Houthi insurgency in Yemen
This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (March 2017)
The Houthi insurgency in Yemen, also known as the Houthi rebellion, Sa'dah War, or Sa'dah conflict, was a military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis (though the movement also includes Sunnis) against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war. The conflict was sparked in 2004 by the government's attempt to arrest Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, a Zaidi religious leader of the Houthis and a former parliamentarian on whose head the government had placed a $55,000 bounty. Initially, most of the fighting took place in Sa'dah Governorate in northwestern Yemen, but some of the fighting spread to neighbouring governorates Hajjah, 'Amran, al-Jawf and the Saudi province of Jizan. Since 2014 the nature of the insurgency has changed with the Houthi takeover in Yemen and then into the ongoing Yemeni civil war (2015–present) with a major Saudi-led intervention in Yemen beginning in 2015.
|Houthi Insurgency in Yemen|
|Part of the Yemeni Crisis|
|United States||North Korea|
|Commanders and leaders|
Abdul Malik al-Houthi
Yahya Saleh (alleged since 2014)
Nasir al-Wuhayshi †|
Nasser al-Ansi †
Ibrahim al-Rubaish †
Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari †
|Casualties and losses|
General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar commanded the Yemeni security forces during the conflict and led all the government offensives from 2004 until 2011, when he resigned his post to defend protesters during the Yemeni Revolution.
A Houthi power grab in Sanaʽa escalated on 20 January 2015, when the rebels attacked the president's residence and swept into the presidential palace. President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi was inside the residence as it came under "heavy shelling" for half an hour, but he was unharmed and protected by guards, according to Information Minister Nadia Al-Sakkaf. Presidential guards surrendered the residence after being assured that Hadi could safely evacuate. The U.N. Security Council called an emergency meeting about the unfolding events. United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon expressed concern over the "deteriorating situation" in Yemen and urged all sides to cease hostilities. On 22 January, President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi and Prime Minister Khaled Bahah tendered their resignations to parliament, which reportedly refused to accept them.
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. (May 2015)
In 1962, a revolution in North Yemen ended over 1,000 years of rule by Zaidi Imams, who claimed descent from the Hashemites. Sa'dah, in the north, was their main stronghold and since their fall from power the region was largely ignored economically and remains underdeveloped. The Yemeni government has little authority in Sa'dah.
During Yemen's 1994 civil war, the Wahhabis, an Islamic group adhering to a strict version of Sunni Islam found in neighboring Saudi Arabia, helped the government in its fight against the secessionist south. Zaidis complain the government has subsequently allowed the Wahhabis too strong a voice in Yemen. Saudi Arabia, for its part, worries that strife instigated by the Zaidi sect so close to Yemen's border with Saudi Arabia could stir up groups in Saudi Arabia itself.
The conflict was sparked in 2004 by the government's attempt to arrest Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, a Zaidi religious leader of the Houthis and a former parliamentarian on whose head the government had placed a $55,000 bounty.
Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi movement accused Ali Abdullah Saleh of massive financial corruption and criticized him for being backed by Saudi Arabia and United States at the expense of the Yemeni people and Yemen's sovereignty.
Motives and objectivesEdit
When armed conflict for the first time erupted in 2004 between the Yemeni government and Houthis, the then Yemeni president accused Houthis and other Islamic opposition parties of trying to overthrow the government and the republican system. The Yemeni government alleged that the Houthis were seeking to overthrow it and to implement Zaidi religious law.
Houthi leaders for their part rejected the accusation by saying that they had never rejected the president or the republican system but were only defending themselves against government attacks on their community. The Houthis said that they were "defending their community against discrimination" and government aggression. The Yemeni government has accused Iran of directing and financing the insurgency.
According to a February 2015 Newsweek report, Houthis are fighting "for things that all Yemenis crave: government accountability, the end to corruption, regular utilities, fair fuel prices, job opportunities for ordinary Yemenis and the end of Western influence."
In an interview with the Yemen Times, Hussein Al-Bukhari, a Houthi insider, said that the Houthis' preferred political system is a republic with elections where women can also hold political positions, and that they do not seek to form a cleric-led government after the model of the Islamic Republic of Iran for "we cannot apply this system in Yemen because the followers of the Shafi doctrine are bigger in number than the Zaydis."
Phase 1: June–September 2004Edit
From June to August 2004, government troops battled supporters of al-Houthi in the north. Estimates of the dead range from 500 to 1,000. On 10 September, Yemeni forces killed al-Houthi. Since then, the rebellion has been led by one of his brothers, Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, while his father, Badr Eddin al-Houthi, became the group's spiritual leader.
Phase 2: March–June 2005Edit
Between March and April 2005, some 1,500 people were killed in a resurgence of fighting between government forces and supporters of the slain cleric, now calling themselves Houthis.
In May 2005, the rebels rejected an offer of a presidential pardon by President Ali Abdullah Saleh after their conditions for surrender were refused by the government and minor clashes continued. On May 21, the government released estimates of the impact of the insurgency, announcing that it was responsible for 552 deaths, 2,708 injures, and over US$ 270 million in economic damages.
Phase 3: November 2005 – 2006Edit
Fighting broke out in November 2005 and continued until early 2006. The pro-government Hamdan tribe, led by Sheikh Abdullah al-Awjari, battled with pro-Houthi tribes and Houthis tried to assassinate a Ministry of Justice official in Dhamar. The fighting ended before the Presidential elections that year and in March 2006, the Yemeni government freed more than 600 captured Shī'a fighters. There was no data with regards to casualties in 2006, but they were said to be significantly lower than those of the previous year.
Phase 4: January–June 2007Edit
Further attacks on 31 January left six more soldiers dead and 10 wounded. A further ten soldiers died and 20 were wounded in an attack on an army roadblock near the Saudi Arabian border on 1 February. Though there was no official confirmation of militant casualties in the attacks, government sources claim three rebel fighters were killed in a security operation following the 31 January attacks.
In February, the government launched a major offensive against the rebels involving 30,000 troops. By 19 February, almost 200 members of the security forces and over 100 rebels had died in the fighting. A further 160 rebels were killed in the subsequent two weeks. A French student was also killed.
A ceasefire agreement was reached on 16 June 2007. The rebel leaders agreed to lay down arms and go into exile in Qatar (by whom the agreement had been mediated), while the government agreed to release rebel prisoners, help pay for reconstruction and assist with IDPs returning home. In total some 1,500 people were killed by the conflict in 2007, including 800 government troops, 600 rebels and 100 civilians.
Phase 5: March–July 2008Edit
Armed incidents resumed in April 2008, when seven Yemeni soldiers died in a rebel ambush on 29 April. On 2 May, 15 worshippers were killed and 55 wounded in a bombing at the Bin Salman Mosque in Sa'dah as crowds of people left Friday prayers. The government blamed the rebels for the bombing, but the Houthis denied responsibility. Shortly after the attack, three soldiers and four rebels died in overnight skirmishes.
