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A replica of the 15th-century caravel Lisa von Lübeck.

A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. Replicas can range from authentically reconstructed, fully seaworthy ships, to ships of modern construction that give an impression of a historic vessel. Some replicas may not even be seaworthy, but built for other educational or entertainment purposes.

Reasons to build a replica include historic research into shipbuilding, national pride, exposition at a museum or entertainment (e.g., for a TV series), and/or education programs for the unemployed. For example, see the project to build a replica of the Continental brig Andrew Doria.[1] Apart from building a genuine replica of the ship, sometimes the construction materials, tools and methods can also copied from the ships' original era, as is the case with the replica of Batavia in Lelystad and the ship of the line replica Delft[2] in Rotterdam (Delfshaven).

DefinitionEdit

The term "replica" in this context does not normally include scale models. The term museum ship is used for an old ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public.

A ship replica may also be a generic replica, one that represents a certain type of ship rather than a particular historic example, like Kamper Kogge, replicating the Cogs that were used extensively in Northern Europe by the Hanseatic League in the Middle Ages, but where there is little knowledge of specific ships.

Some generic type replicas such as Thor Heyerdahl's Ra II, qualify as true replicas as these ships were built to investigate the craft and or culture of the original era. That they do not replicate a specific vessel is mainly because no details of such a specific vessel are available.

Some other ships that are modeled after ships of a certain type or era (and are in that sense replicas) do not qualify as true replicas. Some ships may be borderline cases, such as Kanrin Maru, which is actually twice the size of the original, but built following the plans of the original.

Replicas can be temporary, cheap and very simple, such as the replica of a Viking ship that was burnt at the Leixlip Festival.

Notable historic type ships that are not replicas include:

  • USS Constitution (1795) is strictly speaking not a replica but the original vessel. However, most of the ship's timber has been replaced over time, with only 10-15% of the original remaining.[3] This is a modern version of the philosopher's dilemma concerning replica versus original; known as the Ship of Theseus dilemma.
  • HMS Victory (1765) is still the original vessel, although unlike Constitution, she is in dry dock and does not sail. She has also been heavily restored, with only 10-15% of her original timber remaining.[4]
  • Mircea, which is an almost exact copy of Gorch Fock. Mircea was built as a copy because Gorch Fock was a very successful ship. Thus Mircea was not built as a replica per se, but as a copy for other reasons (i.e. to perform economically, in this case as a training vessel).
  • Stad Amsterdam is a generic clipper type ship combining the best qualities of clippers of the past with modern materials and technologies.

Another ambiguous case subject to the Ship of Theseus dilemma is Niagara. The original was sunk in 1820 for preservation, and the ship has been rebuilt three times since. The third reconstruction was considerably more extensive, and the only parts from the original which were retained are non-structural, leading many authorities to classify her as a replica, rather than a reconstructed original.

Notable ship replicasEdit

Some sailing ship replicas with their home port; and key information of the original (many articles are about the original ship):

Europe, Middle East, Australia, and the AmericasEdit

Ship name Type Current porta Current affiliation Country Original affiliation Original built Notable for End Remark
Ra II Reed boat Oslo, Norway Bygdøy maritime museum   Egypt
 
c.4000BC Ancient Egyptian merchant. Heyerdahl crossed Atlantic in it c.2000BC Class replica
Min of the Desert[5][6][7] Seafaring ship Suez, Egypt Suez National Museum   Egypt
 
c.1500BC 18th Dynasty trading ship Class replica
Uluburun II[8] Merchant Bodrum, Turkey Bodrum Underwater Archaeological Museum   Turkey c.14th century BC Late Bronze Age merchant Sank c.1316–1305 BC Oldest known merchant shipwreck.
Argo Bronze Age galley   Greece c.1300BC Hand built replica of a Bronze Age galley ? Class replica
Argo Penteconter Volos, Greece   Greece ? A replica of a Greek penteconter, with a 50-oar crew made up from all 27 European Union member countries.[9] ? Class replica
Ivlia Bireme   Ukraine c.800BC Ancient Greek rowing warship (galley) with oars at two levels.[10] c.100BC Class replica
Kybele[11][12][13][14][15] Bireme Istanbul, Turkey   Turkey c.600BC Phoacean Greek bireme ? Class replica
Olympias Trireme Faliro, Greece   Greece c.700BC Ancient Greek warship c.400BC Class replica
Kyrenia II Merchant   Cyprus c.4th century BC Ancient Greek merchant ship Sank c.288BC
Hugin Viking ship Ramsgate, England Plinthed at Pegwell Bay   Denmark 449 Hengist and Horsa land in Kent Rowed across the North Sea to commemorate the 1500th anniversary in 1949.[16]

