 7,760 0.42 0 0 0
Lithuanian Movement "Chernobyl" 4,827 0.3 0 0 0
Lithuanian Commonwealth 4,159 0.22 0 0 0
Union of Lithuania's Patriots 1,904 0.1 0 0 0
Independents 1 1
Invalid/blank votes 59,453
Total 1,919,027 100 70 71 141
Registered voters/turnout 2,549,952 75.3

ActivitiesEdit

Speaker of the Seimas
Algirdas Brazauskas (LDDP)
25 November 1992 - 25 February 1993
Česlovas Juršėnas (LDDP)
25 February 1993 – 25 November 1996

The newly elected Sixth Seimas first gathered on 25 November 1992. In what was to become a procedural tradition, the first session was presided over by the oldest member of the parliament – Juozas Bulavas. As the new parliament lacked clear procedures governing its work (the Statute of Seimas was only adopted on 26 February 1994), it was decided to follow the regulations of the preceding Supreme Council of Lithuania.[1]: 346–347 

Algirdas Brazauskas was elected as the first Speaker of the Sixth Seimas, supported by 81 of the parliament members. Brazauskas only acted in this capacity for less than a day – as soon as Seimas adopted the necessary legal framework, he assumed the position of acting President of Lithuania, in accordance with the constitution.[3] His deputy, Česlovas Juršėnas became the acting Speaker of the Parliament. After the presidential election early the following year, Brazauskas became the first post-independence President of Lithuania, resigned from the Seimas and Juršėnas was elected as the Speaker for the remainder of the term.

Algirdas Brazauskas proposed Bronislovas Lubys, the managing director of “Azotas” (later Achema), as the Prime Minister of the fifth government. His candidacy was approved by the parliament with 87 votes in favor. It was understood that the government was to be short-lived, as it would have to return its mandate after the presidential elections early in 1993.[1]: 367  The government included only three members of LDDP, while nine ministers retained their positions from the previous Sąjūdis-led government.[4] In late 1992 and early 1993 the Seimas adopted the laws implementing the position of the President of Lithuania and governing the elections.

After the presidential elections, Brazauskas put forward economist and businessman Adolfas Šleževičius as the Prime Minister of the sixth government. His candidacy was approved by the Seimas and the government started their work on 16 March 1993, with the stated priorities of creating the foundations for competitive market economy and improving social safety net.[4]

In order to secure monetary stability and control the inflation, Litas was introduced as the national currency of Lithuania, with the circulation starting on 25 June 1993. In 1994, it was pegged to the US Dollar at the rate of 4:1. The introduction of the currency did not soften the growing tensions between the Government, the Seimas and the Bank of Lithuania, which was criticized for its commercial activities and poor supervision of commercial banks. On 10 March 1993, the parliament accepted the resignation of bank's chairman, Vilius Baldišius, replacing him with Romualdas Visokavičius two weeks later. After the Commission for Investigating Financial Crimes, established by the Seimas, uncovered irregularities and illegal transactions in the bank, the Seimas expressed no-confidence in Visokavičius on 19 October 1993, forcing him out and replacing him with Kazimieras Ratkevičius.[1]: 370–371 

Failure to supervise the financial sector, at that point dominated by weak banks and outright financial pyramids that wiped out the savings of a substantial part of the population,[1]: 352  was cited by the opposition as one of the reasons for its proposal to express no-confidence in the Government in June 1994, the first such proposal in post-independence Lithuania. Nevertheless, the government survived this and another interpellation on 31 October 1995. The situation changed after the collapse of two commercial banks in December 1995. It emerged that Prime Minister Šleževičius had withdrawn his savings from one of the two banks just days before its collapse. After refusing to resign, he was forced out by the Seimas in a secret-ballot vote on 19 December 1995, with 94 members supporting his ousting. Laurynas Stankevičius, a minister in the Šleževičius cabinet, was approved by the Seimas on 15 February 1996 as the Prime Minister of the seventh government and served until the end of the term of the Seimas.[1]: 372–373 