On 12 May, clashes between Yemeni soldiers and rebels near the border with Saudi Arabia killed 13 soldiers and 26 rebels. During fighting in May 2008, a total of 1,000 government forces were killed and 3,000 injured. Some 70,000 people were displaced by the fighting. President Saleh declared an end to fighting in the northern Sa'dah governorate on 17 July 2008.
Phase 6: Operation Scorched Earth, August 2009 – February 2010Edit
On 11 August 2009, the government promised to use an "iron fist" against the rebels. The Yemeni troops, backed by tanks and fighter aircraft, launched a fresh offensive, code-named Operation Scorched Earth, against the Houthis in the northern Sa'ada province. Hundreds of thousands of people were displaced by the fighting.
On 17 September, more than 80 people were killed in an air raid on a camp for displaced people in northern Yemen.
The conflict took on an international dimension late in the month. Clashes were reported between the Houthis and Saudi security forces near the border. Also, Yemeni officials captured a boat in the Red Sea that was transporting anti-tank shells and, according to some reports, five Iranian "instructors" sent to help the Houthis. Various official Iranian sources responded, calling this claim a politically motivated fabrication, and stating that the ship was traveling for business activities carrying no consignment. In early November the rebels stated that Saudi Arabia was permitting Yemeni army units to launch attacks from across the border at a base in Jabal al-Dukhan, charges which were denied by the Yemeni government. In late October, heavy clashes in the area of Razih led to the Houthis capturing two military headquarters and killing Yemeni General Amr Ali Mousa Al-Uuzali. In early November, General Ali Salem al-Ameri and regional security chief Ahmed Bawazeir were killed in a Houthi ambush as they were returning from Saudi Arabia.
Attacking Saudi Arabian Borders, 4 November 2009Edit
The conflict took on an international dimension on 4 November 2009 when the Houthis attacked the Saudi border, killed one of the Saudi border guards, seized Al Khubah Village and other villages. The Houthis accuse Saudi Arabia of supporting the Yemeni government in attacks against them. It was not clear what type of support they meant. The Saudi government denied this. The rebels shot dead a Saudi security officer in a cross-border attack. The rebels took control of a mountainous section inside Saudi Arabia, in the border region of Jabal al-Dukhan and occupied two villages inside Saudi territory. The houthis had entered Saudi territory and attacked patrols, and that a second soldier later died from wounds sustained in the same clash. On 5 November, Saudi Arabia responded by launching heavy air strikes on rebels in northern Yemen, and moved troops nearer the border. Saudi government officials said only that the air force had bombed Yemeni rebels who had seized a border area inside the kingdom, which they said had now been recaptured. The officials said at least 40 rebels had been killed in the fighting. The Saudi government adviser said no decision had yet been taken to send troops across the border, but made clear Riyadh was no longer prepared to tolerate the Yemeni rebels. The Saudi assault continued the following day, as Saudi residents near the southern border of Jizan Province were evacuated. At the same time, a Houthi spokesman reported to the media that they had captured Saudi troops. On 16 November, Yemen forces killed two Houthi commanders, Abbas Aaida and Abu Haider. On 19 November, Yemeni forces took control of al-Malaheez, killing the local commander Ali al-Qatwani.
Houthi leaders claim that United States involvement in the war started on 14 December 2009 when the US launched 28 air raids. At least 120 people were killed and 44 injured by the alleged US air raids on the regions of Amran, Hajjah and Sa'dah in northern Yemen. Houthis claimed air raids on 18 December killed 63 civilians, including 28 children and injured at least 90 people. U.S. President Barack Obama claimed he had authorised the strikes against al-Qaeda. On 20 December, Saudi air strike killed some civilians. According to a spokesman for the Houthis, a Saudi attack killed 54 people in the town of Al Nadheer in the northern province of Sa'dah. The group also claimed that Saudi forces were advancing on the nearby town of Zawa, also in Sa'dah, and had fired more than 200 shells.
On 22 December, the Houthis stated that they managed to repulse Saudi Arabian forces trying to infiltrate into the province of Sa'dah, killing an unspecified number of Saudi soldiers in a battle in the border region.
The fighting between Yemeni and Saudi forces and Houthis killed at least 119 Yemeni government forces, 263 Houthis, 277 civilians and 7 foreign civilians. Saudi casualties were confirmed at 82 at the time. With more soldiers killed in subsequent clashes and missing soldiers being found dead, however, the casualties rose to 133 killed by 22 January 2010. The number of missing was put at six.
In early January 2010, the Houthis chose the Iraqi cleric Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani to mediate in their political standoff with the Yemeni government and to find a solution to the conflict. This choice was criticized by Saudi cleric Mohammad al-Arifi, a preacher at Riyadh's central mosque, who dismissed al-Sistani as "an infidel and debauched." The remarks by the Saudi cleric were considered extremely insulting by Shi'as around the world, causing major outrage in some Shi'a dominant countries like Iraq, Iran and Lebanon.
On 13 January 2010, Operation Blow to the Head was launched in an attempt by the government to capture the city of Sa'adah. Security forces claimed they killed 34 and arrested at least 25 Houthis, as well as killing al-Qaeda in Yemen leader Abdullah al-Mehdar in the next two weeks of fighting.
On 25 January 2010, the Houthis offered a truce. Houthi leader Abdul Malek al-Houthi said they would stop fighting to prevent further civilian casualties and the withdrawal was a gesture for peace, but warned that if the Saudis were to continue fighting the Houthis would go over into open warfare. A Saudi general announced that the Houthis had stopped fighting and were not on Saudi land anymore and that in response the Saudis also stopped fighting saying, "The battle has ended by God's will." But the Saudi king denied the Houthis had withdrawn saying they were forced out, and declared military victory for the end of their conflict with the Houthis. There have however been allegations that the Saudis launched new air raids on 29 January, thus breaking the truce.
On 1 January the Yemeni government offered a conditional cease-fire. The cease-fire had five conditions which were the re-establishment of safe passage on roads, the surrender of mountain strongholds, a full withdrawal from all local authority property, the return of all military and public equipment seized during hostilities and the release of all the detained civilians and soldiers. On 30 January, Abdel-Malek al-Houthi released a video wherein he blamed the government for the recent round of fighting but said that: "Nevertheless, and for the fourth time, I announce our acceptance of the [government's] five conditions [for an end to the conflict] after the aggression stops ... the ball is now in the other party's court." After the truce was accepted on 30 January, however, there were still some clashes between the Houthis and both Saudi and Yemeni forces. Therefore, on 31 January the Yemeni government rejected the truce and launched a new round of attacks, killing 24 people.
2010 conflict with pro-government tribesEdit
In April, Houthi spokesman Mohammed Abdulsalam declared that rebels had captured the Manaba district in Sa'dah, with little government resistance. Government troops declared they had killed 30 Houthis who had tried to penetrate into Harf Sufyan District.
