Siege of Derry
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The Siege of Derry was the first major event in the Williamite War in Ireland. The siege was preceded by a first attempt against the town by Jacobite forces on 7 December 1688 that was foiled when 13 apprentices shut the gates. The second attempt began when James II himself appeared before the walls on 18 April 1689 and lasted 105 days until 1 August. It ended after ships bringing food broke through to the town. The siege is commemorated yearly by the Protestant community.
|Siege of Derry|
|Part of the Williamite War in Ireland|
Cannons on the Walls of Derry
|Commanders and leaders|
James II & VII|
France Conrad de Rosen
|Fluctuating, about 10,000||About 8000|
|Casualties and losses|
|About 4000||4,000-8,000 killed (mostly by disease)|
The "Glorious Revolution" overthrew James II, king of England, Ireland and Scotland and replaced him with William of Orange, who landed in England on 5 November 1688. Thereupon James fled to France in December. James's Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange were crowned in London on 11 April 1689. Louis XIV, king of France, received James well, because he needed him and his supporters, the Jacobites, as allies in the Nine Years' War, which he had just started by investing Philippsburg on 27 September 1688 and declaring war on the Dutch Republic on 6/16 November.[a] He also had revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1865, which sent Huguenot refugees all over northern Europe and rekindled fears of persecution in Protestant communities. On 7 May 1689 England declared war on France, somewhat belatedly, as French officers and experts were already fighting William's troops at Derry before that time.
In Scotland, the privy council asked William to assume responsibility for the government in January 1689, and William and Mary were formally offered the Scottish throne in March. However, many Scottish people, especially among the Highland clans, had sympathies for the Jacobite cause.
Ireland, however, was still ruled by Richard Talbot, whom James had appointed viceroy (i.e. Lord Deputy) in 1687. Talbot was from an Old English (Norman) family and therefore Catholic. He had re-admitted Catholics to the Irish Parliament and public office, and had replaced Protestant officers with Catholic ones in the army. Irish Catholics generally stayed loyal to James and many Irish Protestants hesitated to declare themselves for William. Talbot took action against those who did, and by November 1688 only the Protestants of Ulster were still resisting. Two of the Ulster towns, Enniskillen and Derry, were to become the focal points of the first stage of the Williamite war in Ireland.
In 1688 Talbot's remodelling of the Irish army had advanced so far that few units still had high percentages of Protestant soldiers. One of those was the regiment of Viscount Mountjoy, a Protestant loyal to James. This regiment was in garrison at Derry. When the Dutch invasion threatened, James ordered Irish troops to be sent over to England. Talbot ordered Mountjoy on the 23 November to march to Dublin for embarking to England. Derry was therefore left without garrison. Talbot ordered Alexander MacDonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, a Catholic aristocrat of Scottish origin in Ulster, to occupy Derry with a Catholic force. MacDonnell, already in his seventies, raised a regiment consisting of 1,200 Scottish mercenaries (i.e. redshanks) and marched them to Derry. On the way he met Colonel George Philips at Newtown Limavady, who sent a messenger to Derry to warn the town. On 7 December 1688, with MacDonnell's army to cross the river under the Ferryquay Gate, thirteen apprentices seized the city keys and locked the gates. MacDonnell felt that he was not strong enough to take the town by force and left with his troops.
Later generations have often seen the shutting of the gates by the apprentices as the start of the siege. In reality six peaceful months passed between the apprentices' action (7 December 1688) and the start of the siege (18 June 1689). In a similar way Lundy's blunders, flight, and supposed treachery (see further down) are often telescoped into the days of the apprentices' action, while in reality they fall into the lead-up to the siege in June 1689.
On 9 December Philips came into town. As he had been governor of Derry and Fort Culmore under Charles I, the citizens gave him the keys and accepted him as de facto governor. When Talbot heard that MacDonnell had been kept out of Derry, he stopped Mountjoy on his march to Dublin and sent him back to Derry. On 21 December Mountjoy reached Derry and struck a deal with the city, according to which two of his companies, consisting entirely of Protestant soldiers, would be let into town. The one was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Lundy, the other by Captain William Stewart.[b] Mountjoy appointed Lundy governor of the town in place of Philips.
