Shkumbin

The Shkumbin (/ʃkmbn/; Albanian pronunciation: [ʃkumbin]; Latin: Genessus), also commonly Shkembi, is a river in Southern Europe.[4] It is 181 km (112 mi) long and its drainage basin is 2,444 km2 (944 sq mi). Its average discharge is 61.5 m3/s (2,170 cu ft/s).[5]

Shkumbin
Shkumbin.jpg
Shkumbin Gorge between Librazhd and Elbasan
Location
CountryAlbania
Physical characteristics
SourceValamara
 • locationKorçë County
 • coordinates40°47′57″N 20°18′14″E / 40.79917°N 20.30389°E / 40.79917; 20.30389
 • elevation2,120 m (6,960 ft)
Mouth18 km (11 mi) west of Rrogozhinë
 • location
Adriatic Sea
 • coordinates
41°2′23″N 19°26′34″E / 41.03972°N 19.44278°E / 41.03972; 19.44278Coordinates: 41°2′23″N 19°26′34″E / 41.03972°N 19.44278°E / 41.03972; 19.44278
 • elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length181 km (112 mi)[1]
Basin size2,444 km2 (944 sq mi)[2][3]
Discharge 
 • average61.5 m3/s (2,170 cu ft/s)

OverviewEdit

The river originates in the eastern Valamara Mountains between Maja e Valamarës (2,375 m (7,792 ft)) and Gur i Topit (2,120 m (6,960 ft)) in Southeastern Albania.[6] After descending from the Valamaras, it flows northwards through Proptisht and Qukës with many deep gorges and canyons and passes the Gora Mountains. A significant inflow comes from Gur i Kamjës (1,481 m (4,859 ft)) southwest of Pogradec. Over the course, it flows inside a syncline between the Mokra and Shebenik Mountains in the east and the Polis Mountains in the west. Close to Librazhd the river turns some 50 km (31 mi) westwards of its origin and joins the Rapun stream.[7] At the end the river cross the Myzeqe Plain and forms a small delta in Karavasta Lagoon, the direct proximity of the Adriatic Sea.

Human historyEdit

The ancient name of the river was Genusus and was located in central southern Illyria. In classical antiquity the valley of the Shkumbin was inhabited by several Illyrian peoples. The Parthini lived in the middle valley of the river.[8][9][10] They neighbored to the west the Taulantii who lived in the coastal area including the lower valley of the river, and to the east the Dassaretii who lived in the region of Lake Ohrid, including the upper valley of the river.[10][11] The ancient Via Egnatia followed the river, giving it the role of a strategically important corridor between orient and occident.[12] The Via Egnatia started with two branches, the northern one from Epidamnos-Dyrrhachion, and the southern one from Apollonia. The two branches converged at Ad Quintum, near modern Elbasan, continuing eastwards through the valley of the Shkumbin.[13]

In Roman Imperial times, the line of division between the administrative provinces of Illyricum and Epirus Nova ran from the west somewhere between Scodra and Dyrrachium, to the east somewhere between the north side of the Shkumbin and Lake Ohrid.[14] During this period the valley of Skumbin constituted roughly the border between the Latin and the Greek speaking area.[15]

The river is roughly the geographical dividing line between Tosk and Gheg Albanian dialects, with Gheg spoken north of the Shkumbin and Tosk south of it. The dialectal split occurred after Christianisation of the region (4th century AD) and at the time of the Slavic migration to the Balkans,[16][17] with the river as the historic dialectal boundary[18] which straddled the Jireček line.[19][20]

 
Hydrographic map of Albania: Shkumbin is shown in the center of the map.
 
Origin of the river at Valamara
 
Shkumbin Valley about 5 km east of Elbasan

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "TREGUES SIPAS QARQEVE INDICATORS BY PREFECTURES" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  2. ^ "The coastline of Albania : morphology, evolution and coastal management issues" (PDF). ciesm.org. p. 8.
  3. ^ "Fishes from Shkumbini River (Central Albania): an ecological view". researchgate.net. p. 1.
  4. ^ Fishta, Gjergj; Elsie, Robert (2005-10-04). Robert Elsie. p. 459. ISBN 9781845111182.
  5. ^ Cullaj, A., Hasko, A., Miho, A., Schanz, F., Brandl, H. & Bachofen, R. (2005). "The quality of Albanian natural waters and the human impact". Environment International. 31 (1): 133–46. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2004.06.008. PMID 15607787.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ University of Tirana. "Albert-Kurti-compressed.pdf" (PDF). doktoratura.unitir.edu.al (in Albanian). Tirana. p. 43.
  7. ^ "KREU I: PASURITË UJORE SHQIPTARE" (PDF) (in Albanian). p. 19.
  8. ^ Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. S.; Hammond, N. G. L.; Sollberger, E. (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History. 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC. p. 629.
  9. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 93
  10. ^ a b Cabanes 2007, p. 579: "Parthini (Partini, Partheni, Παρθῖνοι/Parthînoi, Παρθεηνᾶται/Partheēnâtai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,7,8; App. Ill. 2) near → Dyrrhachium (App. B Civ. 5,320). It is likely that they lived in the Shkumbi valley (in modern Albania) and controlled the important link between → Ionios Kolpos and → Macedonia, equivalent to the later → via Egnatia. Their neighbours to the east were the Dassaretae (Dassaretia) in the region of the modern Ohrid, and to the west the Taulantii (Thuc. 1,24; Diod. Sic. 12,30-40)."
  11. ^ Castiglioni 2010, pp. 88–89: "Le premier de ces deux témoignages est un fermoir de ceinture retrouvé dans un tombeau monumental de la localité albanaise de la basse Selce (Selcë e Poshtme) située dans le district de Pogradec, dans la partie orientale du pays, à quelques kilomètres du lac d’Ohrid et à 1010 m au-dessus du niveau de la mer. Ce centre a bénéficié dans le passé d’un essor économique plus florissant par rapport aux plus modestes agglomérations des alentours, grâce à la position centrale et prédominante qu’il occupe à l’intérieur de la contrée actuellement appelée Mokër, et grâce au contrôle de la route qui conduisait des côtes adriatiques de l’Illyrie à la Macédoine, route qui longeait le cours du fleuve Shkumbin (Genusus) et qui passait autrefois par les Gorges de Çervenake. La ville s’étendait sur les terrasses naturelles de la col-line de Gradishte ou Qyteze, dont la partie ouest descend abruptement vers le cours du fleuve Shkumbin."
  12. ^ University of Tirana. "MALLAKASTRA STUDIM GJEOGRAFIK" (PDF). doktoratura.unitir.edu.al (in Albanian). p. 21.
  13. ^ Stocker 2009, pp. 880–881
  14. ^ Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond. Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press, 1976. ISBN 978-0-8155-5047-1. p. 54.
  15. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 273
  16. ^ Douglas Q. Adams (January 1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 9, 11. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5.
  17. ^ Indo-European language and culture: an introduction By Benjamin W. Fortson Edition: 5, illustrated Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004 ISBN 1-4051-0316-7, ISBN 978-1-4051-0316-9 (page 392)
  18. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier,2008 ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7 (page 23)
  19. ^ Orel, Vladimir; Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Brill, 1998 ISBN 90 04 11024 0
  20. ^ See also Hamp 1963.

BibliographyEdit