On July 17, 2010, the Houthis warned on their website that the government was preparing for another offensive against the Houthis. They said the government had been digging trenches from the Sanaʽa to Sa'ada. They claimed the army was trying to amass servicemen in villages and that soldiers in Amshia Bsfian region were creating an army stronghold on Mount Guide. The report came as the Yemeni government blamed Houthi fighters for recent ethnic clashes which had killed 11 people, including two soldiers, and for the kidnapping of two people in a market. The Houthis have denied these allegations and have claimed that it was the work of the government.
On July 20, 2010, clashes broke out between Houthis and members of an army-backed tribe, led by Sheikh Sagheer Aziz, in the region of Souffian. A Houthi commander declared that the clashes had broken out because of Yemeni Army attacks on Houthis and local pro-Houthi tribes. Forty-nine people were reported killed in the clashes, including 20 tribal and 10 Houthi fighters. The Houthis also managed to surround the Yemeni military bases in the region. Over the following days the Yemeni army and pro-government Bin Aziz tribes continued to clash with the Houthis. The government claimed that in the following two days, 20 fighters were killed on each side. A Houthi spokesman denied these claims, stating only three Houthi fighters had been killed in the clashes. Both sides have blamed each other for starting the clashes. The UN expressed great concern about the situation in North Yemen.
On July 23, Houthi spokesman Vayf-Allah al-Shami said calm had returned to the region and that a government committee was trying to mediate a cease-fire between the Houthis and the Bin Aziz tribes in the Souffian region.
On July 27, Houthis seized a military post at al-Zaala in Harf Sufyan, capturing 200 soldiers of the army's Republican Guard. Tribal sources claimed they had inflicted 200 fatalities on the Houthis in al-Amsheya while suffering only 30 dead themselves. Houthi spokesman Abdul Salam denied the high number of killed and said the claims were highly exaggerated. Houthis said they recovered the bodies of 17 of their fighters, including that of rebel commander Abu Haidar, near the house of Sheikh Saghir Aziz in Al-Maqam, near Al-Zaala.
On July 29, the Houthis released the 200 soldiers they had captured as a goodwill gesture. In total some 70 people had died since the clashes started.
On November 22, one soldier was killed and two wounded in a roadside bombing. The next day 23 Houthi fighters and supporters were killed and 30 injured by a car bomb targeting a Shi'a religious procession in al-Jawf province. On November 26, two Shi'a mourners were killed and eight injured by a bomb while on their way to Sa'adah city to attend Badreddin al-Houthi's funeral.
In total, between 195 and 281 people were killed during this round violence, with the majority of the casualties on the Houthi side.
2011 Yemeni RevolutionEdit
A major demonstration by over 16,000 protestors took place in Sanaʽa on 27 January. On 2 February, President Saleh announced he would not run for reelection in 2013 and that he would not pass power to his son. On 3 February, 20,000 people protested against the government in Sanaʽa, and others in Aden, in a "Day of Rage" called for by Tawakel Karman. On the same day, soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress and many others held a pro-government counter-demonstration in Sanaʽa.
On February 27, Abdul Malik al-Houthi announced support for the pro-democracy protests and the effort to effect regime change, as had happened in Tunisia and Egypt. Following these statements, large crowds of Houthis joined in protests across Northern Yemen.
Houthi fighters entered Sa'ada on March 19, engaging in a drawn out battle with the pro-government forces of Sheikh Uthman Mujalli. They seized control of the city on March 24, after destroying Sheikh Mujalli's house and forcing the local governor to flee. The Houthis established military checkpoints at the entrances to the city after police deserted their posts and were relocated to army camps elsewhere.
On March 26, Houthi rebels declared the creation of their own administration in Saada Governorate, independent from Yemeni authorities. A former arms dealer was appointed governor by the Houthis, the previous governor having fled to Sanaa.
On July 8, 23 people were killed in fighting between the Houthis and the opposition Islah party in al-Jawf governorate. The fighting erupted after the governor of al-Jawf fled, opposition tribes took control of the governorate, and the Houthis refused to hand over a Yemeni military base which they had seized several months earlier. Fighting continued until July 11, with more than 30 people killed. The Houthis claimed that some elements of the pro-Islah militias had links to al-Qaeda.
On July 28, over 120 people were killed as the Houthis launched an offensive to take over government buildings in al-Jawf. Fighting in Jawf lasted for four months, in which time Sunni tribes claimed to have killed 470 Houthis, while acknowledging 85 casualties of their own. The Houthis eventually took control of al-Jawf governorate.
In August a car-bombing killed 14 Houthis in al-Jawf.  Although the Houthis initially blamed the US and Israel for the bombing, al-Qaeda eventually claimed responsibility, the organization having declared a holy war against the Houthis earlier that year. In early November clashes erupted between Houthis and a Salafi group in Sa'dah, leaving one Salafist dead.
On November 9, after several days of heavy fighting, the Houthis managed to break through defense lines of the pro-government Kashir and Aahm tribes in Hajjah Governorate, seizing control of the Kuhlan Ash Sharaf District and advancing towards the port of Midi, thereby gaining access to the sea. Through Hajjah, the Houthis would be able to launch an assault on the Yemeni capital Sanaʽa. By taking Kuhlan Ash Sharaf, the Houthis managed to gain control over a highway linking San'a to the sea.
On November 15, clashes between Houthis and Islah party militia restarted in al-Jawf, after an Islah party member tried to blow himself up during the al-Ghadeer festival, in Al Maton District but was captured and killed by the Houthis. A total of 10 people died in the ensuing fighting.
On December 19, Houthis stormed a Sunni Islamist school in the Shaharah District of 'Amran governorate, injuring one teacher and expelling all teachers and students from the school. Houthis then took up positions inside the school.
On 23 November, Saleh signed a power-transfer agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh, under which he would transfer his power to his Vice-President within 30 days and leave his post as president by February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Although the GCC deal was accepted by the JMP, it was rejected by many of the protesters and the Houthis.
A presidential election was held in Yemen on 21 February 2012. With a reported 65 percent turnout, Abdrabbuh Mansur al-Hadi won 99.8% of the vote, and took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February 2012. Saleh returned home the same day to attend Hadi's presidential inauguration. After months of protests, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and formally transferred power to his successor, marking the end of his 33-year rule.
Throughout the year, some 200 people were killed in clashes between Houthis and Salafi militias in Sa'dah province.
On February 26, 2012, heavy fighting occurred in Hajjah governorate as Houthis fought Sunni tribesmen loyal to the Al-Islah party. At least seven fighters from the Hojjor tribe were killed and nine others injured, while in the Ahem area nine bodies were found, belonging to Houthi fighters. Houthis launched an assault backed by artillery on al-Jarabi area, al-Hazan village, al-Moshaba mountain, and Ahem police station to take control of the al-Moshaba mountain. Parts of the Kushar District were put under siege since clashes erupted in that province between Houthis and the al-Zakari tribe in November. In early February, over 55 people had been killed during sectarian violence in Kushar. During February and March some 27 people were killed and 36 injured due to mines in Hajjah. A total of 600 were killed in clashes in Hajjah between November 2011 and April 2012, mainly in Kushar and Mustaba Districts.
