Sign stealing

In baseball, sign stealing is the observing and relaying, through legal and illegal methods, of the signs being given by the opposing catcher to the pitcher or a coach to a base runner. The signs are stolen by the opposing team and then relayed to the other members of the team to give advance knowledge of what kind of pitch is coming next, thereby giving that batter an advantage.[1] Legal sign stealing typically involves the signs being observed by a runner on second base and then relayed to the batter through some sort of gesture. Illegal sign stealing involves mechanical or electronic technology; the rules regarding this have become more stringent over time and continue to evolve.[2]

Catcher James McCann (in white uniform) of the Detroit Tigers using his right hand (obscured) to give signs to his pitcher, in a 2015 game against the Minnesota Twins.

Sign stealing has been in practice almost since the game's origin in the 19th century, and has continued to be used in recent times.[3]

LegalityEdit

According to the unwritten rules of baseball, stealing the signs that are given by the third base coach, or those of the catcher by a baserunner on second base, is acceptable, and it is up to the team giving the signs to protect them so they are not stolen. Even so, pitchers may retaliate when they believe their signs are being stolen with a brushback pitch. On the other hand, a batter peeking in to see the catcher's signs is definitely not tolerated.[4][5] The signs the catcher sends to the pitcher to call for the next pitch are considered more "sacred" than the signs a third base coach relays to the batter.[6]

Stealing signs is not necessarily a violation of Major League Baseball's (MLB) rulebook; it depends how the signs are stolen.[7][8] At the December 1961 Winter Meetings, the National League banned the use of a "mechanical device" to steal signs.[9] The use of electronic equipment is not specifically forbidden by MLB rules, but in 2001, Sandy Alderson, while serving as executive vice president for baseball operations of MLB, issued a memorandum stating that teams cannot use electronic equipment to communicate with each other during games, especially for the purpose of stealing signs.[10] Before the 2019 season, in an effort to reduce illegal sign stealing, MLB commissioner Rob Manfred instituted specific prohibitions on where teams could position cameras and how instant replay officials can communicate with managers.[11][12]

Notable incidentsEdit

19th centuryEdit

The oldest recorded instance of a team attempting to steal signs dates back to 1876, when the Hartford Dark Blues hid a person in a shack to tip off their hitters when the pitcher would throw a curveball.[1] In 1897, George Stallings, the manager of the Philadelphia Phillies, had Morgan Murphy, a backup catcher, hide in a clubhouse beyond center field with a binocular and a telegraph that he used to alert Stallings to what pitch the opposing catcher was calling.[13] In 1900, Murphy was again used to steal signs with Phillies coach Pearce Chiles, stood on a box with electric wires that relayed to him coded messages in the form of electrical buzzes about what pitch was coming, which he communicated to the batters by stomping on the ground. He would get 1 buzz for a fastball, 2 for a curveball, and 3 for a changeup. No action was taken against any involved in these early sign stealing incidents.[14][2]

20th centuryEdit

In 2001, members of the 1951 New York Giants admitted to stealing signs against the Brooklyn Dodgers using a telescope to win the National League that season. They came back from 13 1/2 games behind 10 weeks before the postseason to win the pennant using this technique.[15] Bobby Thomson, who hit the "Shot Heard 'Round the World", denied being tipped off to that pitch.[16] On May 26, 1959, despite the Milwaukee Braves bullpen stealing catcher Smokey Burgess's signs, Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher Harvey Haddix threw 12 perfect innings before losing the game in the 13th. The only Braves player not to accept the signs was Hank Aaron.[17]

In March 1962, newly acquired Mets pitcher Jay Hook accused his previous team, the 1961 National League champion Reds, of stealing signs throughout the season with help from former Reds pitcher Brooks Lawrence, stationed inside Crosley Field's scoreboard. Lawrence denied the charge, and Reds manager Fred Hutchinson, when asked if he would either confirm or deny the allegation, replied simply, "No. No comment."[18] Forty years later, Hook's story was indirectly corroborated by another member of the '61 Reds, pitcher-author Jim Brosnan, discussing the disappointing home field performance by Reds hitters during the 1961 World Series, despite having Lawrence "up in the left-centerfield scoreboard, stealing every sign the Yankee catchers gave."[19][20] Despite this confirmation, there were no consequences to those involved.