Almost half of all the laws adopted during the period of the Sixth Seimas were related to agricultural reform, implementation of the Constitution of Lithuania and the introduction of Litas as the national currency.[5] Among other important decisions, the Seimas adopted a structural reform of the judiciary and set up the Constitutional Court. The taxation system was reformed, partly in response to budget deficits that the Sixth Seimas never managed to close, and the Value Added Tax introduced.[1]: 411  Dual-layered local government was introduced, with municipal and county administrations sharing the responsibility.[1]: 383–387  Municipal administrations took over functions previously held by powiats, while county administrations took over functions previously held by the central government.

On the other hand, the opposition criticized the successive governments and the ruling majority for the slow pace of market reforms, failure to restore the ownership of confiscated private property and weak efforts to fight corruption.

The privatization program, which had been started already in 1990, was initially criticized by the newly elected parliamentary majority, but soon continued. In a chaotic process, the laws governing privatization were reviewed and changed constantly, but still had loopholes in them that allowed well-connected individuals and financial groups to assume control of government property at fire-sale prices. The second stage of privatization started in July 1995 with Seimas adopting the new Law on Privatization of Government and Municipal Property. The new law attempted to eliminate many of the weaknesses in the privatization process – assets could now be sold only for cash, discounts for employees were eliminated and equal participation rights were granted to local and foreign investors. However, the new law did not meet the expectations and the privatization process remained inefficient and prone to corruption.[1]: 395–397 

The two largest powers in the Sixth Seimas had vastly different views on how the land reform should take place. Sąjūdis (and Homeland Union that emerged from it) focused on returning the agricultural land to those that had lost it in the waves of Soviet collectivization and implemented it as a policy when in power before 1992. LDDP, on the other hand, prioritized maintaining the existing levels of production, which meant ensuring that the land stays in the hands of those who would work it most efficiently. Once in power, LDDP introduced changes to the Law on Land Reform, slowing down the process of restitution and limiting its scope.[1]: 403 

In foreign policy, the Sixth Seimas maintained a pro-European stance, despite Sąjūdis warning the electorate that the success of LDDP would inevitably orient Lithuania towards Russia. Instead, the LDDP-led Sixth Seimas proclaimed the continuity of the previous foreign policy. The last of Russian military forces left Lithuania in 1993. Lithuania soon joined the Council of Europe, while maintaining its long-term goals of joining NATO and European Union. Application to NATO for possible membership has been sent in 1994, application to EU has been sent one year later[1]: 425–426 [6]

CompositionEdit

LeadershipEdit

The board of the Seimas consisted of the Speaker of the Seimas, his deputies and the chancellor of the Seimas. The functions assigned to these positions and the procedures for their appointment evolved during the term.

Speaker of the Seimas
Name Party Term
Algirdas Brazauskas LDDP 25 November 1992[3] - 25 February 1993
Česlovas Juršėnas LDDP 25 November 1992[3] - 25 February 1993
(Acting)
25 February 1993[7] - 25 November 1996
Deputy Speakers of the Seimas
Name Party Term
Česlovas Juršėnas LDDP 25 November 1992[3] - 25 February 1993
Aloyzas Sakalas LSDP 15 December 1992[8] - 17 June 1993
(Acting)
17 June 1993[9] - 25 November 1996
Egidijus Bičkauskas LCJ 15 December 1992[8] - 17 June 1993
(Acting)
17 June 1993[9] - 25 November 1996
Juozas Bernatonis LDDP 17 June 1993[9] - 25 November 1996
Chancellor of the Seimas
Name Party Term
Neris Germanas LDDP 17 June 1993[9] - 29 October 1996
Juozas Bernatonis LDDP 5 November 1996[10] - 25 November 1996
(Acting)

