Shiyan (Chinese: 十堰; pinyin: Shíyàn) is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, and Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 3,340,841 of whom 767,920 lived in the built-up urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres (461 square miles). In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.
Shiyan Railway Station in July 2014
Location of Shiyan City jurisdiction in Hubei
|Coordinates (Shiyan municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Maojian District|
|• CPC Secretary||Chen Tianhui (陈天会)|
|• Mayor||Zhang Siyi (张嗣义)|
|• Prefecture-level city||1,022 km2 (395 sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|410.50 km2 (158.49 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,640 m (5,380 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,340,841|
|• Density||3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
(Urban center) 442100-442300, 442500-442700(Other areas)
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HB-03|
Cinnamomum camphora L. Sieb. Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L.Blossom of pomegranate Punica granatum L. Chinese RoseRosa chinensis
During the 1960s, Mao Zedong and other government officials, fearing upheaval and invasion, sought to establish industry in more remote locations. Shiyan, located in a portion of northwest Hubei then known for its poverty, was then a small village comprising a few hundred households. In 1967, teams of workers and engineers were first sent to Shiyan in order to survey sites for automotive plants and factories as part of the Third Front Construction plan. By order of Mao in 1969, truck production in Shiyan commenced. Approximately 25,000 construction workers were sent to Shiyan during this time to equip the city with the infrastructure necessary for such project.
In subsequent decades, the city experienced great economic growth due to these facilities, which employed nearly 200,000 workers. However, by the early 1990s, Shiyan was increasingly bypassed for new automotive ventures, which were increasingly located in larger cities with better transport links. In 2003, Dongfeng Motors relocated its main passenger car plant to Wuhan, resulting in population decline within Shiyan.
The Wudang Mountains run east-west through Shiyan. The peak commonly referred to as "Wudang Mountain", or in Mandarin Wudangshan, is one of the most important cultural centres of the Taoist faith. The surrounding areas are dotted with up to 200 Taoist monastic temples and religious sites. The main attraction in this area, and also one of the most sacred Taoist sites, which forms an important stop for mainly Chinese tourists bound there, with up to twenty bus loads of visitors per day at peak times is Wudangshan Jiedao of the Danjiangkou county-level city.
|Climate data for Shiyan (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||14.2
|Average relative humidity (%)||70||69||69||68||70||72||78||79||79||79||76||71||73|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
- Maojian District (茅箭区)
- Zhangwan District (张湾区)
- Yunyang District (郧阳区)
- Danjiangkou City (丹江口市)
- Yunxi County (郧西县)
- Zhushan County (竹山县)
- Zhuxi County (竹溪县)
- Fang County (房县)
The main urban area of the prefecture-level city of Shiyan is in Maojian District; it is typically labeled on maps simply as "Shiyan".
This area is subject to major change as part of the South to North water diversion project of the Han River. Certain areas will see an increase of up to 5 meters in water level to create a new reservoir to serve Beijing and Tianjin as a part of this major water diversion project.
Shiyan has been a major center of the automobile industry in China, previously serving as the headquarters of Dongfeng Motors, a major Chinese truck, bus, and heavy goods vehicle company. Some American news outlets have labeled the city as the "Detroit of China", although the nickname has been applied to other Chinese cities, such as Changchun, Chongqing, and nearby Wuhan.
In recent decades, the automotive industry in Shiyan has shrunk, largely due to increasing production in larger cities with better transit links. In response to this, Shiyan's government has sought to diversify the city's economy, and provide more space for other industrial facilities.
- G59 Hohhot–Beihai Expressway
- G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway
- G7011 Shiyan–Tianshui Expressway
- China National Highway 209
Shiyan Wudangshan Airport (IATA: WDS, ICAO: ZHSY) is the airport serving the city of Shiyan, located 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city center and 20 km (12 mi) from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. A total area of 16400 square meters; a total of one runway with a length of 2600 meters; 7 stops (2 helicopters); and an annual passenger throughput of 1.2 million passengers
Shiyan Wudangshan Airport starts to work in February, 2016. Until April 2019, there are total 17 fixed routes, navigating to 26 cities.
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- 十堰市历史沿革 [Yichang City Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：十堰市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Shiyan City] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
统计用区划代码 名称 420301000000 市辖区 420302000000 茅箭区 420303000000 张湾区 420304000000 郧阳区 420322000000 郧西县 420323000000 竹山县 420324000000 竹溪县 420325000000 房县 420381000000 丹江口市
- 区划人口 [Administrative Divisions and Population] (in Chinese). Shiyan People's Government. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
【行政区划】十堰市辖张湾区、茅箭区、郧阳区及丹江口市、郧西县、竹山县、竹溪县、房县，下设13 个街道办事处、72 个镇、34 个乡、1842 个村委会、159 个居委会。
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- Government website of Shiyan (available in Chinese and English)