Talbot upscaled his efforts to bring Ulster under his control and on 8 March 1689 sent Lieutenant-General Richard Hamilton with an army of 2000 from Drogheda into north-east Ulster. On 14 March Hamilton defeated the Protestant Army of the North at the battle called the Break of Dromore in County Down.
In the meantime, on 12 March 1689,[c] James had landed at Kinsale (on Ireland's south coast) with a French fleet of 30 men-of-war commanded by Jean Gabaret. He travelled on the flagship, the Saint Michel. He was accompanied by Jean-Antoine d'Avaux, the French ambassador, many English and Irish exiles, and about a hundred French officers. He brought with him money and equipment, but few troops. French troops were needed on the continent for the Nine Years' War and were not considered necessary in Ireland as Talbot had already raised a large army and only lacked equipment and the money to pay the men. From Kinsale James proceeded to Cork where he met Talbot. He left Cork on Wednesday 20 March and entered Dublin on Palm Sunday 24. He took up quarters in the castle and established his council on which sat D'Avaux, Talbot, Melfort, De Rosen, and Bishop Cartwright.
Hearing of James's arrival in Ireland, Derry prepared to defend itself. On 21 March 1689 Captain James Hamilton arrived from England with two ships: the fourth-rate frigate HMS Jersey, commanded by Captain Beverley and the merchantman Deliverance, bringing gun powder, ammunition, weapons, and £595 of money for the garrison. James Hamilton was a nephew of Richard Hamilton but fought on the other side. These provisions were to be crucial during the siege. He also brought the commission from King William and Queen Mary that confirmed Colonel Lundy as Williamite governor of the town. Lundy swore the oath of allegiance to William in the cabin of the Jersey. That same day the town committee decided to build a ravelin, or outwork, in front of the Bishops Gate.
On the 2nd or 3rd of April Major-General Jean Camus, Marquis de Pusignan, marched north with five regiments of foot. This brought the number of troops in the north to about 12000. James followed on 8 April, accompanied by D'Avaux and Melfort.
On 13 April cavalry forming part of the Jacobite vanguard was approaching Derry from the south. Lundy called a council of war that decided to defend the passes on the River Finn, a left-hand tributary of River Foyle to the south of Derry near Strabane. On 15 April De Rosen attacked that line of defence at the bridge at Clady, which was held by Colonel Skeffington. The engagement that followed is called the Battle of Cladyford. Hamilton's cavalry swam through the river and the Protestants abandoned their position and fled.
In the meantime the English sent reinforcements to Derry. On the day of the Battle of Cladyford, the 15th of April 1689, Colonel Cunningham and Colonel Richards arrived on Lough Foyle with the fourth-rate frigate HMS Swallow, commanded by Captain Wolfran Cornewall, and nine transport ships carrying two regiments, together about 1600 men. Cunningham, who was in charge, had been instructed to take his orders from Lundy, the Governor of Derry. Lundy was panicked by his experience of the Battle of Cladyford and was convinced that the town was lost. On 16 April Lundy held a council of war with Cunningham and Richards from which he excluded most of the local commanders. He proposed that the troops should not land and the town should be abandoned pretending that there were unsufficient provisions to defend the town.
The proposal was accepted by all present. Lundy kept this resolution secret, but the people in town could see that many of the gentry and officers that had been present in the council prepared to leave and went down to the river to board the ships. Cunningham's fleet waited for him still on 17 April but then left, apparently without him. The ships stopped over at Greencastle on 18 April and sailed for England on 19 April. Finally, Lundy left the city disguised as an ordinary soldier and took ship to Scotland.