Parliamentary groupsEdit

On the second day of the term, 26 November 1992, the following parliamentary groups were registered: Christian Democrats, Sąjūdis, Citizen Charter, Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania, Social Democrats of Lithuania. While politically aligned, Christian Democrats, Sąjūdis and Citizen Charter formed three separate political groups in the Seimas in order to secure more seats in parliamentary committees. Nevertheless, the alignment fractured, as the Political Prisoners and Deportees and the Democratic Party left the political group of Christian Democrats, while only 23 of the 30 members of Sąjūdis and Citizen Charter joined the parliamentary group of Homeland Union-Lithuanian Conservatives.[1]: 353 

The opposition to the government in the Sixth Seimas was twofold: Homeland Union-Lithuanian Conservatives led the radical opposition, relentlessly criticizing the government, while the Social Democrats and the Centre Union formed the moderate opposition. During the term there were several cases of departures or expulsions from both the ruling political group of the Democratic Labour Party and the opposition political groups. However, due to the vast gulf between the ruling and opposition parties, there were few defections across ideological borders.[1]: 354 

The following parliamentary groups were active at the end of the term.[11]

 
Name Abbr. Members
Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania LDDPF 71
Homeland Union - Conservatives TSKF 23
Christian Democrats KDF 12
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania LSDPF 7
Lithuanian Nationalist Union LTSF 4
Association of Poles in Lithuania LLSF 4
Democratic Party DPF 3
Freedom of Political Prisoners and Deportees PKTLF 5
Others MSNG 8
Vacant seats 4

CommitteesEdit

Parliamentary committees are formed to consider draft legislation and can explore and clarify other issues in their area of competence. Eleven committees were active during the Sixth Seimas.[12]

Committees of the Seimas
Agriculture Budget and Finance Economy
Environment National Security Health, Social Security and Labor
Education, Science and Culture Foreign affairs State reforms and municipalities
State and Law Human and citizen rights and minority affairs

CommissionsEdit

Permanent of temporary parliamentary commissions are formed to work on a particular question or issue assigned to them by the Seimas.

Permanent commission active during the term of the Sixth Seimas were Ethics, Administration and Petition commissions. Of particular interest in the Sixth Seimas was the Commission for Investigating Financial Crimes, established by the Seimas in 1993 and headed by parliament member Virgilijus Vladislovas Bulovas (later - by Vytautas Juškus). The commission worked to identify loopholes in existing laws that allowed officials and well-connected individuals to take possession of government property and investigated corruption by government officials. The commission also dealt with numerous financial scandals that took place during the term, particularly the failure of several commercial banks at the end of 1995.[1]: 357–358 

Temporary commissions were created to investigate ad-hoc questions. During the term of the Sixth Seimas these questions included the activities of commercial banks, the activities of the House of Signatories, and the decisions of the previous government of Gediminas Vagnorius.[1]: 359 

MembersEdit

A total of 147 members served on the Sixth Seimas,[13] including 137 men and 10 women.[14] The vast majority of Seimas members were ethnic Lithuanians. Russian and Polish ethnic minorities, each constituting around 6% of the population in Lithuania, were represented by 3 and 6 members, respectively.[15]

