Siege of Riga (1812)

The Siege of Riga was a five month long siege of the Russian port city of Riga, the capital of the Governorate of Livonia.

Siege of Riga
Part of the French invasion of Russia
Siege of Riga 1812 Postcard.jpg
Siege of Riga depicted in a postcard
Date24 July – 18 December 1812[1]
Location56°57′N 24°6′E / 56.950°N 24.100°E / 56.950; 24.100
Result Russian victory
Belligerents
First French Empire French Empire
 Prussia
Russian Empire Russian Empire
United Kingdom (naval support)
Commanders and leaders
First French Empire Jacques MacDonald
Kingdom of Prussia Julius von Grawert
Kingdom of Prussia Ludwig Yorck
Russian Empire Magnus G. von Essen
Russian Empire Filippo Paulucci
Russian Empire Ivan F. Emme

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Thomas Byam Martin
Units involved
X Corps Garrison of Riga
Army of Finland
Strength
31,000 men and 130 x siege guns 27,000[1][2]
  current battle
  Prussian corps
  Napoleon
  Austrian corps

BackgroundEdit

During Emperor Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, two corps were sent to towards the Baltic Sea via Courland and Lithuania in-order to secure his northern flank. One of the corps, Marshal Étienne MacDonald's X Corps was sent towards the Courland and subsequently began moving towards Riga.[3]

By mid July 1812, the Riga garrison had grown to around 14,000 troops. Soon after the Russian Army of Finland arrived with a further 10,000 troops shortly after the beginning of the siege.[3]

After the beginning of the siege, the French situation was precarious as Marshal MacDonald's 25,000 troops had to not only continue the siege, but control some 80 miles of the Dvina down to Dünaburg. This was further undermined as the 'allied' Prussian forces' loyalty was in increasingly dubious situation.[3][4]

Order of BattleEdit

The order of battle of the forces involved was as follows (note: the nation of origin is listed behind units which came from said areas (other than French/Prussian/Russian)):

French X CorpsEdit

Russian ForcesEdit

Riga GarrisonEdit

British Baltic FleetEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Clodfelter 1980, p. 175.
  2. ^ Bodart 1908, p. 446.
  3. ^ a b c Chandler, pp. 1240–1241
  4. ^ Chandler, p. 1192
  5. ^ Smith, p. 408
  6. ^ Smith, p. 408
  7. ^ "Русская армия в июне 1812 года". www.museum.ru. Retrieved 2021-10-02.
  8. ^ "Историческая справка по 1-й Артиллерийской бригаде". antologifo.narod.ru. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  9. ^ "Историческая справка по Артиллерийским ротам при Морских полках". antologifo.narod.ru. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  10. ^ Smith, p. 408
  11. ^ "Русская армия в июне 1812 года". www.museum.ru. Retrieved 2021-10-02.
  12. ^ "Русская армия в июне 1812 года". www.museum.ru. Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  13. ^ a b c "Sir Thomas Byam Martin". more than Nelson. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  14. ^ Winfield, pp. 327–328
  15. ^ Winfield, pp. 440–441
  16. ^ Winfield, pp. 672–673
  17. ^ Winfield, p. 713
  18. ^ Winfield, p. 647
  19. ^ Winfield, p. 718
  20. ^ Winfield, pp. 748–750
  21. ^ Winfield, pp. 817–818
  22. ^ Winfield, pp. 873–874
  23. ^ Winfield, pp. 953–954
  24. ^ Winfield, p. 1182
  25. ^ Winfield, p. 1199
  26. ^ Winfield, pp. 1027–1028
  27. ^ Winfield, pp. 1157–1158

ReferencesEdit

  • Chandler, David G. (2009). The Campaigns of Napoleon: The Mind and Method of History's Greatest Soldier. New York City, New York, United States of America: Sribner. ISBN 978-1439131039. OCLC 1085168952.
  • Winfield, Rif (2005). British Warships in the Age of Sail: 1793 – 1817: Design, Construction, Careers, and Fates. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1844157174. OCLC 421815211.
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic wars data book. London Mechanicsburg, PA: Greenhill Books Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-276-7. OCLC 37616149.

In popular cultureEdit