Having broken through the passes, Hamilton reached Derry on 18 April and asked the town to surrender. The town answered that they would send deputies in two days but that the Jacobite army should not come nearer to Derry than St Johnston. However, when King James joined up with the army, De Rosen suggested he should appeal directly to his subjects in the town: they would surely submit to the king. The effect was the contrary. The men on the wall considered that the agreement they had with Hamilton had been broken and when James and his retinue rode to within 300 yards of Bishops Gate and demanded the surrender of the city, cannons were fired at him.
According to a later account, he was rebuffed with shouts of "No surrender!" and one of the king's aides-de-camp was killed by a shot from the city's largest cannon, the "Roaring Meg". James would ask thrice more, but was refused each time.
On that same day Adam Murray reached the town. He and his cavalry unit had been part of the Protestant Army of the North and had fought at Cladyford. He came from Culmore along the river, broke through the ring of the besiegers and reached Shipquay Gate, which Captain Morrison openend for him.
James returned to Dublin with De Rosen and left his forces under the command of Lieutenant-General Jacques de Fontanges, Count Maumont.
On 21 April the besieged, led by Murray, sallied and killed Count Maumont. This has also been called the Battle of Pennyburn. Maumont was replaced by Richard Hamilton. On 23 April Fort Culmore, which guarded the mouth of River Foyle, surrendered to the Jacobites. During another sally, on 25 April 1689, the Duke of Berwick and De Pointis were wounded and Pusignan killed.
On 6 May Brigadier-General Ramsay attacked the Windmill Hill before the Bishops Gate and drove out the sentinels posted there by the besieged, but Baker knew the importance of this position and on the next day the besieged sallied from the Ferryquay Gate and retook Windmill Hill. Ramsay was killed and other officers taken prisoners. Baker built a line of earthworks from the river up to the Windmill Hill and back through the Bog to the river downstream of the town.
On 7 May Williamite England formally declared war on France. This officially sanctioned what was already happening around Derry since 18 April. Two French generals, Maumont and Pusignan, had already been killed in the siege. France never had declared war on England as they still saw James as the rightful king and the Williamites as mere rebels. On 11 May a French fleet landed more equipment and troops at Bantry Bay in southern Ireland and fought the naval Battle of Bantry Bay against an English fleet that wanted to prevent the landing.
On 30 May heavy guns and mortars arrived at the camp before Derry. Before that date the besiegers only had field artillery. Lord Louth and De Pointis were in charge of the mortars, which were placed on the right-hand bank of the river where no sally could reached them. The mortars shot almost 600 explosive shells into the town during the siege.
About this time disease and hunger took hold within the city. It became evident that the town needed to be relieved. William gave that task to Major-General Percy Kirke, who decided to first explore the mouth of River Foyle to find out whether ships could get through to Derry. He sent three ships: the small (sixth-rate) frigate HMS Greyhound, the ketch HMS Kingfisher, and the merchant ketch Edward and James. They sailed from Hoylake on 13 May 1689 and explored the mouth of River Foyle on 8 June. However, the Greyhound ran aground near Fort Culmore and was damaged by cannon shot before she got afloat, escaped and after some make-shift repairs limped back to Greenock in Scotland to refit. Observations and information obtained from the inhabitants confirmed that the besiegers had placed a boom across the river. Indeed, on 3 June, the besiegers, led by De Pointis had placed a boom across the River Foyle about halfway between Derry and Culmore.
On 17 May 1689 Major-General Percy Kirke sailed from Liverpool with 24 transport ships and 3 men-of-war (HMS Swallow, HMS Bonaventure, and HMS Dartmouth). The fleet carried 4 regiments (about 3000 men: Kirke's own, Sir John Hanmer's, William Stewart's and St George's). The last two were the same regiments that should have landed with Cunningham. The convoy arrived in Lough Foyle early in June.
On 4 June Hamilton ordered to storm the town. The Jacobites attacked the earthworks and passed over them in some points but were beaten back.
Kirke did not have enough troops to challenge the besiegers in battle and the experiment with the Greyhound seemed to show that it was very risky to approach the town by the river.