On March 8, a high-ranking military commander and six of his bodyguards were killed by Houthi gunmen in the northern province of Amran.
On March 23, a suicide bomber targeted a Houthi march in Sa'dah, no casualties were reported. On March 25, some 14 people were killed and three injured in a car bombing in al-Hazm of al-Jawf province, targeting a Shi'a gathering near a school. Another 8 Houthis were killed in an attack by Salafis on April 21. From June 2 to June 4, Houthis clashed with Salafi militias in Kataf district leaving several dead. Houthis claim to have taken over three Salafi positions and confiscated Saudi weapons during the clash.
On August 21, clashes broke out between Houthis and tribes in Ash Shahil District of Hajjah after Houthis allegedly shot two women in the district. As the fighting broke out, Houthis retreated from al-Amroor area and retreated to the mountains between Janeb al-Sham and Janeb al-Yemen. Houthis were said to control several mountains in the region including mount Azzan and the governorate center that overlooks al-Mahabishah, Qafl Shamer and Ku'aydinah Districts. A truce was signed between the two sides on August 30. Clashes reignited on September 6 and Houthis managed to seize control of five schools, a medical center and a police station. Some 30 people were killed in the battles. Afterwards Houthis claimed civilian areas were being shelled by al-Islah, while MP Ali al-Ma'amari accused Houthis of killing a worker from Taiz.
In September and October, Houthis led many protests in Sanaʽa as part of the 2012 Anti-US protests caused by the release of Innocence of Muslims. Houthi slogans were hung all across the old city of Sanaʽa and Shi'a majority areas during the protests. This has led to Houthis expanding their control in Sanaʽa Governorate and other areas around the capital, particularly Khwlan and Sanhan Districts and the town Shibam Kawkaban in al-Mahwit. Al-Juraf district was also named as a Houthi stronghold, where they had large numbers of weapons stationed. Sunni sources have alleged that Houthis have used the protests to smuggle weapons and fighters from areas surrounding Sanaʽa into Sanaʽa city itself, mainly in the old city.
During one of the protests, in Raydah, Amran, clashes broke out between Houthis and Islahi gunmen after the Islahi gunmen interrupted a Houthi mass rally, denouncing Innocence of Muslims and the US government, on September 21. Two people were killed during the clash and three Islahi gunmen were captured. Fighting continued until September 23, leaving 16 fighters dead and 36 Islah men captured by the Houthis. After a cease-fire was agreed on, Houthis withdrew from the town and released the prisoners they had taken. A group of Houthis remained in Owaidan mosque.
2014–15: Victory for the insurgencyEdit
On 18 August 2014, the Houthis began a series of demonstrations in Sanaʽa against increased fuel prices. On 21 September, the Houthis took control of Sanaʽa, after which Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa resigned and the Houthis signed a deal for a new unity government with other political parties. The protests were marked by clashes between the Houthis and the government and also clashes between the Houthis and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. At least 340 people were killed on the outskirts of the Yemeni capital in one week of fighting between the Shiite rebels and Sunni militiamen before the city fell. The new government was sworn in on 9 November, although the Houthis and General People's Congress announced they would not take part.
A spokesman for the Houthi group has accused Yemen's President Hadi of arming members of Al-Qaeda in the Marib province, east of the country, in order to create a new security crisis.
The crisis intensified as Houthi militants attacked the presidential palace and private residence in January 2015, quickly seizing control of both. On 22 January, President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his ministers resigned. The Houthis declared themselves in full control of the government on 6 February, dissolving parliament and putting a Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi in charge of the country.
Hadi escaped from house arrest on 21 February and made his way to Aden, where he renounced his resignation, condemned the Houthi takeover, and attempted to reassemble his government. He declared Aden to be Yemen's provisional capital.
Fighting broke out over Aden International Airport on 19 March after Hadi dismissed a general in Aden, Abdul-Hafez al-Saqqaf, whom he suspected of being loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh, widely believed to be an ally of the Houthis. The next day, a quadruple suicide bombing ripped through two mosques in Sanaʽa while hundreds of Houthis were praying there. The Revolutionary Committee declared a "state of general mobilisation" in response to the events and launched a military offensive directed at Hadi's holdouts, whom the Houthis accused of being in league with al-Qaeda.
Since the clashes at the airport and the Houthis' southward offensive, the media has increasingly described the deteriorating situation in Yemen and the escalating clashes between the two factions claiming to represent the legitimate government as a civil war.
Several states led by Saudi Arabia also mounted a military intervention in Yemen codenamed "Operation Decisive Storm". The Saudi-led coalition sided with Hadi's government in Aden, shelling Houthi positions from land and sea and hitting them with airstrikes.
Missile attacks on Saudi territoryEdit
On May 19, 2017 Saudi Arabia intercepted a Houthi-fired ballistic missile targeting, a deserted area south of the Saudi capital and most populous city Riyadh. This missile attack was followed by another one on 27 October 2016, allegedly aimed towards the Holy Mosque in Mecca ("Makkah Al-Mukarramah, the prayer direction of Muslims and the Cradle of Revelation"), which was condemned by a special Emergency Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) on 17 November 2017.
On 19 December 2017, a direct attack on Riyadh by another ballistic missile was intercepted, allegedly"Iranian-made", launched by"Iranian-supported rebels" and aimed at the Saudi royal palace. Another special Extraordinary Meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the Member States of the OIC on 21 January 2018 in Jeddah condemned the attack, decrying it as an aggression on the KSA, and taking it as "evidence of the Iranian-backed Houthi militias' refusal to cooperate with the international community and accept international resolutions", referring to the resolution adopted in the Mecca Conference in November 2016 and relevant UN Security Council resolutions.
Alleged foreign involvementEdit
Iran, North Korea and HezbollahEdit
- The Saudi and Yemeni governments both accuse Iran of helping the Houthis. Iran, they say, has secretly landed arms on the Red Sea coast. In October, 2009, Yemen's government said its navy intercepted an arms-carrying Iranian vessel. Yemen's state-controlled press claims Houthi rebels have been trained in an Iranian-run camp across the Red Sea in Eritrea. Yemen's president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, says members of Lebanon's Iran-backed Hezbollah militia are teaching them. The Yemeni authorities also darkly note that the Houthis' long-time leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, who died in battle in 2004, used to visit Qom, one of Shia Islam's holiest places. None of these accusations have yet been borne out by independent observers and the Iranians deny any involvement.