Parliament member Constituency Electoral list Parliamentary group
Zenonas Petras Adomaitis 41 Kelmės LDDP LDDPF
Albinas Albertynas 62 Jurbarko LDDP LDDPF
Vilija Aleknaitė-Abramikienė Nationwide LPS TSKF
Leonas Alesionka Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Nijolė Ambrazaitytė 9 Lazdynų LRPCH TSKF
Laima Andrikienė Nationwide LPS TSKF
Vytenis Andriukaitis Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Jonas Algirdas Antanaitis
(From 14 October 1995)
Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Kazimieras Antanavičius 31 Gargždų LSDP LSDPF, MSNG
Vytautas Arbačiauskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Vytautas Astrauskas 3 Antakalnio LDDP LDDPF
Arvydas Bajoras 63 Suvalkijos LDDP LDDPF
Alvydas Baležentis 71 Lazdijų-Druskininkų LTS LTSF
Juozas Baranauskas 39 Akmenės -Joniškio LDDP LDDPF
Antanas Baskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF, LSDPF
Juozas Bastys
(Until 8 October 1994)
Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Julius Beinortas 28 Aukštaitijos LKDP KDF
Aleksandras Bendinskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Juozas Bernatonis Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Egidijus Bičkauskas 7 Justiniškių LCJ MSNG
Romualdas Ignas Bloškys Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Kazys Bobelis 29 Marijampolės LKDS MSNG
Vytautas Bogušis Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP KDF
Algirdas Brazauskas
(Until 25 February 1993)
59 Kaišiadorių LDDP LDDPF
Vanda Briedienė Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP PKTLF
Vytautas Bubnys 67 Prienų LDDP LDDPF, MSNG
Antanas Būdvytis Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Vytautas Algimantas Buinevičius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Juozas Bulavas
(Until 20 July 1995)
Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Virgilijus Vladislovas Bulovas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Sigita Burbienė 6 Šeškinės LDDP LDDPF
Vladas Butėnas 32 Šilutės LDDP LDDPF
Medardas Čobotas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP KDF
Rimantas Dagys Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Kęstutis Dirgėla 19 Danės LPS TSKF
Juozas Dringelis Nationwide LPS TSKF
Arūnas Eigirdas
(Until 13 April 1993)
Nationwide LPS TSKF
Vytautas Einoris
(From 25 March 1995)
59 Kaišiadorių LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Endriukaitis 64 Šakių
Nationwide[Note 1]
LPS MSNG
Balys Gajauskas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP PKTLF
Kęstutis Gaška 70 Varėnos-Eišiškių LDDP LDDPF, MSNG
Neris Germanas
(Until 29 October 1996)
23 Aušros LDDP LDDPF
Bronislavas Genzelis 1 Naujamiesčio LDDP LDDPF
Alfonsas Giedraitis Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Povilas Gylys 51 Utenos LDDP LDDPF
Petras Giniotas 21 Marių LPS LPS, KDF
Algimantas Antanas Greimas 68 Vilkaviškio LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Gricius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Romualda Hofertienė
(Until 13 April 1993)
(From 15 July 1993)
20 Baltijos
Nationwide[Note 1]
LPS TSKF
Arvydas Ivaškevičius 25 Dainų LDDP LDDPF
Bronislovas Jagminas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Povilas Jakučionis Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP PKTLF
Juozas Janonis
(Until 13 April 1993)
Nationwide LPS TSKF
Egidijus Jarašiūnas
(Until 19 March 1996)
26 Nevėžio LPS TSKF
Vladimir Jarmolenko 16 Dainavos LPS TSKF
Leonardas Kęstutis Jaskelevičius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Gema Jurkūnaitė Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Česlovas Juršėnas 53 Ignalinos-Švenčionių LDDP LDDPF
Vytautas Juškus
(Until 29 October 1996)
24 Saulės LDDP LDDPF
Antanas Kairys 44 Radviliškio LDDP LDDPF
Vytautas Kanapeckas 47 Pasvalio-Panevėžio LDDP LDDPF
Justinas Karosas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Povilas Katilius 15 Kalniečių LKDP KDF
Juozapas Algirdas Katkus 13 Centro LPS TSKF