21st centuryEdit

Technology has been a component in most recent sign stealing incidents.[21]

2017 Houston Astros scandalEdit

After the 2019 season, Mike Fiers alleged that the 2017 Houston Astros used technology to illegally steal their opponents' signs and relay them to their hitters.[22] MLB and the Astros opened an investigation into the allegation,[23] and it was expanded to encompass the 2018 and 2019 seasons.[24] On January 13, 2020, Rob Manfred announced that MLB's investigation confirmed that the Astros illegally used a video camera system to steal signs during their 2017 and 2018 seasons. The organization was penalized with a $5 million fine, forfeiture of first- and second-round draft picks in 2020 and 2021, and the suspension of general manager Jeff Luhnow and field manager A. J. Hinch for one year;[25] Luhnow and Hinch were subsequently fired by the team the same day.[26] Three days after the Astros penalties were announced, the New York Mets and Carlos Beltrán (an Astros player at the time of the scandal) mutually parted ways. Beltrán had been hired as the team's new manager on November 1, 2019, so at the time of the announcement he had never managed a game for the team. Beltrán was the only player specifically named in MLB's report on the Astros scandal. While he was not directly linked to any prohibited activity, he was one of several Astros players who met during that season to discuss improvements in their sign stealing.[27]

2018 Red SoxEdit

On January 7, 2020, the Boston Red Sox were implicated in another sign stealing scandal after three unnamed team members told The Athletic that the Red Sox had used their replay room to steal signs of opposing teams during the 2018 season.[28][29] On January 13, 2020, Manfred stated that he would determine the appropriate punishment for Red Sox manager Alex Cora, who was also implicated in the Astros scandal, when the investigation was completed.[30] The next day, Cora and the Red Sox mutually agreed to part ways;[31] Dave Dombrowski, the general manager who hired Cora, was dismissed from the Red Sox before the 2018 sign stealing scandal was made public.[32]

On January 29, 2020, Masslive reported that the results of the MLB investigation against the Red Sox would be released before the start of training camp and as early as the following week.[33] However, a person with knowledge of the probe, speaking on anonymity, told the Associated Press that the Red Sox investigation will take longer than expected and will not be concluded at the start of training camp as previously hoped.[34][35][36] On February 4, 2020, MLB Network journalist Peter Gammons reported that former Red Sox player Chris Young told him that he was the mastermind of the Red Sox Apple Watch scheme, telling him "I started the whole Apple Watch thing. I got it from when I was with the Yankees."[37][38] Young later denied this, and Gammons issued a retraction on Twitter.[37][38] SNY revealed that Young had been interviewed by MLB officials as part of the 2017 investigation against the Red Sox and that multiple sources told the sports news agency that Young was in fact a leader of the team's 2017 Apple Watch scheme.[37]

The same year, a phone conversation between Yankees pitching coach Larry Rothschild and replay room officials revealed that the Yankees engaged in sign stealing with an Apple Watch as well, which resulted in the Yankees being fined.[37][39]

Reactions to sign stealingEdit

Nothing Personal host David Samson and Fox Sports Radio's Jonas Knox have said they believe this type of cheating is widespread throughout the sport.[40][41]

Notable sign stealersEdit

Many players and coaches throughout baseball history have been considered the best at sign stealing. Some of these players known for sign stealing are Del Baker, Joey Amalfitano, and Joe Nossek.[6][42][43][44]

Pitcher Al Worthington had a religious objection to sign stealing, and quit both the 1959 Giants and the 1960 White Sox because of the teams' sign stealing.[2]