- Saudi-owned Al Arabiya claimed that "well-informed sources" are saying that "the president of the former South Yemen (Ali Salim al-Bidh) conducted a secret visit to the Lebanese capital Beirut last October (2009), and tried to contact figures close to Hezbollah aiming to win its support for the Houthi rebels, and for South (Yemen's) secession." The sources added that those Hezbollah-allied figures "informed al-Bidh that the party's top officials do not want to meet with him and that they do not approve the attribution of Hezbollah's name with what is happening in Yemen, or to appear as supporting to any rebellion." Ibrahim al-Mussawi, Head of Hezbollah's Media Unit, told Alarabiya.net that his party denies the report about an alleged secret visit.
- High-ranking officials from the Iranian Revolutionary Guard were said to have secretly met with Houthi rebels and Hezbollah in Yemen to coordinate joint military operations against Saudi positions along the border. Pan-Arab Asharq al-Awsat daily said Arab and Egyptian sources uncovered that a number of intelligence services in the region have learned of the three-way meeting which also aimed at developing a plan to escalate the military situation along the Saudi-Yemeni border. It said the high-level meeting which took place in November, 2009 was the most prominent evidence of "direct Iranian involvement" in the support of Houthi rebels financially, militarily and logistically.
- Yemeni Foreign Minister Abu Bakr al-Qirbi on 13 December 2009 urged Iran to crack down on Iranian groups he accused of aiding Houthi rebels in northern Yemen and held Iran's government partly to blame. He said: "Religious (Shiite) circles and groups in Iran are providing aid to the Huthis," However, Iran has repeatedly denied such accusations.
- On 25 May 2009, Iran first deployed warships to the Gulf of Aden to combat piracy in Somalia. On 18 November, a second group of Iranian warships came to the Gulf of Aden, at the same time as Saudi Arabia imposed a blockade on Houthi-controlled coasts and launched a crackdown on Houthi ships delivering weapons to the Houthis. Iran dispatched its 5th fleet to the Gulf of Aden. Some have alleged that the Iranian Navy is operating there to help supply the Houthis with weapons and counter the Saudi naval power in the area rather than to fight Somali pirates.
- According to a recent UN report made in August 2018, the North Korean government-owned Korean Ministry of Military Equipment and Korea Mining Development Trading Corporation (KOMID) are supplying the Houthis with arms which violated North Korea's sanctions.
Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Sudan, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates.Edit
Saudi Arabia has led a major military intervention in Yemen, and organized a coalition of other nations to support its efforts, including Egypt, Jordan, Sudan, and Bahrain.
In December 2009, The New York Times reported that the United States has provided weapons and logistical support to Yemeni government strikes against suspected hide-outs of Al Qaeda within its borders. The officials said that the American support was approved by President Obama and came at the request of the Yemeni government.
Houthi leaders however claim that US involvement started on 14 December when the US launched 28 air raids. At least 120 people were killed and 44 injured by the alleged US air raids on the regions of Amran, Hajjah and Sa'ada in North Yemen, a Houthi leader was quoted as saying: "The US air force perpetrated an appalling massacre against citizens in the north of Yemen as it launched air raids on various populated areas, markets, refugee camps and villages along with Saudi warplanes. The savage crime committed by the US air force shows the real face of the United States. It cancels out much touted American claims of human rights protection, promotion of freedoms of citizens as well as democracy." The Houthi claimed that new air raids on 18 December killed 63 civilians, including 28 children and injured at least 90 people.
The Houthis blamed US intelligence forces of carrying out a bombing in August 2011 which killed 14 Houthi fighters.
- Jordan: It has been alleged that Jordan deployed commandos to fight alongside the Saudis during their offensive in Northern Mount Al-Dukhan and that Saudis sent the Jordanian commandos to fight in Northern Yemen. They also sent auxiliary units to support Saudi forces. By December 2009 it was alleged that over 2,000 Jordanian soldiers were fighting at the front.
- Morocco: It was alleged that Morocco have sent hundreds of elite fighters, mainly para-troopers trained for counter-insurgency operations, to aid the 2009–2010 Saudi offensive.
- Pakistan: Initially it was alleged in some news channels that the Pakistan government had sent contingent of special forces to join Yemeni counter insurgency operations in Sa'dah. However, Pakistan government has strongly rejected these rumors of sending Pakistani troops to join a Saudi-backed coalition forces fighting Houthi rebels in war-stricken Yemen. The official statement says Pakistan government is in favor of peaceful solution of this dispute.
In April 2008, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the conflict had created 77,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sa'dah Governorate. By order of then king Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, the Saudis were to shelter and build 10,000 new homes for the war-displaced people of Saudi nationality in Jizan.
Use of child soldiersEdit
UNICEF and Islamic Relief were reported as condemning Houthi rebels for abusing children by forcing them to fight for their cause. In November 2009, over 400 children walked to the UNDP office in Sanaʽa, to protest against the alleged Houthi abuse of children's rights.
Allegations were made that both the Yemeni government and the Houthi rebels exploited the use of child soldiers during the war. Human Rights Watch noted difficulty in citing the exact numbers of child soldiers on the Houthis' part. However, there existed a significant amount of evidence that the government itself employed child soldiers in the ranks of the armed forces, the result of the country's lack of birth certificates and further documentation of age. Where the Yemeni government was limited by restrictions, The Times reported on a fourteen-year-old boy who fought for a tribal militia sponsored by the government.
A Sanaʽa-based human rights group, Seyaj Organization for Childhood Protection, noted that the Houthis were mainly responsible, stating that fifty-percent of the rebels were under the age of eighteen. It is estimated that anywhere between 400 and 500 children are killed every year in Yemen as the result of tribal conflict. The same organization eventually released a report claiming that 700 children were used as soldiers by the Houthis and pro-government militias during the war. The report concluded that 187 children were killed during the conflict, 71% as the result of the fighting.
These allegations were supported by the story of "Akram," a nine-year-old boy who was duped by a cousin to deliver a bomb to an unspecified target in the Old City of Saada. Akram, unknowingly wired with an explosive, was apprehended by police and taken to safety in Sanaʽa, along with his father. A day after telling his story at a press conference Akram's home was bombed in Saada City. His younger brother suffered injuries in the retaliation.
- "Government reinforces army to eradicate Houthis". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Военные, которые пострадали в Йемене, работали по белорусскому контракт Archived 2019-01-20 at the Wayback Machine — Tut.by (27 ноября 2013)
- Белорусские Т-80БВ понесли первые потери в Йемене Archived 2019-02-19 at the Wayback Machine (21 января 2015)
- "Jordanian commandos join war on Houthi fighters". Press TV. 21 November 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Saudis 'in a panic mode' as Shi'ite rebels move North from Yemen". Worldtribune.com. 4 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Canales, Pedro (3 December 2009). "Marruecos y Jordania envían tropas de élite para ayudar a los saudíes en Yemen". El Imparcial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Sudan military rejects claims of heavy losses in Yemen". Middle East Monitor. 25 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "'US fighter jets attack Yemeni fighters'". Press TV. 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "US 'sends special forces to Yemen' amid crisis". Press TV. 14 December 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- "Yemen seeks US help to quash Houthis". Ahlul Bayt News Agency. 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- "Houthi TV Airs Footage of US Military Plane in Yemeni Airbase". MEMRI. Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
- "Houthi victories in Yemen make Saudi Arabia nervous". Al Monitor. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
- Martin Reardon (30 September 2014). "Saudi Arabia, Iran and the 'Great Game' in Yemen". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "North Korea's Balancing Act in the Persian Gulf". HuffPost. 17 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
North Korea's military support for Houthi rebels in Yemen is the latest manifestation of its support for anti-American forces.
