Shiyan (Chinese: 十堰; pinyin: Shíyàn) is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, and Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 3,340,841 of whom 767,920 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 2 urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres (461 square miles) as Yunyang is not conurbated. In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.
|Coordinates (Shiyan municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Maojian District|
|• CPC Secretary||Chen Tianhui (陈天会)|
|• Mayor||Zhang Siyi (张嗣义)|
|• Prefecture-level city||23,680 km2 (9,140 sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|410.50 km2 (158.49 sq mi)|
|• Metro||11,932 km2 (4,607 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,640 m (5,380 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,340,841|
|• Density||140/km2 (370/sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|• Urban density||3,200/km2 (8,400/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||64/km2 (170/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
(Urban center) 442100-442300, 442500-442700(Other areas)
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HB-03|
Cinnamomum camphora L. Sieb. Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L.Blossom of pomegranate Punica granatum L. Chinese RoseRosa chinensis
During the 1960s, Mao Zedong and other government officials, fearing upheaval and invasion, sought to establish industry in more remote locations. Shiyan, located in a portion of northwest Hubei then known for its poverty, was then a small village comprising a few hundred households. In 1967, teams of workers and engineers were first sent to Shiyan in order to survey sites for automotive plants and factories (second Automobile Works, predecessor of Dongfeng Motor Corporation) as part of the Third Front Construction plan. By order of Mao in 1969, truck production in Shiyan commenced. Approximately 25,000 construction workers were sent to Shiyan during this time to equip the city with the infrastructure necessary for such project.
In subsequent decades, the city experienced great economic growth due to these facilities, which employed nearly 200,000 workers. However, by the early 1990s, Shiyan was increasingly bypassed for new automotive ventures, which were increasingly located in larger cities with better transport links. In 2003, Dongfeng Motors relocated its main passenger car plant to Wuhan, resulting in population decline within Shiyan.
The Wudang Mountains run east-west through Shiyan. The peak commonly referred to as "Wudang Mountain", or in Mandarin Wudangshan, is one of the most important cultural centres of the Taoist faith. The surrounding areas are dotted with up to 200 Taoist monastic temples and religious sites. The main attraction in this area, and also one of the most sacred Taoist sites, which forms an important stop for mainly Chinese tourists bound there, with up to twenty bus loads of visitors per day at peak times is Wudangshan Jiedao of the Danjiangkou county-level city.
Shiyan's total area is subject to major change as part of the South to North water diversion project of the Han River. Certain areas will see an increase of up to 5 metres (16 ft) in water level to create a new reservoir to serve Beijing and Tianjin as a part of this major water diversion project.
|Climate data for Shiyan (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||14.2
|Average relative humidity (%)||70||69||69||68||70||72||78||79||79||79||76||71||73|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
These eight county-level divisions then administer three different types of township-level divisions: 13 subdistricts, 72 towns, and 34 townships. Finally, these township-level divisions then administer two types of village-level divisions: 164 residential communities and 1,807 administrative villages.
|Subdivision||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2019): 55||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|Maojian District||茅箭区||Máojiàn Qū||425,600||578||736.33|
|Zhangwan District||张湾区||Zhāngwān Qū||393,200||652||603.07|
|Yunyang District||郧阳区||Yúnyáng Qū||571,700||3,863||147.99|
|Danjiangkou City||丹江口市||Dānjiāngkǒu Shì||445,400||3,121||142.71|
|Yunxi County||郧西县||Yúnxī Xiàn||431,000||3,509.6||122.81|
|Zhushan County||竹山县||Zhúshān Xiàn||416,800||3,586||116.23|
|Zhuxi County||竹溪县||Zhúxī Xiàn||314,000||3,279||95.76|
|Fang County||房县||Fáng Xiàn||400,300||5,110||78.34|
|Note: All population totals reflect permanent population, as opposed to registered hukou population|
As of 2020, Shiyan's permanent population totals approximately 3,209,000 people. Throughout 2014 to 2019, the city's registered hukou population exceeded the permanent population by a few dozen thousand.: 16 This disparity likely represents migrants who left Shiyan, working in larger cities with higher wages, a common trend throughout China. During this span, Shiyan's hukou population decreased by approximately 8,100, but the city's permanent population increased by about 25,300.: 16
52.5% of Shiyan's population is male, and 47.5% is female as of 2019.: 28
The main urban area of the prefecture-level city of Shiyan is in Maojian District, which is typically labeled on maps simply as "Shiyan". As of 2019, 56.5% of Shiyan's population lived in urban areas, up from 46.3% in 2010.: 28
In 2019, Shiyan's urban households earned an average of 33,577 renminbi (RMB) in disposable income,: 26 a 9.1% increase from 2018.: 27 Rural households earned a much lower average disposable income of 11,378 RMB,: 26 a 10.5% increase from 2018.: 27
Shiyan's city government recognizes 19 religious organizations within the city, which represent 4 religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, and Christianity. Of these organizations, the following 5 serve the entire city: the Shiyan City Buddhist Association (Chinese: 十堰市佛教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Fójiào Xiéhuì), the Shiyan City Islamic Association (Chinese: 十堰市伊斯兰教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Yīsīlánjiào Xiéhuì), the Shiyan City Protestant "Three-Self" Patriotic Movement Committee (Chinese: 十堰市基督教“三自”爱国运动委员会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Jīdūjiào “Sān Zì” Àiguó Yùndòng Wěiyuánhuì), the Shiyan City Protestant Association (Chinese: 十堰市基督教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Jīdūjiào Xiéhuì), and the Shiyan City Taoist Association (Chinese: 十堰市道教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Dàojiào Xiéhuì). The remaining 14 serve regions within the city.