In order to accelerate the siege, James replaced Hamilton with De Rosen at some time between the 17th and the 24th of June from Dublin. On 21 June Berwick was sent south with a detachment to keep the Enniskilleners away. De Rosen intensified the bombardment and had a mine dug under a bastion.
At the beginning of June, Governor Baker fell ill and on 21 June a council was held to choose a successor. Baker was consulted and chose John Mitchelburne. On 30 June Baker dies and Mitchelburne becomes Governor of Derry.
On 2 July De Rosen herds Protestants from the surroundings under the wall. The besieged respond by menacing to kill prisoners. King James disagreed with De Rosen's measure and called him a "barbarious Muscovite".
The relief of the cityEdit
Frederick de Schomberg, having been appointed commander-in-chief by William, ordered Kirke to attack the boom. Thereupon, on 28 July 1689, Kirke sent four ships to the mouth of the River Foyle to try to bring food into Derry. These were HMS Dartmouth and three merchant ships: Mountjoy from Londonderry, and Phoenix from Coleraine, and Jerusalem. Dartmouth, under Captain John Leake, engaged the shore batteries, while Mountjoy, commanded by her Master Michael Browning, rammed and breached the boom, whereupon Mountjoy and Phoenix sailed up to Derry, unloading many tons of food. Seeing that he could no longer starve out Derry and not having enough troops to storm the town, De Rosen decided to raise the siege. On 1 August 1689 the besieged discovered that the enemy was gone. On 3 August Kirke reported the lifting of the siege to London. On 31 July 1689 another Jacobite army had been defeated at Newtownbutler by the Enniskilleners.
The city had endured 105 days of siege, from 18 April to 1 August 1689. Some 4,000 of its population of 8,000 were said to have died during this siege.
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The Siege of Derry, like the battle of the Boyne, is part of Northern Irish Protestant folklore. The siege is commemorated by two parades: the Shutting-of-the-Gates Parade and the Relief-of-Derry Parade.
The shutting of the gates by 13 apprentices, which happened on 7 December 1680, is commemorated each year on the first Saturday of December, dubbed "Lundy's Day". The commemoration is organised by the Apprentice Boys of Derry, a Protestant association. The day usually starts with the firing of one and then three cannon shots, meaning 13, from the walls at midnight on Friday. Then follows the ceremony of the touching of the four original gates: Bishops Gate, Butchers Gate, Shipquay Gate, and Ferryquay Gate. On Saturday, first the members of the Apprentice Boys clubs domiciled outside the walls march to the Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall. Then the assembled members march through the city from the Hall to St. Columb's Cathedral where a thanks-giving service is held. After the service a wreath is laid at the Siege Heroes Mound in the cathedral grounds. Finally, Lundy is burned in effigy as a traitor.
The end of the siege, which is taken to have happened on 1 August 1689, old style, when the besieged discovered that the besieging troops had left, is celebrated by the Relief of Derry parade, usually held on the second Saturday of August. This day is chosen because it usually is near 11 August, which is the new style equivalent of 1 August. This parade is one of the events of the week-long Maiden City Festival. In 1969 a confrontation between Protestants and Catholics during the Relief of Derry parade started the Battle of the Bogside, but recent parades have been largely peaceful.
Walker's Pillar was built 1826-1828 on the Royal Bastion. The monument consisted of a column crowned by a statue of George Walker. In the night of 27 August 1973, the Provisional IRA blew the column up. The plinth remains.
The Browning Memorial Plaque is affixed to the city wall on Guildhall Square. It commemorates Michael (or Micaiah) Browning, the Master of the Mountjoy. The inscription cites from
The popular song "Derry's Walls" commemorates the siege. The author is unknown. The chorus reads:
- We'll fight and don't surrender
- But come when duty calls,
- With heart and hand and sword and shield
- We'll guard old Derry's Walls.
Notes and ReferencesEdit
- During the period covered in this article, England, Scotland and Ireland used the Julian Calendar (i.e. Old Style), whereas France and the Netherlands used the Gregorian calendar (i.e. New Style). The difference was 10 days at the given time. See Old Style and New Style dates.