Actually a copy of the 9th Century Gokstad ship

Brendan's currach Currach Craggaunowen, Ireland   Ireland 512-530 Legenday voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to America in a small open boat ?
Myklebust Ship Viking ship Rundehåjen in Nordfjordeid SAGASTAD – The impressive Science and Experience center in Nordfjordeid, will open in spring 2019.   Norway was built in the 800s. Norways biggest Vikingship end of 800 (876?) The building will be built by Eid Industrihus KF with construction start in 2017 in the new Saga park in Nordfjordeid center.[17]
Sea Stallion from Glendalough Viking ship Roskilde Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde   Denmark 1042 in Dublin Ireland Main warship of the Viking age Scuttled in Roskilde Fjord c.1100
Sebbe Als Viking ship Augustenborg   Denmark Around 1050, somewhere in the Baltic area Baltic warship of the Viking age Scuttled in Roskilde Fjord c.1100
Lisa von Lübeck Caravel Lübeck, Germany   Germany
 
c.1200 Main medieval merchant c.1500 Class replica
Kamper Kogge Hanseatic cog Kampen, the Netherlands   Netherlands
 
c.1200 Main medieval merchant c.1500 Class replica
Roland von Bremen Bremen cog Bremen, Germany   Germany
 
1380 Main medieval merchant Sank 1380
São Cristóvão Caravel Mossel Bay, South Africa Bartolomeu Dias Museum Complex   Portugal
 
1488 Bartolomeu Dias' ship
Santa María Carrack Columbus, US 39°57′47″N 83°00′20″W / 39.96306°N 83.00556°W / 39.96306; -83.00556   United States
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′41″N 6°55′41″W / 37.21139°N 6.92806°W / 37.21139; -6.92806 Wharf of the Caravels museum   Spain
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 53°31′22″N 113°37′36″W / 53.52278°N 113.62667°W / 53.52278; -113.62667 West Edmonton Mall   Canada
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Funchal, Portugal 32°38′30″N 16°55′00″W / 32.64167°N 16.91667°W / 32.64167; -16.91667   Portugal
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Tortola, British Virgin Islands The Columbus Foundation   British Virgin Islands
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′42″N 6°55′41″W / 37.21167°N 6.92806°W / 37.21167; -6.92806 Wharf of the Caravels museum   Spain
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Bayona, Spain 42°7′16″N 8°50′48″W / 42.12111°N 8.84667°W / 42.12111; -8.84667 Caravel Pinta Museum   Spain
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Tortola, British Virgin Islands The Columbus Foundation   British Virgin Islands
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′40″N 6°55′42″W / 37.21111°N 6.92833°W / 37.21111; -6.92833 Wharf of the Caravels museum   Spain
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel El Puerto de Santa María, Spain 36°34′41″N 6°15′23″W / 36.57806°N 6.25639°W / 36.57806; -6.25639   Spain
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Corpus Christi, US 27°47′38″N 97°23′27″W / 27.79389°N 97.39083°W / 27.79389; -97.39083   United States
 
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Matthew Caravel Bristol, UK   United Kingdom
 
c.1495 John Cabot's ship to America in 1497
Nau Capitânia Nau Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Brazilian Naval Cultural Centre   Brazil   ca 1500 Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral Class replica
Victoria Carrack Seville, Spain Fundacion Nao Victoria   Spain
 
c.1515 Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first attempt at circumnavigation of the planet Achieved the circumnavigation of the globe again in 2006.
Victoria Carrack Punta Arenas, Chile Nao Victoria Museum   Chile
 
c.1515 Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first attempt at circumnavigation of the planet
Victoria Carrack Puerto San Julián, Argentina 49°18′46″S 67°42′52″W / 49.31278°S 67.71444°W / -49.31278; -67.71444 Museo Tematico Nao Victoria   Argentina
 
c.1515 Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first attempt at circumnavigation of the planet
Grande Hermine Carrack Jordan Harbour, Ontario c.1520 Brought Jacques Cartier to Saint-Pierre on 15 June 1535 abandoned, vandalised and arsoned, beached
San Salvador Galleon San Diego Bay, Spain Maritime Museum of San Diego, United States 32°43′15″N 117°10′30″W / 32.72083°N 117.17500°W / 32.72083; -117.17500   US
 