- "North Korea Likely Supplied Scud Missiles Fired at Saudi Arabia by Yemen's Houthi Rebels - VICE News". vice.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Report: North Korea supplying missiles to Yemen rebels". upi.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Houthis accuse Yemen's president of arming Al-Qaeda". Middle East Monitor. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "How al Qaeda's biggest enemy took over Yemen (and why the U.S. government is unlikely to support them)". The Intercept. 22 January 2015. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "Insurgents take control of Yemeni city". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Yemen Post Staff (27 March 2011). "Houthi Group Appoints Arms Dealer as Governor of Sa'ada province". Yemen Post. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Al-Batati, Saeed (2011-03-28). "Yemeni regime loses grip on four provinces". Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- The Muslim News Yemen after Saleh: A future fraught with violence Archived August 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Friday 27 May 2011.
- "Bombings in Yemeni Mosques Kill More Than 130". The New York Times. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- "Yemen: A country contested". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Military Operation in Yemen". Sputnik News. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- EIU Digital Solutions. "Death of military commander sparks fears for transition". Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Yemen revolutionaries celebrate deal with government". Press TV. 2014-09-22. Archived from the original on 2014-09-26. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
- "Houthis kill top Yemeni commander". Presstv.com. 2009-10-25. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Ambush kills 3 Yemeni soldiers, 2 top officers". PressTV. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014.
- "Yemen: Houthi leader hails 'revolution'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Arrabyee, Nasser (2007-04-04). "Yemen's rebels undefeated". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- Center for Strategic and International Studies The Middle East Military Balance Archived 2016-04-14 at the Wayback Machine, 2005.
- Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon - Barak A. Salmoni, Bryce Loidolt, Madeleine Wells - Google Boeken. Retrieved 17 October 2014 – via Google Books.
- "Tracker: Saudi Arabia's Military Operations Along Yemeni Border - Critical Threats". Criticalthreats.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Hakim Almasmari (10 April 2010). "Thousands Expected to die in 2010 in Fight against Al-Qaeda". Yemen Post. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "Peninsula on the brink". Ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 27 March 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- CNN Medics: Militants raid Yemen town, killing dozens Archived 2011-11-29 at the Wayback Machine, November 27, 2011.
- Houthis Kill 24 in North Yemen Archived 2011-11-30 at the Wayback Machine, 27 November 2011.
- "Yemeni Authorities Set Conditions for Ending Military Operations in Sa'ada- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Yemen Post. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Al-Haj, Ahmed (19 February 2007). "Clashes in Yemen Kill More Than 100". Fox News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Yemeni military battles Shi'ite rebels". The Age. Melbourne. 20 March 2007. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Shiite rebels release 180 Yemen prisoners". ABC News. 2010-03-18. Archived from the original on 2010-05-02. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". alertnet.org.
- "Yemen rebels free 200 captured soldiers: mediator". Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Saudi: Bodies of 20 soldiers found on Yemen border Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, 23 January 2010.
- "Heavy Saudi casualties in war with Houthis". Press TV. 2009-12-22. Archived from the original on 2009-12-26. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "No Operation". web.archive.org. 11 June 2011.
- Barak A. Salmoni; Bryce Loidolt; Madeleine Wells (2010). "Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon" (PDF). RAND National Defense Research Institute. p. xv. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-10-26. Retrieved 2011-11-15.
- Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon - Barak A. Salmoni, Bryce Loidolt, Madeleine Wells - Google Boeken. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2014 – via Google Books.
- "Salafist, Houthi sectarian rift threatens to engulf fragile state of Yemen". The Daily Star Newspaper. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Yemen: Relative calm in Sa'ada, Amran and Al-Jawf[dead link]
- Hill, Ginny (2007-02-05). "Yemen fears return of insurgency". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2008-04-06. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- McGregor, Andrew (August 12, 2004). "Shi'ite Insurgency in Yemen: Iranian Intervention or Mountain Revolt?" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 2 (16): 4–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 21, 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Debunking Media Myths About the Houthis in War-Torn Yemen · Global Voices". 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Profile: Yemen's Houthi fighters". Al Jazeera. 2009-07-12. Archived from the original on 2009-12-22. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Crises multiply for divided Yemen". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "The crucible of Yemen". Al Jazeera. 22 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Rebels capture Yemen presidential palace, shell residence". USA today. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Yemen rebels overtake presidential palace". Al Jazeera. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Yemen crisis: President resigns as rebels tighten hold". BBC. January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Riedel, Bruce (2017-12-18). "Who are the Houthis, and why are we at war with them?". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
- "Yemeni forces kill rebel cleric". BBC News. 10 September 2004. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006.
- Streuly, Dick (2015-02-12). "5 Things to Know About the Houthis of Yemen". WSJ. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-07-04.