- William Stewart was the grandfather of the first Marquess of Londonderry
- Most authors agree that James landed on 12 March, but FitzJames, the Duke of Berwick, gives this date as 17 March.
- Childs 2007, p. 3: "Tyrconnell, on the other hand, did not want an unreliable batallion in such a key post so, on 23 November, he ordered it to England via Dublin."
- Macaulay 1855, p. 143/144: "a regiment of twelve hundred Papists commanded by a Papist, Alexander Macdonnell, Earl of Antrim, had received orders from the Lord Deputy to occupy Londonderry."
- Macaulay 1855, p. 145: "seized the keys of the city, rushed to the Ferryquay Gate, closed it in the face of the King's officers, and let down the portcullis."
- Joyce 1903, p. 213: "Lord Antrim marched to take possession of Derry; but while the aldermen and magistrates were hesitating, a few of the bolder young apprentices seizing the keys, locked the town gates on the 7th of December 1688, and shut out Antrim and his Jacobite forces."
- Bagwell, Richard (1896). . In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 45. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
From June 1681 to September 1684 he was governor of Culmore Fort
- Witherow 1879, p. 199: "in pursuance of an arrangement with Mountjoy of the 21st of December, the citizens of Derry had admitted a part of his regiment to garrison their town."
- FitzJames 1778, p. 47: "une escadre de trente vaisseaux de guerre, commandés par M. de Gabaret." ... "nous arrivâmes à Kingsale le 17 Mars."
- Anonymous 1689, p. 26 higher: "King James landed at Kingsale on Tuesday March 12,"
- Anonymous 1689, p. 26 lower: "on Wednesday the 20th set out from thence,"
- Childs 2007, p. 61: "HMS Jersey (captain John Beverley RN) and the merchantman Deliverance entered Lough Foyle on 21 March "...
- MacGeoghan 1763, p. 738: "Le capitaine Jacques Hamilton(a) ... [footnote](a) il étoit neveu de Richard Hamilton, qui commandoit ce siége pour le roi, ..."
- Walker 1690, p. 14"March 20. Captain James Hamilton arrived from England, with Ammunitions and Arms, 480 Barrels of Powder, and Arms for 2000 men, and a Commission from the King and Queen for Col. Lundy to be Governour of the City, ..."
- Mackenzie 1690, p. 18: "Wednesday 20th. It was order'd by the Committee of Derry that a Ravelin should be built to defend the Bishops Gate ..."
- Aubert de la Chesnaye des Bois 1771, p. 457: "Jean Camus, son fils aîné, Marquis de Pusignan, Lieutenant-général des armées du Roi, fut tué à la tête du Régiment de Languedoc en 1689."
- MacPherson 1775, p. 178: "which made in all, with the other troops that were already in the North, eleven thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight foot"
- MacPherson 1775, p. 181: "He parted from Dublin the 8th day of April,"
- FitzJames 1778, p. 47: "De là nous marchâmes, le 15 Avril, au pont de Clady, sur la rivière de Strabane, dont les Rebelles, au nombre de dix mille, vouloient défendre le passage"
- Witherow 1879, p. 93: "Colonel Cunningham and Colonel Richards arrived in Lough Foyle from England, with nine ships and a man of war, conveying two regiments, consisting of 1600 men."
- "Irish Affairs: Defence of Londonderry". House of Commons Journal (12). 12 August 1689.
Colonel Lundie was the first Man that spoke at this Council of War and made a Proposition to quit the Town and to send the Two Regiments Back again; alleging, for his Reason, That there was not above a Week or Ten Days Provisions left in the Town, ...
- Witherow 1879, p. 105: "The ships, after lingering in the Lough to pick up such officers and gentlement as chose to desert, fell down to Greencastle on the 18th, and on the morning of the 19th set sail for England."
- O'Kelly 1692, p. 33: "but he was little surprized when, instead of Submission, they shott a Shower of Arrows against him, which wounded Some of his Attendants, and it was not then doubted but they aimed chiefly at his royall Person."