1540 First European exploration of Coastal California 1542-43
Real Galley Barcelona, Spain   Spain
 
c.1570 Flagship of Don John of Austria in the Battle of Lepanto
Golden Hind(e) Galleon London, UK
  United Kingdom
 
c.1575 1577-1580 circumnavigation
Golden Hind(e) Galleon Brixham, UK
  United Kingdom
 
c.1575 1577-1580 circumnavigation Second replica of the ship anchored in 1963 used in the TV series Sir Francis Drake
Duyfken East Indies Explorer Perth, Australia   Netherlands
 
1595 Discovery of Australia 1606 Irreparable damage 1608
Andalucía (es:) Galleon Seville, Spain Fundacion Nao Victoria   Spain
 
c.1600 Main Spanish galleon
Discovery Barque Jamestown, US Jamestown Settlement museum   United Kingdom
 
1602 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607
Godspeed Brigantine Jamestown, US Jamestown Settlement museum   United States
 
c.1605 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607 The 1984/85 replica sailed the Atlantic (without the aid of engines) departing London on April 30, 1985 with a crew of 14.
Susan Constant Merchant Jamestown, US Jamestown Settlement museum   United Kingdom
 
c.1605 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607
Halve Maen Jacht Hoorn, Netherlands   Netherlands
 
c.1608 Original explorer of what is now called the Hudson River, Henry Hudson, 1609 Destroyed around 1618 in Jakarta
San Juan Bautista Galleon Ishinomaki, Japan   Japan
 
1613 Crossed the Pacific Ocean from Japan to New Spain in 1614 Sold to the Spanish government in 1618 Survived the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami with minor damage
Mayflower II Merchant Plymouth, MA, US   United States c.1607 Pilgrim ship 1620 Dismantled 1623?
Kalmar Nyckel Dutch full-rigged pinnace Kalmar Nyckel Foundation, US   Sweden
 
1625 Founded New Sweden colony at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware, USA) Late 17th century Charters, Daysails, Appearances
Batavia East Indiaman Lelystad, The Netherlands   Netherlands
 
1628 Mutiny 1629 Wrecked 1629
Prins Willem East Indiaman Den Helder, the Netherlands   Netherlands
 
1649 Sank 1662 Replica destroyed in fire, July 2009
Nonsuch Ketch Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada   United Kingdom
 

 

1650 Original trading mission into Hudson Bay 1668-69) for precursor of the Hudson's Bay Company Unknown (possibly sunk in the 1670s) Crafted for 1970 tercentenary of HBC. Sailed up and down Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America.
De Zeven Provinciën Ship of the Line (80 guns) Lelystad, the Netherlands   Netherlands
 
1665 Flagship of Michiel de Ruyter Decommissioned 1694 Under construction
Lenox Ship of the line (70 guns) Proposed for Deptford, London, UK Proposed Deptford Dockyard Museum   United Kingdom
 
1678 Took part in capture of Gibraltar (1704) Scuttled to serve as breakwater in 1756 Proposed (in 2013) full-size sailing replica, to be built in a dedicated museum on the site of old Deptford Dockyard where the original was built.[18][19]
Goto Predestinatsia Ship of the line (58 guns) Voronezh Voronezh shipyard   Russia
 
1700 First ship of the line of Russia 1712 sold Ship-museum
Shtandart Frigate (24 guns) Saint Petersburg Baltic ports   Russia
 
1703 Flagship of Peter the Great of Russia 1727 Decommissioned In Limbo
Götheborg East Indiaman Gothenburg, Sweden Globetrotter   Sweden
SOIC
c.1740 Sank 1745 Sail training vessel (volunteers)
Amsterdam East Indiaman Amsterdam, the Netherlands Scheepvaart Museum   Netherlands
 
1749 Grounded 1749
Lady Washington Brig Aberdeen, US   United States
Private Owner
c.1750 First US merchant to reach Japan Foundered 1798
Jacobstads Wapen Galeas Jakobstad, Finland   Sweden
 
c.1750
Surprise/Rose Frigate San Diego, US San Diego Maritime Museum   United Kingdom
 
