The Sikorsky S-61R is a twin-engine helicopter used in transport or search and rescue roles. A developed version of the S-61/SH-3 Sea King, the S-61R was also built under license by Agusta as the AS-61R. The S-61R served in the United States Air Force as the CH-3C/E Sea King and the HH-3E Jolly Green Giant, and with the United States Coast Guard as the HH-3F "Pelican".
HH-3E Jolly Green Giant
|US Coast Guard HH-3F "Pelican" from Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco|
|Role||Medium-lift transport/SAR helicopter|
|Primary users||United States Air Force (Historical)|
United States Coast Guard (Historical)
Italian Air Force (Historical)
Tunisian Air Force
|Developed from||Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King|
The Sikorsky S-61R was developed as a derivative of their S-61/SH-3 Sea King model. It features a substantially revised fuselage with a rear loading ramp, a conventional though watertight hull instead of the S-61's boat-hull, and retractable tricycle landing gear. The fuselage layout was used by Sikorsky for the larger CH-53 variants, and by the much later (though similarly-sized) S-92.
Sikorsky designed and built an S-61R prototype as a private venture with its first flight in 1963. During its development, the US Air Force placed an order for the aircraft, which was designated CH-3C. The Air Force used the CH-3C to recover downed pilots. The CH-3E variant with more powerful engines would follow in 1965.
The improved HH-3E variant would follow later, with eight built, and all 50 CH-3Es were converted to this standard. Known as the Jolly Green Giant, the HH-3E featured protective armor, self-sealing tanks, a retractable inflight refueling probe, jettisonable external tanks, a high-speed hoist, and other specialized equipment.
In 1965, the U.S. Coast Guard ordered a version designated HH-3F Sea King (more commonly known by its nickname "Pelican") for all-weather air-sea rescue. The Pelican featured search radar with a nose antenna radome offset to port, and water landing capability.
Italian Agusta built a S-61R variant, named AS-61R under license. Agusta produced 22 helicopters for the Italian Air Force. The company claimed it could re-open the production line in 36 months to build additional AS-61 helicopters.
USAF variants served in numerous air rescue squadrons and aerospace rescue and recovery squadrons of the Military Airlift Command (MAC), rescue squadrons of the Air Combat Command (ACC) and other USAF major commands worldwide. The aircraft was also used by a number of Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard rescue squadrons. All USAF HH-3Es, to include Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard, were retired in the 1990s and replaced by the current HH-60G Pavehawk.
The HH-3F Pelican was a dependable workhorse for the US Coast Guard from the late 1960s until it was phased out in the late 1990s. All USCG HH-3Fs were replaced by the HH-60J Jayhawk and those aircraft have since been upgraded to the MH-60T Jayhawk version.
Between 31 May and 1 June 1967, two HH-3Es of the United States Air Force made the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean by helicopter. Departing from New York in the early hours, the two helicopters arrived at the 1967 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget after a 30 hr 46 min flight. The operation needed nine in-flight refuelings. Both helicopters were later lost in combat operations in Southeast Asia in 1969 and 1970.
Honors and awardsEdit
Due to the nature of combat operations, particularly in Southeast Asia, many of the operational H-3 crews received honors and awards. The highest American military award, the Medal of Honor, was awarded to Captain Gerald Young, USAF, on 9 November 1967. Young piloted an HH-3E, AF Ser. No. 66-13279, of the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron in an attempt to rescue a US Army Special Forces reconnaissance team trapped by enemy fire in Laos. When his aircraft was shot down, he escaped the burning wreckage and, despite severe wounds, evaded capture for 17 hours until being rescued. Six men were aboard 66-13279 when it went down just after midnight on the morning of 09 Nov: four aircrew from the 37th ARRS (Young, Capt Ralph W. Brower, SSgt Eugene L. Clay, and Sgt Larry W. Maysey) and two wounded recon team members from Command & Control Central, MACV SOG (MSG Bruce R. Baxter and SGT Joseph G. Kusick). Late on 09 Nov Captain Young was recovered and a four-man recovery team inserted into the crash site, but darkness precluded a detailed search of the wreckage. On the morning of 10 Nov, three charred remains (two crewmen and Kusick) were removed from the wreckage and placed with MSG Baxter's remains about 40 meters from the wreckage (Baxter had been thrown clear) to permit recovery by a single hoist. However, a combination of weather and renewed enemy action forced the recovery team to leave the crash site without the recovered remains; although the recovery team was picked up safely, the four remains could not be retrieved. The remains of the third aircrewman were not found.