Gediminas Kirkilas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Feliksas Kolosauskas 49 Anykščių-Kupiškio LDDP LDDPF
Kazimieras Vytautas Kryževičius Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP KDF
Kęstutis Kubertavičius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Andrius Kubilius Nationwide LPS TSKF
Jonas Kubilius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Kunčinas 5 Fabijoniškių LDDP LDDPF
Elvyra Janina Kunevičienė 33 Šilutės-Šilalės LPKTS PKTLF
Kazimieras Kuzminskas 18 Panemunės LKDP KDF
Vytautas Landsbergis Nationwide LPS TSKF
Vaclovas Lapė Nationwide LPS TSKF
Tautvydas Lideikis
(Until 9 July 1993)
Nationwide LPS TSKF
Linas Antanas Linkevičius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Juozas Listavičius Nationwide LPS TSKF
Vytautas Liutikas 40 Telšių LDDP LDDPF
Albinas Lozuraitis Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Ryšard Maciejkianiec 57 Vilniaus-Trakų LLS LLSF
Valentinas Mačiulis Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Stasys Malkevičius 22 Pajūrio
Nationwide[Note 1]
LPS TSKF
Rimantas Markauskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Nikolaj Medvedev Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Leonas Milčius 65 Kauno-Kėdainių LTS LTSF
Gabriel Jan Mincevič Nationwide LLS LLSF
Petras Algirdas Miškinis Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP KDF
Alfonsas Navickas 38 Mažeikių LDDP LDDPF
Juozas Nekrošius 42 Raseinių LDDP LDDPF
Antanas Nesteckis
(Until 16 July 1996)
Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Romualdas Ozolas Nationwide LCJ MSNG
Justas Vincas Paleckis
(From 30 August 1995)
(Until 13 October 1995)
Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Jonas Pangonis 69 Dzūkijos LSDP LSDPF, LDDPF
Petras Papovas 52 Zarasų LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Vaclovas Patackas 14 Žaliakalnio LPS LPS, KDF
Kęstutis Povilas Paukštys 17 Pramonės LPS TSKF
Gediminas Adolfas Paviržis 2 Senamiesčio LDDP LDDPF
Saulius Pečeliūnas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP DPF
Vytautas Petkevičius 46 Pakruojo-Joniškio LDDP LDDPF
Valdas Petrauskas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP DPF
Vytautas Petras Plečkaitis Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Artur Plokšto Nationwide LLS LLSF
Algirdas Pocius Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Zigmas Povilaitis
(From 14 April 1993)
64 Šakių[Note 1] LDDP LDDPF
Juras Požela Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Vincentas Pranevičius 60 Jonavos LDDP LDDPF
Mykolas Pronckus 35 Plungės LDDP LDDPF
Antanas Račas Nationwide LPS TSKF
Everistas Raišuotis 54 Molėtų-Švenčionių LDDP LDDPF
Arimantas Juvencijus Raškinis 12 Aleksoto-Vilijampolės LKDP KDF
Algirdas Ražauskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Virginijus Ražukas
(From 14 April 1993)
Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Audrius Rudys
(Until 29 August 1995)
Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Benediktas Vilmantas Rupeika 55 Širvintų-Vilniaus LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Sadkauskas
(Until 15 September 1996)
58 Trakų LDDP LDDPF
Aloyzas Sakalas Nationwide LSDP LSDPF
Algimantas Salamakinas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Algirdas Saudargas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP KDF
Vytautas Saulis 50 Rokiškio LDDP LDDPF
Zbignev Semenovič 56 Vilniaus-Šalčininkų LPS LLSF
Kęstutis Skrebys 27 Vakarinė NP TSKF
Karolis Snežko
(Until 24 August 1996)
Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Mindaugas Stakvilevičius 45 Šiaulių kaim. LDDP LDDPF
Antanas Napoleonas Stasiškis Nationwide LPS TSKF
Saulius Šaltenis Nationwide LPS TSKF
Irena Šiaulienė Nationwide
20 Baltijos[Note 1]
LDDP LDDPF
Zita Šličytė 34 Tauragės LPKTS PKTLF
Vytautas Šumakaris 10 N. Vilnios LDDP LDDPF
Juozapas Tartilas Nationwide LKDP-LPKTS-DP DPF
Algimantas Povilas Tauras Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Mečislovas Treinys 66 Kauno kaim. LTS LTSF
Pranciškus Tupikas 8 Karoliniškių LPS TSKF