- "Siege of Londonderry in 1688". Gentleman's Magazine (volume 96). London: John Nichols & Son. p. 606.
- Childs 2007, p. 85: " on 19 April the remodelled town council offered the position to Major Henry Baker"
- Bouillet 1848, p. 82: "Jacques de Fontanges, comte de Maumont, lieutenant-général des armées"
- Walker 1690, p. 21: "they killed above 200 of the Enemies Souldiers, besides Mamow the French General"
- "De Paris le 21 May 1689". Gazette de France (in French) (21). 21 May 1689. p. 236.
Le sieur de Maumont, Capitaine aux Gardes, Lieutenant Genéral en Irlande a esté tüé au siége de Londonderry.
- "De Dublin, le 18 May 1689". Gazette de France (in French) (25). 11 June 1689. p. 286.
On écrit du camp devant Londonderry, que le 5 de ce mois, le sieur Richard Hamilton Lieutenant-Général, estant allé reconnoistre la place avec pluspart des officiers généraux, les assiegez sortirent au nombre de plus de deux mille cinq cent hommes & escharmouchérent longtemps ... le Duc de Barwick et le sieur de Pointis y furent blessés ... Le sieur de Puisignan Marechal de Camp recut un coup de mousquet au travers du corps dont il mourut
- Witherow 1879, p. 128: "Brigadier Ramsay, in an attempt to rally his men and bring them up again to renew the encounter, was slain."
- MacPherson 1775, p. 200 top: "The great guns and mortars arrived not at the camp, till the thirtieth of May, and till then little was done against the town, except beating them back when they ventured to sally with what guns we had upon them, "
- Witherow 1879, p. 138: "from the 2nd of June the large shells began to come, and then, when the supply of these seemed exhausted, about the first week of July, the besiegers returned to the small shells again. Between the 24th of April and the 22nd of July they cast into the city 587 bombs, of which 326 were small and 261 were large."
- Childs 2007, p. 113: "a reconnaissance expedition left Hoylake on 13 May comprising HMS Greyhound (sixth rate, Captain Gwillam), HMS Kingfisher (ketch, Captain Edward Boyce) and a merchant ketch, the Edward and James (Master Mr Meers)."
- "De Paris, le 16 Iuillet 1689". Gazette de France (in French) (30). 16 July 1689. p. 352.
On a eu avis du camp devant Londonderry du 13 du mois dernier, que les assiegants avoient fait une estacade à l'endroit le plus étroit de la rivière ...
- Witherow 1879, p. 141: "They set sail from Liverpool on the 17th of May; but were delayed by contrary winds."
- "De Londres, le 25 Iuillet 1689". Gazette de France (in French) (32). 30 July 1689. p. 374.
Le Major Genéral Kirk a écrit du lac de Londonderry, qu'il avoit trouvé les Irlandais si bien retranchez sur les deux bords de la rivière, où ils avoient dressés deux bateries de vingt quatre livres de balle pour défendre les estacades qui la traversent qu'il lui avoit esté impossible de forcer le passage. Que comme les troupes qu'il commande n'estoient pas assez nombreuses pour faire le débarquement, il n'avoit osé le tenter de peur de les trop exposer.
- MacPherson 1775, p. 201: "The mareschal de Rosen arrived in the camp before Derry the 17th,"
- Walker, p. 29: "June 24. or thereabout, Conrad de Rosen, Marshall General of the Irish Forces, is received into the Enemies Camp"
- Witherow 1879, p. 164: "none but a barbarious Muscovite could have thought of so cruel a contrivance."
- Macaulay 1855, p. 235: "Just at this time Kirke received a despatch from England, which contained positive orders that Londonderry should be relieved. He accordingly determined to make an attempt which, as far as it appears, he might have made, with at least an equally fair prospect of success, six weeks earlier."[A note explains this as follows:] "This despatch which positively commanded Kirke to attack the boom, was signed by Schomberg, who had already been appointed commander in chief of all the English forces in Ireland. A copy of it is among the Nairne MSS in the Bodleian Library."