1757 1776 attack New York. Scuttled 1779 Renamed Surprise after movie Master and Commander
HMS Sultana Schooner Chestertown, Maryland, US   United Kingdom
 
1767 US colony coast patrol Sold 1772
Endeavour Barque Sydney, Australia Australian National Maritime Museum   United Kingdom
 
1768 Captain Cook's ship
La Grace Brig   Czech Republic ca 1768 Named after earlier frigate of Augustin Heřman Class replica
Beaver Brig Boston USA Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum   United Kingdom
 
ca 1770 One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773 Generic period merchant ship
Eleanor Brig Boston USA Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum   United Kingdom
 
ca 1770 One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773 Generic period merchant ship
Hector Fluyt Pictou, Canada Ship Hector Foundation   Canada
 
ca 1720 Immigrant Ship after 1773
l'Hermione 12-pounder Concorde-class frigate Rochefort, France L'Association Hermione-La Fayette   France
 
1779 Used by Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War Sank 1792 Replica Hermione started sea trials in September 2014; set sail for comemorial voyage on April 18, 2015.
Delft Ship of the Line (56-gun) Rotterdam, the Netherlands Scheepswerf De Delft[2]   Batavian Republic
 
1783 Battle of Camperdown Sank 1797 Under Construction
Bounty Armed Transport 1) Greenport, New York,
2) Discovery Bay, Hong Kong
  United Kingdom
 
1787 Mutiny 1789 Burned 1790 Foundered in Hurricane Sandy
Maryland Federalist Miniature square rigger Maryland State House, Annapolis, US Maryland State Archives   United States 1788 Original vessel presented as a gift to George Washington Original vessel sunk in a storm in the Potomac River in 1788
Étoile du Roy Frigate Saint-Malo, France   United Kingdom
 
c.1790 Generic Nelson age war ship replica used in Hornblower
Friendship of Salem East Indiaman Salem, Massachusetts USA Salem Maritime National Historic Site   United States 1797 Captured in the War of 1812 and condemned as a prize of war.
Lady Nelson Brig Tasmania, Australia   United Kingdom
 
1799 Explored Australian coastline Captured by pirates 1825
Lynx Schooner Newport Beach, US   United States
 
c.1810 UK blockade running privateer
Fame Schooner Salem, Massachusetts US Salem Maritime National Historic Site   United States
 
c.1812 UK blockade running privateer. Captured 20 ships Wrecked 1814
Pride of Baltimore II Topsail Schooner Baltimore, Maryland, US   United States
 
c.1812 UK blockade running privateer Type replica
USS Niagara Brig Erie, Pennsylvania, US Erie Maritime Museum   United States
 
1813 Battle of Lake Erie Sunk for preservation 1820, rebuilt three times since Sail training vessel and museum
HMS Buffalo Store ship
later convict ship
Gleneig, Adelaide, Australia   United Kingdom
 
1813 Carried the first Governor and 179 colonists to South Australia Wrecked in a gale in 1840 Used as a floating restaurant
Goleta Ancud Schooner Punta Arenas, Chile Nao Victoria Museum   Chile
 
1843 Claim the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the Chilean independent government Uncertain discommission, displayed at Nao Victoria Museum[20]
Freedom Schooner Amistad Schooner New Haven, US   Spain
private owner
c.1825 Involved in the Amistad revolt, 1839 Unknown after 1844
Enterprize Schooner Melbourne, Australia Enterprize Trust, Melbourne   Australia
 
1829 Transported European settlers to Melbourne Replica of Australian built ship. Charters, School Trips, daysails
William the Fourth Steam Paddle Wheeler Newcastle, NSW, Australia Newcastle City Council   Australia 1831 Oceangoing steam-powered side paddlewheeler Replica of Australian built ship
Pilgrim Brig Dana Point, US Ocean Institute   United States
Private owner
1825 1834 memoir by Richard Henry Dana, Jr. Burned at sea 1856 Used in Amistad movie
Dunbrody Barque New Ross, Ireland   Canada
Private owner
1845 Famine Ship Grounded 1875, Labrador A Famine History museum
Jeanie Johnston Barque Dublin, Ireland
Dublin Docklands Development Authority[21]
  Canada 1847 Famine Ship Sail Training vessel, a Famine History Museum and a Corporate Entertainment venue
Californian Schooner San Diego, USA   United States
 