- Arrabyee, Nasser (2005-05-25). "Rebellion continues". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Deadly blast strikes Yemen mosque". BBC News. 2008-05-02. Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- Johnsen, Gregory D. (February 20, 2007). "Yemen Accuses Iran of Meddling in its Internal Affairs" (PDF). Terrorism Focus. 4 (2): 3–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- "Photo Essay: The Rise of the Houthis". Newsweek. 9 February 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "The-Houthis'-takeover-can-not-be-called-an-invasion".htm "Al-Bukhari to the Yemen Times: "The Houthis' takeover can not be called an invasion"". Yemen Times. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Clashes 'leave 118 dead' in Yemen". BBC News. 2004-07-03. Archived from the original on 2007-01-06. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
- "Yemeni forces kill rebel cleric". BBC News. 2004-09-10. Archived from the original on 2006-11-21. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- "al-Shabab al-Mum'en / Shabab al-Moumineen (Believing Youth)". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Christopher Boucek; Marina Ottaway (2010). Yemen on the Brink. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Yemen tells Shi'ite rebels to disband or face war". Reuters. 2004-01-29. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- "'Shia gunmen' kill Yemeni troops". BBC News. 2004-01-28. Archived from the original on 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- Al-Mahdi, Khaled (2007-02-15). "95 Killed in Yemen Clashes". ArabNews. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Shi'ite rebels kill six Yemen soldiers - Web site". Reuters. 2007-02-01. Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
- "Yemeni soldiers killed in attack". Al Jazeera English. 2007-02-01. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- "10 soldiers killed in attack in Yemen". Middle East Online. 2007-02-02. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
- "More than 100 killed in 5 days of clashes between army and Shiite rebels clashes in Yemen, officials say". International Herald Tribune. 2007-02-19. Archived from the original on 2007-04-01. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "160 rebels killed in Yemen". Israel Herald. 2007-03-07. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Two killed in Yemen attack including a Frenchman". Reuters. 26 March 2007. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Al-Hajj, Ahmed (2007-06-17). "Yemen's government, Shiite rebels negotiate end to 3-year conflict". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- Reuters (2008-05-02). "Dozens of casualties in Yemen mosque blast". France 24. Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Deaths in Yemeni mosque blast". Al Jazeera English. 2008-05-02. Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "7 die as Yemeni troops, rebels clash after mosque attack". The Jerusalem Post. Associated Press. 2008-05-03. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Heavy clashes break out between Yemeni soldiers and Shiite rebels in nor". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Yemen: Hundreds Unlawfully Arrested in Rebel Conflict". Human Rights Watch. 2008-10-24. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Yemen denies warplane shot down". Al Jazeera English. 2009-10-02. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "'Many killed' in Yemen air raid". BBC News. 2009-09-17. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Yemen rebels 'seize Saudi area'". BBC News. 2009-11-04. Archived from the original on 2009-11-07. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Yemenis intercept 'Iranian ship'". BBC News. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on 2009-10-30. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- "Iran says documents prove Yemen ship had no arms". Press TV. 2009-10-28. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- "Yemen rebels accuse Saudi". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 2009-11-02. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- "Timeline: Yemen". BBC News. 2009-11-11. Archived from the original on 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- "Riyadh continues air raids on northern Yemen". Press TV. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Houthis Say they Will Withdraw from Saudi if Riyadh Ends Attacks". Naharnet (AFP). 23 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Saudi air force hits Yemen rebels after border raid". Swissinfo.ch. 2009-11-05. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Hilder, James. "Yemen civil war spills over border as Saudi official is killed in attack". Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
- "Saudi forces keep up Houthi assault". Al Jazeera. 2009-11-06. Archived from the original on 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
- Ersan, Inal (2009-11-06). "Yemeni rebels say capture Saudi soldiers: report". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
- "Saudi soldier, Houthi leaders killed in north Yemen". Press TV. 19 November 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "US air raids kill 63 civilians in Yemen". Press TV. 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Ross, Brian; Richard Esposito; Matthew Cole; Luis Martinez; Kirit Radia. "Obama Ordered U.S. Military Strike on Yemen Terrorists". ABC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Liam Stack (21 December 2009). "Saudi air strike kills Yemen rebels as US drawn into fight". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Houthis repel Saudi incursion into northern Yemen". Press TV. 23 December 2009. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "Saudi Arabia says soldiers killed in Yemen". Press TV. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
- "Salafis irate over ban on preacher". The National. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Sunni scholars against insulting Sistani Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Leader of Al Qaeda in Yemen 'killed in gun battle'". Daily Mail. London. 2010-01-13. Archived from the original on 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
- "Houthis initiate truce with Saudi Arabia". Press TV. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- "Saudis claim victory over Houthis". Press TV. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- "Saudi-Houthi border fighting ends". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Despite truce call, Saudis pound northern Yemen". Press TV. 29 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Al Jazeera Yemen rebels renew ceasefire offer Archived 2010-01-31 at the Wayback Machine, January 30, 2010.
- Press TV Saudis 'launch 17 air raids' on Houthis Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, 30 January 2010.
- Press TV Yemen rejects Houthis' 4th peace offer Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, 31 January 2009.
- Press TV 'Yemen preparing to attack Houthis' Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, 18 July 2010.
- Press TV Fresh clashes claim 49 in north Yemen Archived 2010-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 21 July 2010.
- Press TV More people killed in N Yemen clashes Archived 2010-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 22 July 2010.
- Press TV UN concerned about Yemen situation Archived 2010-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 24 July 2010.
- Press TV Calm to return to north Yemen Archived 2010-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 23 July 2010.
- Google News Yemen Shiite rebels capture 200 soldiers: military official Archived 2011-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, 27 July 2010.
- Press TV Houthis release 200 Yemeni soldiers Archived 2010-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 29 July 2010.
- "Car bomb kills 23 in northern Yemen". Press TV. 24 November 2010. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Bomb kills Shia mourners in N Yemen". Press TV. 26 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- "Yemen (2004 – first combat deaths)". Ploughshares.ca. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Yemenis in anti-president protest". Irish Times. January 27, 2011. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- Daragahi, Borzou (2011-02-03). "Yemen, Middle East: Tens of thousands stage rival rallies in Yemen". latimes.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-03. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- Lina Sinjab (2011-01-29). "Yemen protests: 20,000 call for President Saleh to go". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Opposing protesters rally in Yemen". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "New protests erupt in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 2011-01-29. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- "Saleh partisans take over Yemen protest site". Oneindia News. Archived from the original on 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- PressTV - Houthis join protests in north Yemen Archived February 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Sa'ada: A Cry for Help- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Houthis Control Sa'ada, Help Appoint Governor". Nationalyemen.com. 2011-03-29. Archived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Thomson Reuters Foundation". Trust.org. Retrieved 17 October 2014.[permanent dead link]
- "Tens Killed as Battles between Tribes, Houthis Resume in Yemen - Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Lack of authority in northern Yemen seen as 'golden opportunity' for Iran". World Tribune. 2011-07-20. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Yemeni Revolution Slowly entering Phase of War- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Houthis vs. Islah in al Jawf". Armiesofliberation.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Houthis Close to Control Hajjah Governorate, Amid Expectations of Expansion of Control over Large Parts of Northern Yemen". Islam Times. 2011-11-09. Archived from the original on 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Suspected al-Qaida car bomb kills 14 Shi'ite Houthi rebels in Yemen: official". News.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Al-Qaeda claims attacks on Houthis in northern Yemen Archived August 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Al-Qaeda Announces Holy War against Houthis- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Clashes in Sa'ada Between Houthis and Salafis- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Al-Houthi Expansion Plan in Yemen Revealed- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "10 Killed in Clashes in N Yemen". English.cri.cn. 15 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "الصحوة نت - Houthi militants storm school in Amran". Alsahwa-yemen.net. 2011-12-19. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Yemen's Saleh signs deal to quit power". The Daily Star Newspaper. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Yemen leader signs power-transfer deal". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Process of withdrawing troops and armed tribesmen started for enhancing peace and normalizing life in Yemen". Yobserver.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- "Houthis' Leader: US, Allies Plot to Spark Sectarian Rift in Yemen". Fars News Agency. 2011-12-20. Archived from the original on 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Kasinof, Laura (27 February 2012). "Yemen Swears In New President to the Sound of Applause, and Violence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Yemen's Saleh formally steps down after 33 years". AFP. 2012-02-27. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Situations calm down in north of Yemen after 16 fighters killed Archived 2013-02-10 at Archive.today
- "Sectarian clashes continue in north Yemen, dozens killed - Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Two Houthis killed in clashes with Hajjah tribesmen". Yemen Fox. 2011-11-21. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Sectarian clashes continue in north Yemen, at least 55 killed". www.uruknet.info. Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2012-04-18). "Yemen: Rising landmine death toll in Hajjah Governorate". UNHCR. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
- "Yemen: military commander, six bodyguards killed by Houthis- Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Suicide bomber kills 12 in northern Yemen". Chicago Tribune. 2012-05-25. Archived from the original on 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Suicide bombing kills 14 Houthis in Al-Jawf". Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "PressTV - Salafi attack on Houthis kills eight in Yemen". Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Clashes renewed between Houthis and Salfis - Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Houthis take control of three positions in north Yemen, claim confiscating Saudi weapons". web.archive.org. 20 June 2012.