Manager Whitey Herzog was known to complain about other teams stealing signs. After a game where the Brewers were found to be sign stealing using their mascot Bernie Brewer, he reportedly said, "Maybe we should put a Texas Ranger or somebody out there and shoot a gun or something when a curveball is coming," referring to the incident.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "'Everybody tries to cheat a little': The weird and wild history of MLB sign-stealing – The Athletic". Theathletic.com. October 18, 2018. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Verducci, Tom. "How MLB Handled Sign Stealing Before Punishing the Astros". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  3. ^ Stephen, Eric (November 12, 2019). "Every MLB team steals signs, but the Astros took it one step too far". SBNation.com. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  4. ^ Costello, Brian (July 17, 2005). "Goin' Through The Motions – Third-Base Coaches Rarely Mean What They Sign". New York Post. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  5. ^ "Baseball's unwritten rules". ESPN. May 31, 2001. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Lemire, Joe (May 19, 2010). "Joe Lemire: The hidden art of stealing signs". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  7. ^ Baccellieri, Emma (November 13, 2019). "Astros sign stealing is nothing new in MLB history". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  8. ^ "Kurkjian: Sign language". ESPN. August 12, 2004. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  9. ^ Young, Dick (April 1, 1982). "Majors Ban Mechanical Pilfering of Enemy Signs". Daily News. New York. p. 134. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ "Red Sox crossed a line, and baseball's response must be firm – The Athletic". Theathletic.com. September 5, 2017. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  11. ^ Verducci, Tom (February 19, 2019). "MLB, Rob Manfred to pass rules designed to limit sign stealing". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  12. ^ Bogage, Jacob (February 20, 2019). "MLB aims to crack down on the game's tradition of sign stealing". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 16, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  13. ^ Steven Goldman (September 7, 2017). "The Red Sox's sign-stealing scheme was less nefarious than stupid". Slate. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  14. ^ "The shocking history of sign stealing in baseball". Yahoo!. September 6, 2017. Archived from the original on December 4, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  15. ^ "ESPN Classic – Hitters knew pitches in stretch drive". ESPN. February 1, 2001. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
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  18. ^ Associated Press (March 21, 1962). "Cincinnati Used Signal Stealing Tactics Last Season, Says Hook". The Burlington Free Press. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
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  20. ^ Kalb, Elliott (2007). The 25 Greatest Sports Conspiracy Theories. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-089-8
  21. ^ "Combating baseball's high-tech sign stealing with higher tech". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  22. ^ Tyler Kepner. "After Reports of Astros' Cheating, M.L.B. Is Left to Restore Trust". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  23. ^ "Baseball investigates Houston Astros' alleged video theft of signs". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  24. ^ Rome, Chandler. "MLB expands Astros' sign-stealing investigation to include 2018, 2019 season". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
  25. ^ "Astros manager, GM suspended, team fined for cheating during 2017 championship season: reports". Fox News. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  26. ^ "Astros' Jeff Luhnow, AJ Hinch fired for sign stealing". ESPN. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  27. ^ "Mets agree to part ways with manager Carlos Beltran". ESPN.com. January 16, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  28. ^ "MLB's sign-stealing controversy broadens: Sources say the Red Sox used video replay room illegally in 2018 – The Athletic". Theathletic.com. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
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  31. ^ Romo, Vanessa (January 15, 2019). "Red Sox Manager Alex Cora To 'Part Ways' With Boston After Sign-Stealing Scandal". NPR. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
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  34. ^ Press, Associated (February 11, 2020). "Red Sox sign-stealing investigation to stretch into spring - Sports Illustrated". Si.com. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
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  36. ^ 2/11/2020. "Red Sox make Roenicke interim manager; 'permanency' on hold". Msn.com. Retrieved February 25, 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ a b c d "What MLB found when it investigated Chris Young, the Yankees and Red Sox during Apple Watch scandal". SNY.
  38. ^ a b NJ.com, Mike Rosenstein | NJ Advance Media for (February 4, 2020). "MLB rumors: Ex-Yankee Chris Young reacts to sign-stealing conversation by Peter Gammons, who clarifies his comments". nj.
  39. ^ "MLB penalizes Red Sox - but also Yankees - for sign-stealing scheme". Usatoday.com. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  40. ^ "MLB Spring Training: Beltran targeted, Astros circus, Red Sox interim (2/12) from Nothing Personal with David Samson". www.stitcher.com. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  41. ^ "Enough with the Grandstanding, the Astros Can't Be the Only Ones". FOX Sports Radio. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  42. ^ The glory of their times : the story of the early days of baseball told by the men who played it. Ritter, Lawrence S., (Enlarged ; First Harper Perennial Modern classics ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0-06-199471-5. OCLC 462910535.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  43. ^ Kernan, Kevin (February 11, 2001). "There Is Spying in Baseball". New York Post. Archived from the original on November 17, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  44. ^ Merkin, Scott (September 14, 2004). "Stealing signs as an art form". Major League Baseball. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.

Further readingEdit