Patrolled California coast c.1850 Based on C.W. Lawrence
Bluenose II Schooner Lunenburg, Canada   Canada
 
1921 Winning Racing Schooner Grounded 1946 Fundraising for Bluenose III

^a If more than one replica is made the home port of the different current ports are given in a numbered list

AustronesiaEdit

Ship name Type Current porta Current affiliation Country Original affiliation Original built Notable for End Remark
Balatik Paraw El Nido, Philippines Tao Philippines   Philippines Replica of a large trimaran paraw completed in 2014. Currently used for island-hopping tours from El Nido to Coron, Palawan by the Tao Philippines organization.
Diwata ng Lahi Balangay Manila, Philippines National Museum of the Philippines   Philippines Kaya ng Pinoy Foundation c.320 CE - AD 1215 One of several replicas of Austronesian lashed-lug plank boats from Butuan. Sailed throughout Southeast Asia in 2008 along with Masawa Hong Butuan and Sama Tawi-Tawi. On permanent display
Lahi ng Maharlika Balangay Manila, Philippines Kaya ng Pinoy Foundation   Philippines c.320 CE - AD 1215 One of several replicas of Austronesian lashed-lug plank boats from Butuan
Masawa Hong Butuan Balangay Manila, Philippines Kaya ng Pinoy Foundation   Philippines c.320 CE - AD 1215 One of several replicas of Austronesian lashed-lug plank boats from Butuan. Sailed throughout Southeast Asia in 2008 along with Diwata ng Lahi and Sama Tawi-Tawi.
Sama Tawi-Tawi Balangay Manila, Philippines Kaya ng Pinoy Foundation   Philippines c.320 CE - AD 1215 One of several replicas of Austronesian lashed-lug plank boats from Butuan. Sailed throughout Southeast Asia in 2008 along with Diwata ng Lahi and Masawa Hong Butuan.
Sarimanok Vinta Bali, Indonesia Oceanographic Research Museum   Philippines ? Sailed in 1985 from Bali to Madagascar across the Indian Ocean to replicate ancient seafaring techniques
Sultan sin Sulu Balangay Manila, Philippines Kaya ng Pinoy Foundation   Philippines c.320 CE - AD 1215 One of several replicas of Austronesian lashed-lug plank boats from Butuan
Alfred Wallace Kalulis Indonesia Tim Severin   Indonesia A replica of built by the British explorer Tim Severin and sailed in the Indonesian archipelago as chronicled in his book The Spice Islands Voyage (1997)
Hati Marege Padewakang Indonesia Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory   Indonesia a replica of a vessel used by Sulawesian to catch teripang in Australian coast, 16-20th century
Samudra Raksa Borobudur ship Indonesia Samudra Raksa Museum   Indonesia c.8th century A replica of one of the ships carved in Borobudur, launched in a 2003 to 2004 expedition from Jakarta to Accra, Ghana
Spirit of Majapahit Borobudur ship Indonesia Japan Majapahit Association   Indonesia c.13th century A replica of a sailing vessel from the Majapahit Kingdom. It sailed from Jakarta to Pontianak, Brunei Darussalam, Manila, Taipei, and Tokyo in 2016
Saina Sakman Guam   United States The first modern replica of a Chamorro sakman ("flying proa") built between 2007 to 2008
Alingano Maisu Waʻa kaulua Kawaihae, Hawaii   United States A double-hulled voyaging canoe built in Kawaihae, Hawaii by members of Na Kalai Waʻa Moku o Hawaiʻi and ʻOhana Wa'a members from throughout the Pacific and abroad as a gift and tribute to Satawalese navigator Mau Piailug
Hōkūleʻa Waʻa kaulua Honolulu, Hawaii Polynesian Voyaging Society   United States A performance-accurate waʻa kaulua, a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe. Launched on 8 March 1975 by the Polynesian Voyaging Society, she is best known for her 1976 Hawaiʻi to Tahiti voyage completed with exclusively Polynesian navigation techniques.
Hawaiʻiloa Waʻa kaulua Honolulu, Hawaii   United States
Hikianalia Waʻa kaulua Hawaii   United States
Hokualakai Waʻa kaulua Hilo, Hawaii   United States
Makali'i Waʻa kaulua Kawaihae, Hawaii   United States
Iosepa Waʻa kaulua Honolulu, Hawaii   United States
Maire Nui Vaka katea Rarotonga, Cook Islands   Cook Islands
Marumaru Atua Vaka katea Rarotonga, Cook Islands   Cook Islands
Tākitimu Vaka katea Rarotonga, Cook Islands   Cook Islands
Te Au O Tonga Vaka katea Rarotonga, Cook Islands   Cook Islands
Faʻafaite i te Ao Māʻohi Pahi Tahiti, French Polynesia   French Polynesia
Tahiti Nui Pahi Tahiti, French Polynesia   French Polynesia
Aotearoa One Waka hourua Auckland, New Zealand   New Zealand
Haunui Waka hourua Auckland, New Zealand   New Zealand
Ngahiraka Mai Tawhiti Waka hourua Auckland, New Zealand   New Zealand
Pūmaiterangi Waka hourua Auckland, New Zealand   New Zealand
Te Aurere Waka hourua Auckland, New Zealand   New Zealand