Like China as a whole, Shiyan's economy has experienced rapid substantial growth in the 21st century. The city's gross domestic product (GDP) stood at 201.272 billion renminbi (RMB) in 2019, which is approximately two-thirds larger than the city's GDP just five years earlier.: 16 The city's economy consists almost entirely of its secondary and tertiary sectors, which constitute 43.93% and 47.55% of its GDP, respectively.: 16 However, as of 2019, 40.2% of Shiyan's population works in the primary sector, whereas just 18.0% works in the secondary sector, and 41.9% work in the tertiary sector.: 28
Major heavy industries in Shiyan include cement, which the city producing about 4.13 million tons of in 2019,: 18 and steel, which the city produced about 978 thousand tons of in 2019.: 20 The production output of both of these industries declined slightly from 2014 to 2019.: 18, 20
Shiyan has been a major center of the automobile industry in China, previously serving as the headquarters of Dongfeng Motors, a major Chinese truck, bus, and heavy goods vehicle company. Some American news outlets have labeled the city as the "Detroit of China", although the nickname has been applied to other Chinese cities, such as Changchun, Chongqing, and nearby Wuhan.
In recent decades, the automotive industry in Shiyan has shrunk, largely due to increasing production in larger cities with better transit links. The city's production of tires, for instance, has fallen by 48.10% from 2014 to 2019.: 18 Car production in the city rose 6.67% during that time, but this number has been volatile depending on the year.: 20 In response to the threat of the industry's decline, Shiyan's government has sought to diversify the city's economy, and provide more space for other industrial facilities.
There are five magazines and seven newspapers in distribution in the city as of 2019.: 293
As of 2019, Shiyan's educational institutions are staffed by 29,644 full-time teachers, serving approximately 474,200 students.: 22
- G59 Hohhot–Beihai Expressway
- G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway
- G7011 Shiyan–Tianshui Expressway
- China National Highway 209
Shiyan Wudangshan Airport (IATA: WDS, ICAO: ZHSY) is the airport serving the city of Shiyan, located 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city center and 20 km (12 mi) from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. A total area of 16400 square meters; a total of one runway with a length of 2600 meters; 7 stops (2 helicopters); and an annual passenger throughput of 1.2 million passengers
Shiyan Wudangshan Airport starts to work in February, 2016. Until April 2019, there are total 17 fixed routes, navigating to 26 cities.
- Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 66. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-hubei-admin.php[bare URL]
- "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- Abrams, Jim (1990-08-05). "Detroit of China Surrounded by Backwater of Poverty : Asia: The arrival of the 20th Century proves to be a blessing only for some". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- Tang, Frank (2018-11-15). "State carmaker in China's Motown shifts gear to keep up with market". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2020-05-22. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- Tang, Frank (2018-11-15). "历史沿革". 十堰人民政府 Post (in Chinese). Retrieved 2021-07-31.
- 十堰统计年鉴-2020 [Shiyan Statistical Yearbook-2020] (PDF). tjj.hubei.gov.cn (in Chinese). Hubei Provincial Statistics Bureau. 2020-10-01. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
- 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
- 十堰市历史沿革 [Yichang City Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：十堰市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Shiyan City] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
统计用区划代码 名称 420301000000 市辖区 420302000000 茅箭区 420303000000 张湾区 420304000000 郧阳区 420322000000 郧西县 420323000000 竹山县 420324000000 竹溪县 420325000000 房县 420381000000 丹江口市
- 区划人口 [Subdivisions and Population] (in Chinese). Shiyan Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-01. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
- 十堰市 [Shiyan]. xzqh.org (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2021-06-28. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
- 十堰市宗教团体基本概况 [Shiyan Religious Organizations Basic Overview] (in Chinese). Shiyan Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-01. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
- Makinen, Julie (2016-03-04). "Staring down an economic reckoning in the Detroit of China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- Tabeta, Shinsuke (2019-09-24). "'China's Detroit' struggles to keep its auto industry afloat". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- Fannin, Rebecca (2020-03-02). "The rush to deploy robots in China amid the coronavirus outbreak". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
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- [permanent dead link]
- 汉十高铁全线轨道贯通-新华网. Xinhua. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
- "Wuhan – Shiyan high speed line opens". Railway Gazette International. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
- Government website of Shiyan (available in Chinese and English)