- "Truce shook on between Houthis, Al-Shahel tribesmen in Hajja". Yemen Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Houthis Fight Tribes, Take over Schools, Public Offices in Yemen, Site - Yemen Post English Newspaper Online". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "HugeDomains.com - FnaYemen.com is for sale (Fna Yemen)". www.hugedomains.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-19. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
- Hammond, Andrew (2012-10-03). "FEATURE-Houthi rebels seen gaining new influence in Yemen". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- Yemen Fox. "Yemen Fox- Houthis seek to take control over Sana'a". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Yemen Fox. "Yemen Fox- Mohammed Jumaih - Houthis in Sana'a". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Yemen Fox. "Yemen Fox- Mediation ends war, drives Houthis out of Raida". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Frank Gardner (24 October 2014). "Frank Gardner: Yemen at risk of civil war, says ambassador". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "At least 340 killed in Yemen's week-long fighting". The Daily Star Newspaper. Archived from the original on 2015-10-13. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- "Yemen swears in new government amid boycott". Al Jazeera. 9 November 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Houthis accuse Yemen's president of arming Al-Qaeda". Middle East Monitor - The Latest from the Middle East. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Yemen President Hadi Resigns After Shiite Rebels Seize Palace". Bloomberg. 22 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "Yemen's Shia rebels finalize coup, vow to dissolve parliament". The Globe and Mail. 6 February 2015. Archived from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Onyanga-Omara, Jane (19 March 2015). "Clashes force closure of Yemen's Aden airport". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "اللجنة الثورية تعلن التعبئة العامة وتوجه الأمن والجيش القيام بواجبه للتصدي للإرهابيين" (in Arabic). Saba News Agency. 21 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Q&A: Yemen's slide into civil war". Financial Times. 22 March 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Yemen crisis: Shortage of water and medical supplies threatens civilians caught up in devastating civil war". The Independent. 8 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Holtz, Michael (7 April 2015). "Warnings of humanitarian crisis as Yemen's civil war rolls on (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Aboudi, Sami. "Yemenis forced to take to sea from Aden as civil war rages through ancient port". Japan Times. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Saudi and Arab allies bomb Houthi positions in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Saudi Arabia intercepts Houthi rebel missile fired towards Riyadh - News - DW - 20.05.2017". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- News, ABC. "ABC News". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2017-05-24. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- "فيديو+صور "قاهر1" أول صاروخ بالستي معدل محلياً يضرب قاعدة خميس مشيط | المسيرة نت - قناة المسيرة الفضائية". Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Hubbard, Ben; Cumming-Bruce, Nick (19 December 2017). "Rebels in Yemen Fire Second Ballistic Missile at Saudi Capital". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- Wintour, Patrick; Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (19 December 2017). "Saudi Arabia shoots down Houthi missile aimed at Riyadh palace". Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Yemen rebels fire missile at Riyadh". 19 December 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Yemen's war: Pity those caught in the middle". The Economist. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Hizbullah Denies Report about Former South Yemen President Visiting Beirut to Demand Support for Huthis". Naharnet. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Secret Meeting in Yemen between Iran, Huthi, Hizbullah Officials". Naharnet. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Yemeni FM: Iran Must Curb Groups Aiding Huthi Rebels"Yemeni FM: Iran Must Curb Groups Aiding Huthi Rebels". naharnet. 2009-12-13. Archived from the original on 2010-01-23.
- "Iran Sends 6 Warships to International Waters in 'Saber Rattling' Move". Fox News. 2009-05-25. Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Retrieved 2010-02-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "North Korea has not stopped nuclear, missile program: confidential U.N. report". Reuters. 2018-08-03. Archived from the original on 2018-12-06. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "The Saudi Arabia-Yemen War of 2015". The Atlantic. 2015-05-07. Archived from the original on 2017-02-28. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
- Shanker, Thom; Landler, Mark (18 December 2009). "U.S. Aids Yemeni Raids on Al Qaeda, Officials Say". New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 July 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "US fighters pound Sa'ada, kill 120". Press TV. 16 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Tehran Times Yemenis stage massive anti-U.S. rallies Archived 2015-09-08 at the Wayback Machine, June 18, 2011.
- "Suspected al-Qaida car bomb kills 14 Shi'ite Houthi rebels in Yemen: official". Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Daily The News  Archived 2015-04-06 at the Wayback Machine, 29 March 2015.
- "YEMEN: Rebel leader calls for international aid". IRIN. 2008-05-06. Archived from the original on 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Saudi king visits area of Yemen border conflict". Al Arabiya. 2 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "10,000 houses for Jazan displaced". Arab News. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Saudi king orders construction of 10,000 houses for displaced people in south". Kuwait News Agency. 2 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "UN calls for the prosecution of child soldier recruiters". The National. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Issue of child soldiers raised in Yemen". UPI. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Yemen child soldier tells of his hatred for al-Houthi rebels". The Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "Yemen children renews protest al-Houthi-related child abuse". web.archive.org. 5 April 2011.
- "All Quiet On The Northern Front?" (PDF). March 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-24.[permanent dead link]
- "UN calls for the prosecution of child soldier recruiters". The National. 2010-02-13. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
- Evans, Judith (2009-10-10). "Yemen child soldier tells of his hatred for al-Houthi rebels". London: The Times. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- "Yemen's child soldiers go to war". UPI. 2010-01-06. Archived from the original on 2010-04-03. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- "Both sides in war blamed for Yemen's dead children". The National. 2010-02-24. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- "The children of Yemen's tribal war". The Sunday Herald. 2009-12-05. Archived from the original on 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- "Child soldiers from Darfur fighting at front line of war in Yemen, returned soldiers say". The Independent. 2018-12-29. Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
- Demystifying Yemen's Conflict (Midwest Diplomacy)
- Timeline: Yemen (BBC)
- YEMEN: The conflict in Saada Governorate – analysis, IRIN, 24 July 2008
- "Yemen A Microcosmos of the Middle East", "The Omer Gendler Watch" (August 25, 2009) - blog
- Armed Conflict in Northern Yemen (HRW)
- Profile: Yemen's Houthi fighters
- The Fight for Yemen (PBS Frontline)