Kazimieras Uoka Nationwide LPS LPS, LTSF
Ignacas Stasys Uždavinys 36 Kretingos LKDP KDF
Gediminas Vagnorius Nationwide LPS TSKF
Alfonsas Vaišnoras 11 Šilainių LPS TSKF
Albinas Vaižmužis 48 Biržų-Kupiškio Independent MSNG
Virmantas Velikonis 43 Kėdainių LDDP LDDPF
Julius Veselka 30 Alytaus LDDP LDDPF
Marijonas Visakavičius 61 Ukmergės LDDP LDDPF
Pranciškus Stanislavas Vitkevičius 37 Skuodo-Mažeikių LDDP LDDPF
Vytautas Vidmantas Zimnickas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Emanuelis Zingeris 4 Žirmūnų LRPCH TSKF
Juozas Žebrauskas Nationwide LDDP LDDPF
Vidmantas Žiemelis Nationwide LPS TSKF
Ričardas Žurinskas
(From 14 April 1993)
22 Pajūrio[Note 1] LDDP LDDPF
  1. ^ a b c d e f On 14 April 1993 the Central Electoral Commission declared the previously announced results in three electoral districts invalid, citing the decisions of the Supreme Court of Lithuania. Romualda Hofertienė, elected in the (20) Baltijos single-seat constituency, lost her seat to Irena Šiaulienė. Since Šiaulienė was already a member of the Seimas through the electoral list of LDDP, the next person on the list, Virginijus Ražukas, qualified for a seat. Romualda Hofertienė would later return to the Seimas through the electoral list of LPS after Tautvydas Lideikis died. Stasys Malkevičius ((22) Pajūrio) and Algirdas Endriukaitis ((64) Šakių) lost their single-seat constituencies to Ričardas Žurinskas and Zigmas Povilaitis, but retained their Seimas' seats, as they would have qualified through the electoral list of LPS. Instead, the lowest-ranked members to have qualified through the electoral list of LPS (Arūnas Eigirdas and Juozas Janonis) lost their seats.[16][17]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Blažytė-Baužienė, Danutė; Tamošaitis, Mindaugas; Truska, Liudas (2009). Lietuvos Seimo Istorija. XX-XXI a. pradžia [History of Lithuanian Seimas. XX century and the start of XXI century] (in Lithuanian). Lithuania: Baltos Lankos. ISBN 978-9955-23-322-0.
  2. ^ "Elections held in 1992". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo vakarinio posėdžio PROTOKOLAS Nr.2" [Protocol No. 2 of the evening session of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania] (in Lithuanian). Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 25 November 1992. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b Curry, Jane Leftwich; Urban, Joan Barth (2004). The Left Transformed in Post-Communist Societies: The Cases of East-Central Europe, Russia, and Ukraine. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 9780585466767. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  5. ^ "Šeši Seimo amžiai: nuo karalių rinkimų iki narių komunistų" [Six centuries of the Seimas: from royal elections to communist members] (in Lithuanian). Delfi.lt. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Kaip Lietuva neliko Rusijos įtakos zonoje: Bandymų palaužti buvo ne vienas".
  7. ^ "Nutarimas dėl Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo Pirmininko". lrs.lt. Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 25 February 1993. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Nutarimas dėl Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo Pirmininko Pavaduotojų". lrs.lt. Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 15 December 1992. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d "Nutarimas dėl Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo Pirmininko Pavaduotojų ir Seimo Kanclerio Išrinkimo". lrs.lt. Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 17 June 1993. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Nutarimas dėl Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo Kanclerio Pavadavimo". lrs.lt. Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 5 November 1996. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Seimo Frakcijos" [Parliamentary Groups of the Seimas] (in Lithuanian). Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
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