East AsiaEdit

Other vesselsEdit

  • SS Bandırma; Turkish passenger cargo vessel
  • Jewel of Muscat; Omani 9th-century sailing ship built to retrace the route of the original ship from Oman to Singapore.
  • Ictineu II; Barcelona, Spain; a replica of the first mechanically powered steam driven submarine.
  • The Hjortspring Boat is replica of a Danish Iron Age rowing boat.[22]
  • At the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, replicas of Viking ships are built.
  • Various projects for building replicas of the ill-fated RMS Titanic have been proposed over the years. The first Titanic replica to actually commence construction is being built by Chinese firm Seven Star Energy Investment, likely to be completed in 2020 (delayed from an original target date of 2017). It will not sail on any ocean, but be permanently docked on a river in Sichuan province to function as the main attraction for the Romandisea Seven Star International Cultural Tourism Resort.[23][24][25]
  • Various "replicas" of Noah's Ark have been built. Whether they are properly regarded as "replicas" depends on whether one takes the Biblical flood story as mythology or fact. Since the Biblical description of the vessel is very brief beyond the basic measures, the exact design of any "replica" is necessarily conjectural.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Andrew Doria - The First Salute, Inc". Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  2. ^ a b "Het oorspronkelijke schip 'De Delft'" (in Dutch). Historische werf Rotterdams Welvaren. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  3. ^ "FAQ". Collections & History. USS Constitution Museum. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  4. ^ "Interview: HMS Victory's Commanding Officer, Lt Cdr John Scivier". Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  5. ^ "Diving into History: Min of the Desert". Archaeology. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  6. ^ "How Hatshepsut Helped Build The Good Ship Min. Min of the Desert takes to the sea". Zenobia: Empress of the East. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  7. ^ "Min of the Desert". ferrebeekeeper. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  8. ^ "Uluburun II Project". 360° Arastirma Grubu. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Starting from Odessa (Ukraine) in 1989, Ivlia followed the routes of the ancient mariners on the Black Sea and the Mediterranean as well as the Atlantic, covering more than 3.000 nautical miles in six expedition seasons and visiting over 50 European ports, finally sailing up the river Seine to reach Paris.
  11. ^ "The ship Kybele is ready for travel". Turkish Maritime. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  12. ^ "A Journey into History: İzmir-Phokaia-Marseille". Narkive. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  13. ^ "Historical ship returns to Turkey". Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  14. ^ "A historic deja vu: Phokaians taking civilization to Marseille". Hürriyet. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  15. ^ "Kybele, andar per mare come gli antichi greci". La Republicca. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  16. ^ http://www.visitthanet.co.uk/attractions/viking-ship-hugin/11097
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ "Build the Lenox". www.councilmeetings.lewisham.gov.uk. Lewisham Borough Council. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  19. ^ "The Lenox Project: a lasting legacy for Deptford". www.buildthelenox.org. The Lenox Project. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  20. ^ "Construirán réplicas navegables de la goleta Ancud y del bergantín Beagle" (in Spanish). La Prensa Austral. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  21. ^ "Jeanie Johnston Update". Dublin Docklands Development Authority. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  22. ^ "The Guild of the Hjortspring Boat". Archived from the original on 1997-04-08.
  23. ^ "Chinese firm Seven Star to build full-size Titanic replica and sink it". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  24. ^ "Titanic II or Titanic III". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  25. ^ Street, Francesca (2018-10-23). "Titanic II could sail as soon as 2022". CNN. Retrieved 2019-10-27.

External linksEdit