Shukra (Sanskrit: शुक्र, IAST: Śukra) is a Sanskrit word that means "lucid, clear, bright". It also has other meanings, such as the name of an ancient sage who counseled Asuras in Vedic mythology. In medieval mythology and Hindu astrology, the term refers to the planet Venus, one of the Navagrahas. Shukra is also the name of the seventh dhatu (tissue layer) in Ayurveda that corresponds to sexual energy.
|Venus, Bhakti, teacher of Asuras|
Shukra as the deity of Venus graha
Medieval: Graha, Deva
|Mantra||Oṃ Śukrāya Namaḥ|
In one mythology, Shukra is the name of a son of Bhrigu, of the third Manu, one of the saptarishis. He was the guru of Daityas / Asuras, and is also referred to as Shukracharya or Asuracharya in various Hindu texts. Daitya Guru Shukracharya taught the ritual and rites to powerful Datyas/Asurs/Rakshas of the time how to appease Bhrahma and Shiva to defeat Indra]. As per some stories he was angry with Indra and therefore wanted to humble him by constant defeat he suffered at hands of his step brother line of Asurs as Indra is the king of Surs. Later he ended his differences and since then the wars between Sur and Asur lines ceased. Among his most respected diciples is Danavraj Baali and Ravan the founder of Rakshas culture. Shukracharya named the Velleeswarar Temple, Mangadu after the blessings of the Trimurti, to mark the end of a long period of blindness. In another account found in the Mahabharata, Shukra divided himself into two, one half becoming the knowledge source for the Devas (gods) and the other half being the knowledge source of the Asuras (demons). Shukra in the Puranic mythology is famed as one with the knowledge that raises the dead back to life, something that helps the violent evil return back to life even after the gods and the forces of good destroy them; this knowledge is sought by the gods and is ultimately gained by them.
Shukra as a planet appears in various Hindu astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. These texts present Shukra as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies.
The manuscripts of these texts exist in slightly different versions, present Shukra's motion in the skies, but vary in their data, suggesting that the text were open and revised over their lives.
The 1st millennium CE Hindu scholars had estimated the time it took for sidereal revolutions of each planet including Shukra, from their astronomical studies, with slightly different results:
|Source||Estimated time per sidereal revolution|
|Surya Siddhanta||224 days, 16 hours, 45 minutes, 56.2 seconds|
|Siddhanta Shiromani||224 days, 16 hours, 45 minutes, 1.9 seconds|
|Ptolemy||224 days, 16 hours, 51 minutes, 56.8 seconds|
|20th century calculations||224 days, 16 hours, 49 minutes, 8.0 seconds|
Calendar and zodiacEdit
The weekday Shukravara in Hindu calendar, or Friday, has roots in Shukra (Venus). Shukravara is found in most Indian languages, and Shukra Graha is driven by the planet Venus in Hindu astrology. The word "Friday" in the Greco-Roman and other Indo-European calendars is also based on the planet Venus. The zodiac and naming system of Hindu astrology likely influenced Greek astrology when the armies of Alexander the Great left India to return to Europe. Many Indian astrologers also traveled to Greece with them. This contributes to the reasoning why both groups zodiac signs are nearly identical.
In Buddhist and Hindu astrology, Shukra (Venus) is a part of the medieval astrological explanations offered for various ailments.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shukra.|
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