- Witherow 1879, p. 181: "That day orders were issued by Kirke from aboard the Swallow that three small vessels laden with provisions, under the protection of the Dartmouth, man-of-war frigate, should attempt the passage of the river. The Dartmouth, commanded by Captain Leake, had been ordered round from Carrickfergus for this service; The victuallers were the Mountjoy, of Derry, Capt. Micaiah Browning, a native of the city; the Phoenix, of Coleraine, Captain Andrew Douglas; and the Jerusalem, Captain Reynell.
- "Hampton Court Aug 4". The London Gazette. No. 2476. 1 August 1689. p. 2.
This day arrived here an Express with letters from Major General Kirk, dated the 29th past, on board the Swallow in the Lough of Derry which bring the good news of the Relief of Derry, ...
- Graham 1829, p. 259: "Early on the morning of the first of August, the garrison sent out a detachment to see what was become of the enemy. They saw them on their march "
- "Hampton Court Aug 8". The London Gazette. No. 2478. 8 August 1689. p. 1.
This day arrived here Captain Withers being sent by Major-General Kirk, with News of the raising the siege of Derry: The letters he brings from the Major-General are of the 3d instant from the Isle of Inch ...
- "Baker Club jewel". Londonderry Sentinel. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Several thousand people have attended the Lundy's Day parade in Londonderry, which has passed without incident" BBC News, Saturday, 1 December 2012
- "Siege hero Walker felled in midnight blast". Derry Journal. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Macaulay 1855, p. 236: "...and he died the most enviable of all deaths, in sight of the city which was his birthplace, which was his home, and which had just been saved by his courage and self-devotion from the most frightful form of destruction."
- Anonymous (1689). Ireland's Lamentation. London: J. D.
- Aubert de la Chesnaye des Bois, François Alexandre (1771). Dictionnaire de la noblesse - Tome III (in French). Paris: Duchesne.
- Bouillet, Jean-Baptiste (1848). Nobiliaire d'Auvergne - Tome III (in French). Clermont-Ferrand: Pérol.
- Childs, John (2007). The Williamite Wars in Ireland 1688 - 1691. London: Hambledon Continuum Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-573-4.
- FitzJames, James, the Duke of Berwick (1778). Mémoires du Maréchal de Berwick - Tome Premier (in French). Paris: Moutard.
- Graham, Rev. John (1829). A History of the Siege of Londonderry and Defence of Enniskillen in 1688-9. Dublin: William Curry.
- Joyce, Patrick Weston (1903). A Concise History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1837 (12th ed.). Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son.
- Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1855). The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, Volume III. London: Longman Brown Greens & Longmans.
- MacGeoghan, James (1763). Histoire de l'Irlande ancienne et moderne - Tome Troisième (in French). Amsterdam.
- Mackenzie, John (1690). A Narrative of the Siege of Londonderry. London: Richard Baldwin.
- MacPherson, James (1775). Original Papers; Containing the Secret History of Great Britain, from the Restoration to the Accession of the House of Hanover. To which are Prefixed Extracts from the Life of James II. Written by Himself. London: W Strahan and T Cadell.
- O'Kelly, Charles (1692). O'Callaghan, John Cornelius, ed. Macariae Excidium or The Destruction of Cyprus (1850 ed.). Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society.
- Walker, Rev. George (1690). The siege of Londonderry in 1689, as set forth in the Literary Remains of Colonel the Rev. George Walker, D.D. London: Robert Clavel & Ralph Simpson.
- Witherow, Thomas (1879). Derry and Enniskillen in the Year 1689. London & Belfast: William Mallan & Son.
- The Siege of Derry in Ulster Protestant Mythology
- Joannon, Pierre (1993). "Jacques II et l'expédition d'Irlande d'après les dépêches du Comte d'Avaux, ambassadeur extraordinaire de Louis XIV". Études irlandaises (in French). 18 (2): 93–108.
- The Siege Museum, 13 Society St, Londonderry