Agusta began production in 1974 and delivered 22 helicopters as replacements for the Grumman HU-16 Albatross used for SAR (Search and Rescue) missions at sea. Italian Air Force AS-61R helicopters performed SAR missions under designation HH-3F in time of peace and C/SAR (Combat SAR) in time of crisis or during military assignment. All helicopters were operated by the five flights of the 15° Stormo Stefano Cagna and deployed in four bases across Italy.
From 1993 15° Stormo performed support missions to evacuate civilians during natural catastrophes and disasters in Italy. 15º Stormo was also engaged with SAR missions in the hostile zones of the several operations abroad where Italian Armed Forces were deployed - Somalia, Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan.
- Military transport helicopter, Sikorsky model number.
- Proposed transport helicopter for U.S. Marine Corps, cancelled
- Prototype operated by Sikorsky and first flown 17 June 1963.
- One aircraft for the Argentine Air Force to HH-3F standards.
- Long-range military transport helicopter for the US Air Force, 75 built.
- Long-range military transport helicopter for the US Air Force. 41 converted from CH-3C, plus 45 newly manufactured.
- HH-3E Jolly Green Giant
- Long-range search and rescue helicopter for the US Air Force, 50 converted from CH-3E.
- Special Operations version for the US Air Force.
- US Air Force VIP transport helicopter.
- HH-3F "Pelican"
- Long-range search and rescue helicopter for the US Coast Guard, 40 built.
- AS-61R (HH-3F Pelican)
- Long-range search and rescue helicopter built since 1974 under license in Italy by Agusta, 22 built.
Aircraft on displayEdit
- H-02 – S-61R on static display at the Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica in Morón, Buenos Aires. It was formerly used as a presidential helicopter.
- 44010 – CH-3C in storage at Yanks Air Museum in Chino, California.
- 62-12581 – CH-3C on static display at the Air Force Flight Test Center Museum at Edwards Air Force Base near Rosamond, California.
- 63-9676 – CH-3E in storage at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.
- 65-5690 – CH-3E on static display at the Aerospace Museum of California at Sacramento McClellan Airport (former McClellan AFB) in Sacramento, California.
- 64-14232 – H-3E on static display at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
- 65-12784 – HH-3E on static display at the Air Park at Hurlburt Field in Mary Esther, Florida.
- 65-12797 – CH-3E on static display at the Carolinas Aviation Museum in Charlotte, North Carolina.
- 66-13290 – HH-3E on static display at Francis S. Gabreski Air National Guard Base in Westhampton, New York. It is the aircraft in which Leland T. Kennedy earned the first of his two Air Force Crosses.
- 67-14703 – HH-3E on static display at the Museum of Aviation at Robins Air Force Base in Warner Robins, Georgia.
- 67-14709 – HH-3E on static display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.
- USCG 1476 – HH-3F on static display at the Pima Air and Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Tucson, Arizona.
- USCG 1484 – HH-3F on static display at Winvian Farm in Morris, Connecticut. It is incorporated into a guest bedroom.
- USCG 1486 – HH-3F on static display at the National Naval Aviation Museum at Naval Air Station Pensacola in Pensacola, Florida.
- Crew: 3
- Capacity: 28 pax / 6,500 lb (2,948 kg) payload
- Length: 73 ft (22 m)
- Height: 18 ft 1 in (5.51 m)
- Empty weight: 13,341 lb (6,051 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 22,050 lb (10,002 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 683 US gal (569 imp gal; 2,590 l)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T58-GE-10 turboshaft engines, 1,400 shp (1,000 kW) each
- Main rotor diameter: 62 ft (19 m)
- Main rotor area: 3,019 sq ft (280.5 m2) 5-bladed main rotor ; blade section NACA 0012
- Maximum speed: 143 kn (165 mph, 265 km/h)
- Range: 779 nmi (896 mi, 1,443 km)
- Service ceiling: 21,000 ft (6,400 m) IGE
- 17,500 ft (5,334 m) OGE
- Rate of climb: 2,220 ft/min (11.3 m/s) IGE
- 1,300 ft/min (396 m/min) OGE
- Disk loading: 7.3 lb/sq ft (36 kg/m2)
- Guns: Door guns on some variants (For information on American equipment, see U.S. Helicopter Armament Subsystems, S-61R)
- SH-3 Sea King
- Sikorsky HH-52 Seaguard
- CH-53 Sea Stallion
- HH-53 "Super Jolly Green Giant"/MH-53 Pave Low
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