Sindhi Hindus

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Sindhi Hindus are Sindhi people who follow the Hindu religion and who originate from the Sindh region of modern Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition India.

Sindhi Hindus
Total population
c. 8 million
Regions with significant populations
 India2,772,264 - 3,810,000[1]
 Pakistanc. 3,590,000[2]
 Indonesia10,000[citation needed]
 Singapore8,800[citation needed]
 Hong Kong7,500[3]
Om.svg Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan peoples
Jhulelal, the Ishta Devta of the Sindhi Hindus.

The Sindhi are known as Sindhi: سنڌي‎ (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari) and ਸਿੰਧੀ (Gurumukhi). After the Partition of India during 1947, many Sindhi Hindus were among those forced out of Pakistan, which was predominately Muslim, to India, in what was a wholesale exchange of Hindu and Muslim populations in some areas. Some later emigrated from the sub-continent and settled in other parts of the world.[4][5][6] As per the 2011 census of India 2011, there are 2,772,364 Sindhi speakers in India.[7] This number includes some Sindhi Muslims who live in India along the border of Sindh province of Pakistan.

Hinduism in SindhEdit

Hinduism in the Sindh region, as in other areas of the Indian Subcontinent, was the earliest religion predominantly practiced. Later the area and much of the north of the subcontinent, became dominated by Muslims. The region of Sindh has historically been and still is, home to the largest community of Hindus in Pakistan.

Following the Arab Muslim conquest in the 8th century, Islam spread throughout the region and became the faith practiced by the majority of Sindhi people. Islam, coupled with traditional influences and interaction with Hinduism, has shaped the diverse Sindhi culture.[8] Starting with Muhammad bin Qasim and Habbari dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire ruled the region.

Partition of IndiaEdit

After the partition of India in 1947, an estimated half of Sindh's Hindus migrated to India, often forced by the religious-based persecution of the time. They settled primarily in neighbouring Kutch district of Gujarat, which bears linguistic and cultural similarities to Sindh, and the city of Mumbai. As per Census of India 2011, there are around 2,772,264 Sindhi speakers living in India. [9] There are also sizable Sindhi Hindu communities elsewhere in the world, sometimes termed, the 'Sindhi diaspora'.

Family naming conventionsEdit

Most Sindhi Hindu family names are a modified form of a patronymic and typically end with the suffix "-ani", which is used to denote descent from a common male ancestor. One explanation states that the -ani suffix is a Sindhi variant of 'anshi', derived from the Sanskrit word 'ansh', which means 'descended from' (see: Devanshi). The first part of a Sindhi Hindu surname is usually derived from the name or location of an ancestor. In northern Sindh, surnames ending in 'ja' (meaning 'of') are also common. A person's surname would consist of the name of his or her native village, followed by 'ja'. The Sindhi Hindus generally add the suffix ‘-ani’ to the name of a great-grandfather and adopt the name as a family name.[10][11][self-published source][12]

Notable Sindhi HindusEdit

See alsoEdit


  • Bherumal Mahirchand Advani, "Amilan-jo-Ahwal" - published in Sindhi, 1919
  • Amilan-jo-Ahwal (1919) - translated into English in 2016 ("A History of the Amils") at sindhis


  1. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF).Ethnologue report for India Archived 18 January 2010 at WebCite
  2. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Kesavapany, K.; Mani, A.; Ramasamy, P. (1 January 2008). Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9789812307996 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Rita Kothari, Burden of Refuge: Sindh, Gujarat, Partition, Orient Blackswan
  5. ^ Nil (4 June 2012). "Who orchestrated the exodus of Sindhi Hindus after Partition?". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  6. ^ NANDITA BHAVNANI (2014). THE MAKING OF EXILE: SINDHI HINDUS AND THE PARTITION OF INDIA. ISBN 978-93-84030-33-9. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  7. ^ Data on Language and Mother Tongue. "Census of India 2011" (PDF). p. 7.
  8. ^ Wakabayashi, Judy; Kothari, Rita (2009). Decentering Translation Studies: India and Beyond. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9027224309.
  9. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA 2011" (PDF). Govt of India. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Sindhishaan - Whats in Name".
  11. ^ "Sindhi Surnames".
  12. ^ Sakhrani, Tarun (4 January 2016). "The Sindhis of Sindh And Beyond". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2016.